Hebrew
English
Chapter 72:1 - The holy Sabbath is a great sign and covenant that was given to us by the
Holy One, Blessed ...
defined as ''in the presence of ten Jews''. More particularly, it does not referred to ''in
their actual presence‟‟ but ra...
Português
Cap. 72:3 – Recompensa para quem honra o Shabat
Essa é a razão para o profeta referir-se de maneira tão elogiosa...
English
Chapter 72:5 - It is a mitzvah on every person, even if they have several servants, in any
event, one should also ...
assar em casa o pão do Sabado, para que a mulher cumpra o preceito de tirar a chalá. {A
ligação do preceito da chalá com a...
Hebrew
.
English
Chapter 72:8 - Even a poor Jew should make every effort to celebrate Shabbat, by
economising the whole we...
Chapter 72:9 - One should not regularly do work on Friday after ''small Minchá''. (1) To
do so occasionally is, however, p...
to the appearance of 3 stars) into 12 equal parts; each part is referred to as one ''hour.''
For example, if daylight last...
should read the (Hebrew) text twice, and when one comes to a place where one has an
(Aramaic) translation, one should read...
É apropriado a todo o temente a D-us estudar o comentário de Rashi sobre a porção
semanal se for incapaz disso, a pessoa d...
É proibido tomar banho com o pai, com o sogro, com o padrasto e com o cunhado.
Mas é permitido quando se costuma cobrir a ...
elas voltam a crescer no terceiro dia, no caso no sábado. É correto atentar para
queimar as unhas.
19 – Nós não somos rigo...
Deve-se vestir roupas distintas e ter talit especial para o Sabado, conforme foi dito:
“E honrares-no…” (Isaias 58:13). No...
(however), forbidden to open the oven at night, because there may be in there pots (of
food) which have not yet completely...
Chapter 72:19 - While it is permitted to (keep food) warm also when the oven is not
sealed closed with mud, this (permissi...
considered an act of demolishing, require the use of a ''Shinui,'' that is, some
divergence from the way the act is normal...
Cap. 72: 21 – Como conservar alimentos quentes para o Sabado
Quando se deseja manter aquecido o café para o sábado, enterr...
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SHULCHAN ARUKH - CAP. 72, ARTS. 1 AO 23 - A SANTIDADE DO SHABAT

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Transcript of "SHULCHAN ARUKH - CAP. 72, ARTS. 1 AO 23 - A SANTIDADE DO SHABAT"

  1. 1. Hebrew English Chapter 72:1 - The holy Sabbath is a great sign and covenant that was given to us by the Holy One, Blessed be He, (for us) to know that in six days Hashem made the heavens, the earth, and everything in them and rested on the seventh day. This is a foundation of the faith. Our Sages, may their memory be for a blessing, said (1) that the Sabbath is equivalent to all the mitzvot. Everyone who observes the Sabbath according to it's laws is considered as if they observed the entire Torah. Conversely, whoever desecrates the Sabbath is considered as if they desecrated the entire Torah. Also, it was said by Ezra (2) „„you descended on Mount Sinai and you gave Your people the Torah and the mitzvot and You made known to them the holiness of Your Sabbath.'' 1) Jerusalém Talmud, Nedarim 3. 2) Nechemiah 9:13-14. Português Cap. 72:1 – Leis relacionadas com a preparação para o Sabado – A importância de observar o Shabat e a gravidade em profaná-lo O sagrado Shabat é o grande sinal e a aliança que o Santíssimo, bendito seja, estabeleceu conosco para tomarmos conhecimento de que os céus e a terra e tudo o que existe neles foram criados em seis dias e que Ele repousou no sétimo dia. Esse conhecimento é um alicerce da nossa fé. Nossos mestres, de abençoada memória, disseram: “O Shabat equivale a todos os preceitos” (Talmud de Jerusalém, Nedarim 3). “Aquele que respeita apropriadamente o Shabat é como se tivesse cumprido toda a Torá” (Zohar, Beshalach 47). “Aquele que profana o Shabat é como se tivesse profanado toda a Torá” (Chulin 5a). Isto é deduzido da frase de Ezra (Nehemias 9:13-14): “Sobre o monte Sinai desceste, e outorgaste a Teu povo Torá e preceitos, e o Teu santo Shabat os fizeste saber”. Hebrew ---- English Chapter 72:2 - Anyone who desecrates the Sabbath in public is considered as an idolater in all respects. if he touches wine it is forbidden, the bread that he bakes is like bread of non-jews, also the food he cooks is like the food cooked by non-jews, ''Publicly'' is
  2. 2. defined as ''in the presence of ten Jews''. More particularly, it does not referred to ''in their actual presence‟‟ but rather that they knew of the violation. This was proved in the Gemara: „„did Esther (sin) in public?'' Similarly, the Pri Megadim writes that „„publicly‟‟ means (in the presence of) ten Jews or that they knew about the matter. 1) Rav Moshe Feinstein (Iggerot Moshe, Vol. 3, Responsa 12, 21, and 22) explains that today, a non-observant person most often is not considered ''one who desecrates the Sabbath publicly,'' and may be given an aliyah or other synagogue honor. Therefore, ''one who desecrates the Sabbath publicly'' is one who knows and understands the full import of Sabbath observance in Jewish law (as per Rav Feinstein above), and publicly announces his deliberate desecration of the Sabbath or actually desecrates it in the presence of ten Jews.] 2) Sanhedrin 74b. 3) The Gemara discusses if Esther had prohibited relations with a non-jew, Ahashverosh, and was this ''sin'' done in public. They conclude that it was ''publicly'' even though it was not ''in the presence of ten jews'' since certainly at least ten jews ''knew'' of what had happened. Português Cap. 72:2 – Quem profana o Shabat é como um idolatra O judeu que profana o Shabat em publico é considerado um gentio em todos os efeitos. Portanto, o vinho em que ele toca fica proibido, o pão que ele cozinha equivale ao pão do gentio, e sua cozedura é considerada cozedura do gentio (ver cap. 38). É considerado em publico quando é profanado na presença de dez judeus. Não é preciso que seja na presença física deles, basta que tomem conhecimento de que a pessoa comete tal pecado (Shabat, cap. 157, alínea 4). Esse conceito está subentendido do dito da Guemará (Sanhedrin 74b). “A relação de Ester (com Achashverosh) era notória”. Assim também afirma o Peri Megadim (Yoré Deá, cap. 2, Siftei Daat, alínea 17): “Considera-se em publico quando é praticado diante de dez judeus ou quando se sabe que se tornará notório”. Hebrew ----- English Chap. 72:3 - Therefore, the prophet praises (them) saying: (1) „„Happy is the man who does this and the person who holds fast to it; who keeps Shabbat without desecrating it...'' Anyone who observes Shabbat according to its laws, honors it and takes pleasure in it according to his abilities, is also described by the prophet: One's reward, both in this world and in addition the great reward hidden away for the world to come, as it is said: (2) ''If you restrain because of Shabbat your feet, from attending to your desires on My holy day, and you call Shabbat ''a delight unto the holy Lord'' and ''honored,'' and you honor it by refraining from your normal activities, not pursuing your affairs or speaking of mundane matters, then you shall delight in the Lord and I will have you ride on the high places of the earth and I will nourish you with the heritage of Jacob, your Patriarch, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.'' 1) Isaiah 56:2. 2) Isaiah 58:13-14.
