APA Format Examples

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APA Format Examples

  1. 1. APA (5 th ed.) Style Guide How to Create Reference List Entries and How to Cite Them in a Paper Business Resources
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Purpose of a style guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standardize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easier to identify the resources used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides validation to the research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somewhat arbitrary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APA does not always “make sense” but … </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>If there is a question about how to do either a citation or a reference, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the reference source. </li></ul><ul><li>APA has a Web site that can also be useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.apastyle.org/askexpert.html </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ONLINE RESOURCES
  5. 5. Academic Search Premier <ul><li>Can you pick out the pieces? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authors? Date? Article title? Periodical title? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume [issue]? Pages? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ABI/Inform Global <ul><li>Can you pick out the pieces? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authors? Date? Article title? Periodical title? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume [issue]? Pages? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you pick out the pieces? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authors? Date? Article title? Periodical title? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume [issue]? Pages? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Canadian Business and Current Affairs <ul><li>Can you pick out the pieces? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authors? Date? Article title? Periodical title? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume [issue]? Pages? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The countdown continues Kevin Libin ,  Jason Kirby ,  Andy Holloway .  Canadian Business . Toronto: Aug 5-Aug 18, 2003 .Vol.76, Iss. 14/15;  pg. 71 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Structure of a reference: Online Periodical <ul><li>If you use a periodical database to get an online, full-text version of the article [HTML, PDF], you need to add some more information. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved month, day, year, from source. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when YOU retrieved it </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Structure of a reference: Online Periodical
  10. 10. Structure of a reference: Online Periodical
  11. 11. Structure of a reference: Online Periodical <ul><li>Leeds, R. (2003). Breach of trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard International Review, 25, 76- </li></ul><ul><li>83. Retrieved January 9, 2004, from the </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Search Premier database. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Structure of a reference: Periodical [paper copy] <ul><li>Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. </li></ul><ul><li>C. (Year). Title of article. Title of </li></ul><ul><li>periodical, xx, yyy-yyy. </li></ul><ul><li>includes items published on a regular basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hanging paragraph format </li></ul>
  13. 13. Structure of a reference: Periodical [paper copy] <ul><li>Leonard, D., & McAdam, R. (2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate social responsibility. Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Progress, 36, 27-33. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Structure of a reference: Nonperiodical <ul><li>Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>items published separately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>books, reports, brochures, manuals, and audiovisual media </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Structure of a reference: Nonperiodical <ul><li>Sonnenberg, F. K. (1994). Managing with a </li></ul><ul><li>conscience. New York: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Structure of a reference: Part of a Nonperiodical <ul><li>Special consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>initials of editors go BEFORE surname </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insert (Ed.) or (Eds.) after last editor followed by comma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>book title italicized with initial capital, capital after colon, and capital for proper nouns [including abbreviations] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>page number of chapter </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Structure of a reference: Part of a Nonperiodical <ul><li>Tushman, M. L., Newman, W. H., & </li></ul><ul><li>Romanelli, E. (2002). Convergence and upheaval. In H. Mintzberg & J. B. </li></ul><ul><li>Quinn (Eds.), Readings in the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>process (pp. 394-400). Upper Saddle </li></ul><ul><li>River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Structure of a reference: Brochure
  19. 19. Structure of a reference: Brochure <ul><li>Courtplex Fitness Centre. (2004, Winter). </li></ul><ul><li>Group Fitness Schedule [Brochure]. </li></ul><ul><li>Kelowna, BC: Author. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Structure of a reference: Brochure
  21. 21. Structure of a reference: Brochure <ul><li>Coldwell Banker Commercial - Horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Realty. (n.d.). Mill Creek Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Park [Brochure]. Kelowna, BC: Author. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Structure of a reference: Videotape <ul><li>Doubletalk Productions ( Producer), & </li></ul><ul><li>Shepard, K. (Director). (2001). Who </li></ul><ul><li>stole my cheese? [videotape], United </li></ul><ul><li>States: Doubletake Productions. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Structure of a reference: Online Document <ul><li>Author, A. A. (year) Title of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved month, day, year from source. </li></ul><ul><li>electronic sources include aggregated databases, Web sites or Web pages, newsgroups, Web- or e-mail based discussion groups / newsletters </li></ul>
  24. 24. Structure of a reference: Online Document