  3. 3. Português Cap. 72:3 – Recompensa para quem honra o Shabat Essa é a razão para o profeta referir-se de maneira tão elogiosa, dizendo: “Feliz é a pessoa que cumpre isso e o homem que o mantêm, guardando firmemente o Shabat para não profaná-lo” (Isaias 56:2). A recompensa de quem cumpre o Shabat também foi claramente explicada pelo profeta, tanto a desse mundo, como a que está reservada para o mundo vindouro, conforme foi dito: “Se retraíres por causa do Shabat teu pé, deixando de fazer teus afazeres no Meu dia sagrado, e declarares o Shabat um dia de deleite santificando por D-us, digno de honra, e honrarê-lo deixando de seguir teus caminhos, restringindo-te de procurar teus afazeres e nem falando para isso, então, deleitar-te-ás em D-us, e Eu te farei montar sobre os pontos altos da terra, e alimentar-te-ei com a herança de teu patriarca Jacó, porque a boca de D-us falou essas palavras” (Isaias 58:13-14). Hebrew --- English Chapter - 72:4 - It is written: (1) ''Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.'', meaning that one should remember on every day the Sabbath to sanctify it. If, there became available, a choice type of food that is not generally available every day, and it will not go off, (2) one should buy it to honor Shabbat. On Friday it is a mitzvah to get up early to buy one's Shabbat needs. One may also purchase (them) before the (morning) prayers, provided that one will not be late because of this for the communal prayers. It is preferable to buy on Friday in honor of Shabbat rather than buy on Thursday. However an item that needs preparation (time) should be bought on Thursday. On everything one buys (for Shabbat) one should say (that it is) ''to honor Shabbat.'' Ezra ordained that one should launder one's clothes on Thursday in honor of Shabbat and not on Friday, because on Friday one needs to be busy with the Shabbat preparations. 1) Exodus 20:8. 2) It will keep to Shabbat. Português Cap. 72:4 – Preceito de lembrar do Shabat e de adquirir tudo o que serve para este Está escrito: “Lembra o dia do Sabado para santificá-lo” (Ex. 20:8). Isto significa que é preciso diariamente lembrar o Sabado com o intuito de santificá-lo. (Por exemplo:) ao avistar um alimento especial que não se acostuma ter todos os dias, e que não é perecível, deve-se comprá-lo em honra do Sabado. Na sexta-feira, é dever acordar cedo para comprar as necessidades do Sabado. É permitido fazer essas compras antes da oração, desde que isso não o faça atrasar-se para a oração com a congregação. É melhor comprar em honra do Sabado na sexta-feira do que na quinta-feira. No entanto, alimentos que requerem preparo maior devem ser adquiridos na quinta-feira. Sempre que comprar algo para o Sabado, o individuo deve dizer que é “em honra do Sabado”. - Hebrew
  4. 4. English Chapter 72:5 - It is a mitzvah on every person, even if they have several servants, in any event, one should also do oneself some activities in honor of Shabbat in order to honor it. Thus, we find with the sages that Rav Chisda would (personally) slice the vegetables very thin. Rabbah and Rav Yosef would (for firewood) chop trees. Rav Zeira would kindle the fire and Rav Nachman would tidy the house, bringing in the utensils needed for Shabbat and taking out the weekday utensils. From them, everyone can learn not to say „„I will not lower my dignity'', for this is (that) one honors oneself by by honoring Shabbat. Português Cap. 72:5 – Participar dos preparativos para o Shabat É dever de cada um, até de quem tem vários empregados, realizar algum preparativo em honra do sábado. Nós observamos isso nos amoraitas: Rav Chisda cortava bem fino as verduras. Rabá e Rab Yossef cortavam a lenha. Rabi Zeira acendia o fogo. Rav Nachman arrumava a casa, punha os utensílios para o Sabado e guardava os utensílios dos dias comuns da semana. O modo de agir desses sábios deve servir de exemplo para cada individuo, para que ninguém diga: “Isso não é honroso para mim!”. Pelo contrario, a honra é estar honrando o Sabado. Hebrew ---- English Chapter 72:6 - The custom for all Jews is to bake in their homes bread in honor of Shabbat. It does not matter if they eat during the week, bread baked by a non-Jewish baker, as long as they are careful to eat on the holy Shabbat bread (baked by) a Jew. Even if during the week one eats bread from a Jewish baker, in any event, in honor of Shabbat one should bake in one's home so that the women can fulfill the mitzvah of separating challah, (1) for the first man (Adam) was created on Friday and was (considered as) the Challah of the world. The woman by her sin (caused) his fall, therefore, she needs to correct this matter. Three loaves should be baked: a large one, an medium one, and a small one. The medium one for the evening meal and the large one for the day time meal to show that the honor of the day is higher, and the small one for the third meal. 1) Which is connected to Friday. See Chapter 35 for more details of the mitzvah. Português Cap. 72:6 – Assar chalot (pãos) para o Sabado É costume de todo lar judaico prepare os pães do Sabado em casa. Isto vale não só para quem durante a semana come pão do gentio, dado que no Sabado é importante cuidar de só comer pão judeu. Portanto, até quem come pão preparado pelo judeu deve
  5. 5. assar em casa o pão do Sabado, para que a mulher cumpra o preceito de tirar a chalá. {A ligação do preceito da chalá com a sexta-feira} é que o primeiro homem, Adão, foi criado na véspera de Sabado. Ele era a chalá do mundo e, por meio do pecado da mulher, ele perdeu-se. Portanto, ela precisa compensar essa falha. São preparados três pães: um grande, um médio e um pequeno. O médio é ingerido na refeição da noite. O grande é ingerido na refeição do dia, para mostrar que devemos honrar mais a refeição do dia. O pequeno é comido na terceira refeição. Hebrew English Chapter 72:7 - One should prepare choice and tasty meat and fish, and choice wine according to one's means, for it is a mitzvah to eat at every one of the Shabbat meals fish provided it is not harmful to one. but if it harms one or one doesn't like it, one does not eat them, for the Sabbath was given for pleasure, and not for discomfort. One should sharpen the knife for this also honors the Sabbath, (1) clean the house, make the beds, and spread a tablecloth over the table, which will stay there the whole Shabbat. Some are more scrupulous and spread two tablecloths. One should rejoice at the arrival of Shabbat, and consider one's attention as if one is expecting to come an important person, how one would prepare the house in his honor; all the more so, in honor of the ''Sabbath queen''. In some places they serve pies or stuffed derma (2) at the evening Shabbat meal, as a reminder of the manna that was found as if in a container - dew below and dew on top. One should taste, on Friday, the foods prepared for Shabbat. 1) In the days of the Kitzur, mid-19th century CE, they did not have our modern, hard steel for making knives so an ordinary domestic knife needed frequent resharpening. 2) Also known as ''kishke''. Português Cap. 72: 7 – Preparativos para honrar o Sabado Cada um deve preparar carne, peixe, iguarias e bom vinho conforme (o Maximo de) suas poses. É correto comer peixe em todas as refeições de sábado, a menos que lhe faça mal ou que não lhe seja saboroso. Nestes casos, ele não deve ser comido, porque o sábado foi outorgado para ser deleitoso e não para ser um sofrimento. As facas devem ser amoladas. Isto também é uma forma de honrar o sábado. A casa deve ser ajeitada e a cama arrumada. A toalha deve ser posta na mesa e permanecer durante todo o sábado. Alguns são tão meticulosos que põem duas toalhas. A pessoa deve alegrar-se com a chegada do sábado, pensando que se estivesse esperando uma visita especial e importante, certamente arrumaria a casa. Então, ainda maior deve ser a atenção em honra da “rainha shabat”. Em certas comunidades, é costume preparar tortas e empadões para a refeição da noite de sábado, em lembranças do maná que caia envolvido em cima e em baixo por orvalho. Degustar os pratos preparados para o Shabat – è correto provar, na véspera de sábado, as iguarias preparadas em honra do sábado. ----
  6. 6. Hebrew . English Chapter 72:8 - Even a poor Jew should make every effort to celebrate Shabbat, by economising the whole week so that he will have money for honoring Shabbat. If one has no money, one should borrow - even on collateral (1) - for the Shabbat needs. On this, our sages, may their memory be for a blessing, said: (2) „„My son, borrow on Me, (sanctify the day) and I will repay.'' One's entire livelihood is fixed for one on Rosh Hashana, apart from the expenditure for Shabbat and festivals, where if one (spends) more, more (than the original amount is given) to one. If, one is in a very bad (financial) position, on this our sages, may their memory be for a blessing, said: (3) „„Make your Sabbaths as weekdays rather than becoming dependent on others.'' Nevertheless, if one is able to, one should try in any event to do, something small in honor of Shabbat - e.g., (prepare) small fish, or the like. If one was sent something to eat for Shabbat, one should eat it on Shabbat and not save it for the weekdays. 1) An item given as security against the return of the loan. 2) Beitzah 15b - Hashem speaking to the Jewish people. 3) Shabbat 118a. Português Cap. 72:8 – Um pobre também deve celebrar o Shabat de forma especial Até um pobre deve esforçar-se para celebrar com prazer o sábado. Ele deve economizar durante toda a semana para sobrar dinheiro para ser usado em honra do sábado. Se não tiver dinheiro, ele deve tomar emprestado, ainda que seja preciso dar um objeto como garantia. Sobre isso disseram nossos (Beitsá 15b): “Meus filhos, tomem emprestado por Minha conta e Eu pagarei!”. Todo o sustento do homem é definido no Rosh HaShaná, exceto o que é gasto para o Sábado e Yom Tov. O que for gasto a mais para esses dias será acrescido posteriormente. Quando a situação está muito difícil, a pessoa deve seguir o conselho de nossos mestres, de abençoada memória (Shabat 118a): “Faça as refeições de seu Sábado como num dia comum da semana, e não dependa das criaturas”. Entretanto, quando possível, a pessoa deve pelo menos preparar algo pequeno em honra do Sábado, por exemplo: preparar peixes miúdos ou algo similar. Quando alguém recebe um alimento para ser consumido no Sábado, ele deve come-lo no Sábado e não deixá-lo para ingeri-lo em um dia comum. Hebrew ---- --- English
  7. 7. Chapter 72:9 - One should not regularly do work on Friday after ''small Minchá''. (1) To do so occasionally is, however, permitted. (2) For the sake of Shabbat also after this (time) is permitted. To fix one's friend's clothes for money is forbidden. However, one who is poor and wants to earn (money) for the Shabbat needs is permitted (to work) the whole day like on Chol Hamoed. To cut a (another) Jew's hair is permitted the whole day - even a professional barber (and) even for pay - because the haircut is obviously being done now for Shabbat. Stores should be closed one hour before Shabbat. 1) ''Small Minchá'' is nine and half hours after sunrise. These hours are, however seasonal hours, which are not 60 minutes each, but rather one twelfth of the daytime period. Thus, the exact time fluctuates throughout the year. ''Small Minchá'' ends up being approximately an hour (seasonal) and a quarter before sunset (Mishna Berurah 256:1). 