  25. 25. Structure of a reference: Online Document <ul><li>MacDonald, C. (n.d.). Creating a code of </li></ul><ul><li>ethics for your organization. Retrieved </li></ul><ul><li>January 13, 2004, from http://www. </li></ul><ul><li>ethicsweb.ca/codes/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note that this source has no date [n.d.] and that it does NOT end with a period </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Structure of a reference: Online Corporate Web Site
  27. 27. Structure of a reference: Online Corporate Web Site <ul><li>WestJet. (n.d.). Home page. Retrieved </li></ul><ul><li>February 8, 2004, from http://c0dsp. </li></ul><ul><li>westjet.com/internet/sky/index.jsp </li></ul>
  28. 28. Online database :Hoover’s Company Records
  29. 29. Reference: Database ( Hoover’s) <ul><li>Caione,R. ( 2006) General Electric Company. Retrieved March 1, 2006, from Hoover’s Company records. </li></ul><ul><li>In text: ( Caione, 2006) </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>CITING SOURCES IN APA </li></ul>
  31. 31. Citing a source in the paper <ul><li>1. One work by one author </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author’s name given in the body of your paper: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leeds (2003) reported… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author’s name not given in the body of your paper but rather in parentheses: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a study on the comparison process (Leeds, 2003)… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Citing a source in the paper <ul><li>2. Citing a secondary source </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Smith’s 1998 study ( as cited in Leonard & McAdam, 2003 )… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research (Smith, 1998 , as cited in Leonard & McAdam, 2003 ) has shown … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT include Smith (1998) in the reference list. DO include Leonard and McAdam (2003). </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Citing a source in the paper <ul><li>3. Direct quotations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For direct quotations, include the page number of the quote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes have been defined as “generalized and usually value-laden impressions that one social group uses in characterizing members of another group” (Lindgren, 2001, p. 1617 ). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Citing a source in the paper <ul><li>4. Electronic sources without page numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use the paragraph number, preceded by the paragraph symbol - ¶ - or the abbreviation para. If the paragraph number is not visible, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Myers, 2000, ¶ 5 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Butler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1 ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Citing a source in the paper <ul><li>5. Personal communications (e.g., letters, phone calls, interviews, e-mail messages, memos, irretrievable documents) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J. L. Lowther ( personal communication, June 12, 2004 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( J. L. Lowther, personal communication, June 12, 2004 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT include personal communications in the reference list. Cite them in text only. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Structure of a reference and citation: Census Material <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics Canada. (2002). Survey of household </li></ul><ul><li>expenditure, 2002 (62F0026MIE). Ottawa, </li></ul><ul><li>Ontario: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>Citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Statistics Canada, 2002) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Structure of a reference and citation: Legislation <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Competition Act, R.S.C. 1985 c.27 s.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Competition Act ), 1985 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Structure of a reference and citation: Annual report <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>WestJet Airlines. (2002). Annual report to </li></ul><ul><li>shareholders, Calgary, AB: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>Citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(WestJet Airlines, 2002) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Structure of a reference and citation: Online documents - Same author <ul><li>Health Canada. (n.d.a). Physical activity in </li></ul><ul><li>Canada. Retrieved January 31, 2004, </li></ul><ul><li>from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/ </li></ul><ul><li>fitness/work/activity_e.html </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada. (n.d.b). Supporting material </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved January 31, 2004, from http:// </li></ul><ul><li>www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/fitness/work/ </li></ul><ul><li>supp_material_e.html </li></ul><ul><li>Citation: </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada (n.d.a) reported that ... </li></ul><ul><li>Citation: </li></ul><ul><li>(Health Canada, n.d.a </li></ul>
  40. 40. Conclusions <ul><li>Take close look at handout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pay particular attention to the last page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reference list of a paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hanging paragraph format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>double space entire paper, including reference list </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Conclusions <ul><li>Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th ed.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>available in the Reference Collection of Library </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual professors may have particular preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consult with them on how they might want the references presented </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Prepared by <ul><li>Garth Homer, Statistics, Data, and Government Information Librarian, O.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Jan Gattrell, Public Services Librarian, UBC-O </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant - Jan Cioe, Psychology Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>UBC-O </li></ul><ul><li>Okanagan College </li></ul><ul><li>2005 </li></ul>

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