2) One may even work for a wage as long as this is an out-of-the-ordinary occurrence and does not become a regular pattern (Mishna Berurah 251:4).This prohibition against regularly scheduled work only applies to someone doing work for himself, however, a hired worker can work up to just before sunset, as long he leaves himself time to make the minimal preparations for the Sabbath and to light Sabbath candles (See Mishna Berurah Siman 251:3). Português Cap. 72:9 – Realizar tarefas na véspera de Shabat a partir de Minchá Ketaná A partir do horário de Minchá ketaná (ver cap. 69, art. 2) em diante, não se deve executar uma tarefa fixa. Contudo, é permitido executar uma tarefa provisória. Se a tarefa (fixa) a ser executada é direcionada ao propósito de honrar o Sábado, ela pode ser executada após esse horário. Todavia, a partir desse horário é proibido costurar uma roupa de outra pessoa para receber pagamento. Mas isso não se aplica a um costureiro pobre que precisa juntar dinheiro para as necessidades do Sábado. Ele pode trabalhar o dia inteiro, como no Chol HaMoed. Uma pessoa, inclusive um barbeiro profissional que é remunerado pelo serviço, pode cortar cabelo de judeus durante todo o dia, porque é visível que o corte é realizado em honra do Sábado. As lojas devem ser fechadas uma hora antes do Sábado. (Com relação a quem está viajando, ver cap. 68, art. 12). Hebrew English Chapter 72:10 - From nine seasonal hours (on Friday) (1) and onwards, (2) it is a mitzvah to avoid arranging a (regular) meal, (3) even what one is accustomed to on (other) weekdays. A meal that it is not normal for one during the week, even if it is a meal for a mitzvah, if it could be held on another day, should not be carried out on Friday even during the morning. However, a meal for a mitzvah that has a set day, such as circumcision, the redemption of a firstborn, and the like (4) (on Friday), are allowed, it is proper to make it early in the morning, nevertheless, and not make it extravagant. It goes without saying that one should not overeat, so that one will eat the Sabbath meal (on Friday night) with appetite. 1) These are not the standard 60 minute hours. Seasonal hours are calculated by dividing the length of the day (some say from sunrise to sunset; others, from daybreak
  8. 8. to the appearance of 3 stars) into 12 equal parts; each part is referred to as one ''hour.'' For example, if daylight lasts 18 regular hours, each seasonal hour would be 90 minutes long. 2) On shorter Fridays, one should refrain from eating a meal even earlier, if it will spoil one's appetite (Mishna Berurah). 3) To show the importance of this mitzvah, the Talmud (Tractate Gittin 38b) relates the following: ''There were two families living in Jerusalem, one would regularly hold their meal on the Sabbath (while the Rabbi was giving his sermon in the study hall), the other would regularly have a meal on Friday (after the 9th hour); both families were destroyed.'' 4) For example, a ''Siyum,'' a meal celebrating the completion of a tractate of Talmud (Biur Halachah 249:2). Português Cap. 72:10 – Refeição permitida e refeição para uma mitsvá na véspera de Sábado De nove horas proporcionais em diante (aproximadamente a partir das 15 haras), é correto evitar fixar refeição, mesmo o que costuma comer durante a semana. Alem disso, é proibido comer na sexta-feira, inclusive pela manhã uma refeição a mais do que está acostumado a comer durante a semana. Isso vale até para uma refeição comemorativa, caso seja possível realizá-la em outro dia. No entanto, é permitido estabelecer uma refeição comemorativa associada com esse dia especifico. Por exemplo: circuncisão, resgate de primogênito ou algo similar. Entretanto, é correto antecipá-la para a manha, e deve evitar comer muito. Não é preciso dizer que não deve comer em exagero, para que possa depois ter apetite para comer a refeição do Sábado. Hebrew English Chapter 72:11 - Everyone is obliged to finish their (personal reading of the) weekly Torah portion, together with (the public Torah readings of) the community; (1) that is, that one will read each week the weekly Torah portion twice in the Hebrew original and once in the Aramaic translation. (2) From Sunday onwards is considered ''with...the community,‟‟ (because the community has already began (to read) the (start of the coming week's) portion, on Shabbat on Minchá.) However, the most preferable mitzvah is to read it on Friday afternoon. (3) One should read each paragraph, i.e. both ''open'' and ''closed'', twice, (4) followed by its (Aramaic) translation. Even if the paragraph ends in the middle of a verse, one should stop there. (5) At the end, one should say, after the translation, one verse (in Hebrew) from the Torah, so that one finishes with (a verse of) Torah. It is preferable not to interrupt the reading with conversation. Some have the custom to read also the Haftorah. Others have the custom as well to say after this the Song of Songs. One who is travelling and only has a Chumash (6) without an (Aramaic) translation,
  9. 9. should read the (Hebrew) text twice, and when one comes to a place where one has an (Aramaic) translation, one should read the translation. It is proper for every G-d-fearing person to study Rashi's commentary on the weekly Torah portion. If one is not capable of doing so, one should study a Yiddish commentary on the weekly portion, such as the book ''Go forth, O daughters of Zion'' or similar, so that one understands the topics in the portion. 1) The Talmud in Tractate Berachot 8b relates: ''Anyone who coordinates his personal reading of the weekly Torah portion with the schedule of the public Torah readings of the community, will have his life lengthened.'' 2) Reading through any Torah-based, non-literal translation, and, even reading through Rashi's commentary, are both, according to many authorities, the equivalent of reading the Aramaic translation, and one may fulfill one's obligation by doing so. Those verses upon which Rashi did not expound should be read three times in the Hebrew. (Mishna Berurah 285:4). 3) The Shulchan Aruch (OH 285:4) writes that it is considered ''the most preferable mitzvah'' as long as one has completed one's reading before the lunchtime Shabbat meal. The Vilna Gaon would read a little each day of the week after morning prayers, finishing by the time Shabbat arrived. 4) The Midrash (brought by Rashi on Leviticus 1:1) informs us that when Hashem was teaching the Torah to Moshe on Mt. Sinai, Moshe was given a break between each new section, and even between each new idea within a section, to allow him to contemplate and absorb what he was being taught. These breaks are represented graphically in the Torah scroll; those between one whole section and the next, are represented by a graphical break through the end of the line, and are called ''open'' (petucha); those breaks between each new idea within a section consist of nine blank spaces in mid-line, and are called ''closed'' (stuma). 5) And read the translation. There are other Halachic authorities who hold that one should read each verse twice, followed by its translation. Some even read through the whole weekly portion in Hebrew twice, and only then read through the translation. One may choose whichever method one prefers. (Mishna Berurah 285:1). 6) Chumash - the 5 Books of Moses. From the Hebrew word for five - 'c'humash''. Português Cap. 72:11 – Ler a porção semanal duas vezes no hebraico e uma vez na tradução Todo judeu tem obrigação de combinar “seu estudo” da Torá com o programa do publico. Ou seja, é preciso ler toda semana, duas vezes a porção semanal da Torá em (hebraico) e uma vez a tradução (em aramaico). “(Como a leitura da próxima porção semanal da Torá é iniciada na Minchá de Shabat), é permitido começá-la a partir de domingo. Todavia, é mais meritório ler após o meio dia de sexta feira. Deve-se ler a seção por seção, não importa se ela é aberta ou fechada, duas vezes em hebraico e uma vez em aramaico (essa é a conclusão do Gaon de Vilna). Mesmo quando a seção termina na metade do versículo, ela deve ser interrompida ali. Após completar a leitura em aramaico da ultima seção, é correto ler de novo o ultimo versículo em hebraico, para encerrar com um versículo em hebraico, para encerrar com um versículo da Torá. É correto não conversar durante a leitura. Também é costume ler em seguida a Haftará. Outros também costumam ler depois o Cântico dos Cânticos. No caso de alguém que se encontra viajando e, no local onde ele está só há um livro sem tradução, a Torá deve ser lida duas vezes e, ao chegar a um local onde há livro com tradução, esta deve ser proferida. ESTUDO DO COMENTARIO DE RASHI
  10. 10. É apropriado a todo o temente a D-us estudar o comentário de Rashi sobre a porção semanal se for incapaz disso, a pessoa deve estudar a tradução da porção semanal da Torá na lingua que compreende. Por exemplo: o livro Tseeina ureena (traduzido para o iídiche). Hebrew . English ----------- Chapter 72:12 - It is a mitzvah (1) for each person to wash on every Friday one's face, hands, and feet in hot water. If possible, one should wash one's entire body in hot water, and immerse oneself in a Mikvah. (2) 1) Part of the mitzvah to honor Shabbat. 2) The ritual bath to cleanse the body from impurity. Português Cap. 72:12 – Lavar-se e fazer a imersão ritual na sexta-feira É meritório lavar o rosto, as mãos e os pés com água quente na véspera de shabat. Quando possível, deve-se lavar todo o corpo com água quente e imergir no mikvê. (O Gaon Rav Iakov Emden afirma que não se deve lavar o corpo inteiro, porque isso cria dificuldades para manter relações conjugais naquela noite.) Hebrew . English Chapter 72:13 - It is forbidden to bathe 1 (naked) with (either) one's father, father-in- law, mother's husband or sister's husband. 2 In places where it is customary to cover one's nakedness in the bath house (bathing with these relatives) is permitted. 3 Similarly a student should not bathe together with his Rabbi, 4 but if his help is needed, it is permissible. 5 1) The reference is to a public bath house. Most private houses of that time did not have bathrooms. 2) It is prohibited for a male to engage in sexual fantasizing; one reason for this prohibition is as a safeguard against experiencing seminal emissions, whether they be during the day or while asleep at night (all seminal emissions outside of sexual intercourse with one's wife, are prohibited; any act, observation or thought that may lead to conscious or unconscious seminal emissions is also prohibited). This rabbinical enactment against bathing with particular relatives is a safeguard against sexual fantasizing. 3) The Aruch HaShulchan (Even HaEzer 23:8) states that he is unsure whether it is permissible for a father to bathe with his son who is under 13 years old. 4) To do so would represent a lack of ''Derech Eretz'' (respect) to his teacher. 5) This exception does not apply to the relatives mentioned above. Português Cap. 72:13 – Pessoas com as quais é proibido tomar banho
  11. 11. É proibido tomar banho com o pai, com o sogro, com o padrasto e com o cunhado. Mas é permitido quando se costuma cobrir a genitália na casa de banho. O aluno também não deve tomar banho com seu mestre. Todavia, é permitido quando o mestre precisa de sua assistência. Hebrew - English Chapter 72:14 - It is a mitzvah 1 (on Friday) to wash one's hair and to trim one's nails. Similarly, one should cut one's hair if it has grown long. One should not cut one's fingernails and toenails on the same day. 2 Similarly, one should not cut one's nails or hair on Rosh Hodesh, 3 even when it falls on Friday. 4 Some are careful not to cut their nails in order, but by skipping. That is, starting with the index finger of the right hand. 5 Thus, the order is 2,4,1,3,5. On the left hand, they begin with the fourth finger, following the order 4,2,5,3,1. There are also those who are careful not to cut their nails on Thursday, for they begin to grow back on Shabbat, the third day afterwards. 6 It is preferable to be careful to burn the fingernails. 7 1) Part of the mitzvah to honor Shabbat. 2) For those who follow this custom, it is best to cut toenails on Thursday, and fingernails on Friday (Mishna Berurah 260:6). 3) The 1st day of a new month. 4) This was recommended by Rabbi Yehuda HaChassid (1150-1217, Germany), who is the source of many widely accepted customs based on the Kabbalistic writings. 5) Others say to begin with the left hand (Rema 260). 6) So reducing the level of honoring Shabbat which was achieved by cutting them. Of course, if it's clear that one will not have time to cut them on Friday, one should certainly cut them on Thursday (Aruch HaShulchan 260:6). 7) It is permissible to dispose of them in any way you choose (flushing them down the toilet, etc), but by no means should they be left around carelessly. The Talmud (Moed Katan 18a) states that fingernails should not be left lying on the ground, because ''perhaps a pregnant woman will step on them, and have a miscarriage.'' According to the Zohar, fingernails are associated with evil and impurity, and were often used in the performance of black magic. Português Cap. 72:14 – cortar os cabelos e as unhas antes do shabat É correto enxaguar a cabeça e cortar as unhas em honra do sábado. Se os cabelos estiverem compridos, eles também devem ser cortados. As unhas das mãos e dos pés não devem ser cortadas no mesmo dia. As unhas e o cabelo também não são cortados no Rosh Chodesh, mesmo quando cai na sexta feira. Há quem atente para não cortar as unhas em seqüência. Portanto, elas são cortadas de forma alternada. É iniciado o corte com a unha do lado direito, começando pelo dedo indicador e seguindo essa ordem: 2- 4-1-3-5. Na esquerda, primeiro se corta a unha do dedo anular, e segue-se a ordem: 4- 2-5-3-1 (19). Também há quem seja rigoroso em não cortá-las na quinta feira, porque
  12. 12. elas voltam a crescer no terceiro dia, no caso no sábado. É correto atentar para queimar as unhas. 19 – Nós não somos rigorosos com essas precauções e costumamos cortar as unhas do pé e da mão no mesmo dia. Similarmente, nós cortamos as unhas em qualquer dia comum da semana, inclusive no Rosh Chodesh. É adequado cortar as unhas do pé e da mão na sexta feira em honra ao sábado. Não somos rigorosos em seguir exatamente a sequencia especificada no livro, mas unicamente em cortar as unhas da mão direita e depois da esquerda. Ao cortar, as unhas não devem ser deixadas sobre a roupa ou o sapato, mas sim em um papel ou similar. As unhas devem ser jogadas no vaso sanitário com cuidado para não se espalharem, e depois é puxada a descarga. Caso isso não seja possível, elas devem ser queimadas. Caso uma das unhas tenha caído, é preciso procurá-la. Caso não encontre, o quarto deve ser varrido e a sujeira jogada no vaso sanitário ou no lixo (ver Kaf HaChaim 260:11-15-17; Bem Ish Chai, Lech Lechá, 14). Hebrew --- . English Chapter 72:15 - On every Friday one should review one's deeds, and awaken in repentance to correct all the errors that were done during the six days of work, for Friday includes all the days of the (previous) week, as the day before Rosh Chodesh includes all (the days of the previous) month. 1 1) And is also a day for repentance. Português Cap. 72:15 – Arrependimento na véspera do sábado Na sexta feira, cada um deve inspecionar seus atos e evocar sentimentos de arrependimento por todas as mas ações cometidas na semana. A véspera de shabat engloba todos os dias da semana, assim como a véspera de Rosh Chodesh engloba todo o mês. Hebrew --- . English Chapter 72:16 - One should try and have elegant clothes and also a beautiful (large) Tallit in honor of Shabbat, as it is written: 1 ''And you shall honor it''. This is interpreted: 2 „„Your Shabbat garments should not be like your weekday garments.'' Even if one is travelling (or staying in a house) with non-Jews, one should wear one's Shabbat clothes, because the clothing is not for the honor of one's company, but rather in honor of Shabbat. 3 1) Isaiah 58:13. 2) Talmud, Tractate Shabbat, 113a. 3) The case of travelling with non-Jews is simply being used here as an example of a situation in which one is the only person who is observing Shabbat. The same principle would obviously apply when one is spending Shabbat alone. Português Cap. 72:16 – Vestir-se bem
  13. 13. Deve-se vestir roupas distintas e ter talit especial para o Sabado, conforme foi dito: “E honrares-no…” (Isaias 58:13). Nossos mestres interpretaram (Shabat 113a): “Tua vestimenta de Sabado nao deve ser igual a da semana”. Então, até quando o judeu viaja com gentios, ele deve vestir roupas especiais de sábado, porque as vestes não são em honra de quem as vê, mas em honra do sábado. Hebrew --- . English Chapter 72:17 - One needs to watch over food and remove it from the coals before Shabbat 1 If one forgot and did not remove them, then if one came on Shabbat to take the pot, and the coals are burning around it, so that if one took the pot the coals would be moved, it is forbidden (therefore) for a Jew to take it. 2 By a non-Jew it is permitted. 3 1) The restrictions mentioned in this law apply only to a pot of food resting directly on (or in) burning coals. As will be explained later, different rules apply when other cooking processes are used. 2) It is only forbidden for a Jew to remove the pot, if it is embedded within the coals, because, in that case, there would be no way to remove the pot without causing the coals to move (Psik Reisha). Moving the coals would cause some to be extinguished (or diminished), and others to be further ignited, both activities which are prohibited on Shabbat. If, however, the pot is resting on top of the coals, a Jew may remove it carefully, if he cannot find a non-Jew to do it for him. This is because when the pot is resting on top of the coals, moving the pot would not necessarily cause movement of the coals, and even if coals ended up being moved around, since it was both not inevitable and an unintended result, it is permitted on Shabbat (based on the principle of ''something that was unintended is permitted'' (Davar Sheaino Mitkaven, Mutar) ). 3) One may ask a non-Jew to move the pot even when it is embedded in the coals, as long as one needs the food for Shabbat. Even though in this case movement of the coals is inevitable, since one does not desire this result, it turns this act into a Rabbinical prohibition (as opposed to Biblical) which, in this case, one may ask a non-Jew to perform. Português Cap. 72:17 – Levar as panelas ao fogo É preciso retirar a comida cozida de cima da brasa (ver cap. 80, art. 5). {As seguintes regras se aplicam a quem} esquece de tirar a panela e deseja retirá-la no sábado. Se ela estiver envolta em brasa ardente e, na hora de pegá-la, inevitavelmente se mexerá na brasa, um judeu não pode retirá-la. Todavia, é permitido solicitar ao gentio para retirá-la. -- Hebrew English Chapter 72:18 - Food that is left warmimg in an oven on Shabbat, as is customary, even though the opening of the oven is not sealed closed with mud, is permitted. 1 It is,
  14. 14. (however), forbidden to open the oven at night, because there may be in there pots (of food) which have not yet completely cooked, and by closing the oven afterwards, one causes (further) cooking. 1) Even though the act of cooking is one of the 39 types of creative work which are forbidden to be performed on Shabbat, if something is placed on the flames or in the oven before Shabbat, it is Biblically permissible to allow the cooking process to continue by itself on Shabbat. However, the Sages prohibited allowing uncooked food, placed on the flames on Friday afternoon, to remain on the flames after sunset, because they were concerned that one may come to stir the coals (or, in modern times, adjust the flame) on Shabbat in order to speed up the cooking process, thereby desecrating the Shabbos in two ways - through the act of cooking and the act of igniting the coals. This Rabbinical prohibition was established only for conditions in which it is reasonable to suspect that one might attempt to speed up the cooking process by increasing the heat. Hence, it would be permissible to leave food on the flames or in the oven, to continue cooking or to retain its heat on Shabbos, if, for example, the food was fully cooked (or, according to some, just edible) by the time Shabbat arrived, or if one did something to eliminate the likelihood of stirring the coals, such as removing them, or covering them (with ashes, or, in modern times, with a metal sheet called a ''blech''), or even sealing the oven door shut (so that one needed to exert some effort to open it). There are many criteria governing whether it would be permissible to allow food to remain on the flames or in the oven after Shabbat comes in, and consequently, one would have to consult a detailed book about the Laws of Shabbat in order to determine the practical application of the law in each individual circumstance. In Halacha 18 appearing above, the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch is discussing a case in which the food is already edible by the time Shabbat arrives, and therefore, we are not concerned that one will attempt to speed up the cooking process in order to have the food ready to eat on Friday night. Consequently, there is no need to seal the oven door shut. In Halacha 19, the Kitzur makes it clear that if the food is not going to be edible by sunset, it would be prohibited to let it remain in the oven after Shabbat arrives, unless one sealed the oven door shut, thereby eliminating the risk that one might adjust the oven flames (In all these cases, we are concerned that one may momentarily forget that it is Shabbat and adjust the flames. The Sages were confident that in the time it takes to pull open a sealed oven door, one will remind oneself that it is Shabbat, and will refrain from adjusting the heat). Português Cap. 72:18 – Como manter os alimentos no forno e como retirá-los na noite de sábado É permitido deixar a comida no forno para conservá-la aquecida para o sábado, como é costumeiro, ainda que a abertura do forno não esteja lacrada com argila. Porém, é proibido abrir de noite a porta desse forno, pois é possível que a comidfa não esteja cozida o suficiente. Então, o ato de fechar a porta causará a continuidade do processo de cozedura do alimento. Hebrew --- English
  15. 15. Chapter 72:19 - While it is permitted to (keep food) warm also when the oven is not sealed closed with mud, this (permission) applies only when keeping warm meat, and also even keeping warm kinds of beans 1 and kinds of pies, 2 as long as they were warmed up a long time before night time, so that they can cook before night enough so that they would be fit to eat in an emergency. If however, one warms up kinds of beans or kinds of pies shortly before night, one needs, in this case, to seal the oven closed with mud (since, most likely, it has not been thoroughly cleared of its coals). One must be careful (to keep to) this. If one does not do so, then even after the event, the food is forbidden until after out Shabbat (plus) its (normal) cooking time. 1) ''kitniot'' small (from katan) seeds or beans. 2) Items made from or inside dough, i.e pastries or pies. Português Cap. 72:19 – Quando o forno deve estar selado e quando não A permissão de conservar comida aquecida no forno mesmo quando a abertura não esta lacrada com argila só se aplica para carne, e até para leguminosas e massas, quando são colocadas no forno com bastante antecedência do escurecer, de modo que cozinhem um pouco e estejam com as mínimas condições de serem ingeridas. Se as leguminosas ou massas forem colocadas próximo do escurecer, é imprescindível que a abertura esteja lacrada com argila (pois em geral o forno não está corretamente limpo e coberto de cinzas). É fundamental observar esses detalhes, pois caso contrário, até em ultima instancia, o alimento só poderá ser ingerido no termino do sábado, após o tempo que demoraria a prepará-lo. Hebrew English Chapter 72:20 - On Shabbat when (one needs) to open an oven which had been sealed shut with mortar, it should be opened by a non-Jew. 1 If there is no (available) non-Jew, it should be opened by a (Jewish) minor. If there is no (available) minor, then an adult is allowed to open it; 2 but it should be done in an unusual manner. 3 1) One of the 39 categories of creative work prohibited on Shabbat is ''Demolishing'' (Soter) - in other words, taking apart a structure for a constructive purpose. This prohibition only applies to demolishing a structure that was designed to stay together permanently; the case in our Halacha involves an oven door which was sealed only temporarily, that is, until the food in the oven would be needed on Shabbat, and consequently, the act isn't even prohibited Rabbinically. However, because it closely resembles an act of demolishing, we do our best to avoid carrying out the task ourselves. (Mishna Berurah 259:19-22) 2) It should be noted that if there are still coals burning in the oven, it is prohibited for a Jew to open the oven door (whether sealed or unsealed) on Shabbat, because the resultant draft of air will further ignite the coals. (Mishna Berurah 259:22) 3) An act that is part of one of the 39 categories of creative work prohibited on Shabbat, only becomes Biblically prohibited if it is performed in its usual manner. Those authorities who are concerned that opening a sealed oven door might be
  16. 16. considered an act of demolishing, require the use of a ''Shinui,'' that is, some divergence from the way the act is normally performed, in order to avoid the problem. Português Cap. 72:20 – Modo para abrir o forno que foi selada durante o Sabado No sábado, o forno lacrado com argila deve ser aberto pelo gentio. Quando não há gentio disponível, ele deve ser aberto por uma criança. Quando não há criança. Um adulto pode abri-lo, mas deve fazê-lo de forma diferente. Hebrew ---- English 72:21 One who keeps coffee warm from Friday (afternoon) in a pit, for use on Shabbat, and covers it with pillows and the like 1 so that it (remains) hot; if one keeps it warm in sand, 2 It is forbidden for the whole pot to be kept warm in the sand, 3 even if one does not bury the whole pot but part of it and cover (the other) part with clothes or the like. so that all the pot is completely covered on all sides, this is also forbidden. Instead, the following procedure should be carried out: The pot containing the coffee should be only half covered or up to a third of it covered with the sand and the remainder left exposed. One (then) puts over the pit a board or a (larger) pot, so that there is an air space between this (cover) and the pot containing the coffee. Then, one can put over them clothes, pillows, or the like. (The rest of the laws of keeping food warm are in the Shulchan Aruch Chapters 257-259.) 1) In order to ensure that the acts of cooking or kindling a fire are not performed on Shabbat, the Sages prohibited ''keeping warm'' (insulating - Hatmonah) a pot of hot food on Shabbat by completely wrapping it in any material which retains heat (e.g. a towel). They even prohibited insulating a pot on Friday, if the insulating material not only retains the heat but actually intensifies it (Davar Hamosif Hevel). There are many criteria governing whether an act of insulating would be prohibited or permitted, and consequently, one would have to consult a detailed book about the Laws of Shabbat in order to determine the practical application of the law in each individual circumstance. 2) Sand is a substance which intensifies heat, and therefore, the prohibition applies to it even on Friday. 3) Any type of insulation may be used if a substantial section of the container is left uncovered. Furthermore, a loose wrapping, like draping a towel over a pot and allowing it to hang loosely, is not considered insulation and is therefore permitted, even though the entire container is covered. Português
  17. 17. Cap. 72: 21 – Como conservar alimentos quentes para o Sabado Quando se deseja manter aquecido o café para o sábado, enterrando a vasilha em um buraco no chão e cobrindo-a com travesseiros ou similar (são aplicadas as seguintes regras): é proibido enterrá-la totalmente na areia. Também é proibido enterrar uma parte da vasilha na areia e cobrir inteiramente o restante com roupas ou algo semelhante, deixando-a coberta por todos os lados. É preciso que só a metade ou terça parte da vasilha fique enterrada e o restante fique exposto. Depois, deve-se por uma tabua ou um utensílio (grande) virado sobre o buraco, deixando um espaço entre o objeto e a vasilha do café. Só então é que roupas, travesseiros e similares podem ser colocados em cima (ver shulchan Arukh, caps. 157, 158 e 159, acerca de outras leis sobre como manter alimentos aquecidos para o sábado). Hebrew ---- English Chapter 72:22 - Near to the evening one should ask the members of one's household in a gentle tone: ''Have you separated the challah?'' 1 and tell them to light the candles. 1) See Chapter 35 - The laws of separating Challah. Português Cap. 72:22 – O que verificar na véspera do Sabado Antes do escurecer, o homem deve indagar delicadamente os membros da casa: “tiraram a chalá da massa?”. Ele deve também lembrá-los de acender as velas. Hebrew - English Chapter 72:23 - Everyone is obliged to check their clothes on Friday evening, before it becomes dark, to make sure there are no needles stuck in them or objects in one's pockets, even in a place where there is an Eruv, in case there is a forbidden object there. 1) ''Set apart'' (mukseh) - see Chapter 88. Português Cap. 72:23 – Ultimas verificações antes da entrada do Sabado É dever averiguar as roupas antes do sábado, para ver se há agulhas enfiada ou objetos nos bolsos. Isto deve ser feito até em lugar com eruv (cerca que torna permitido carregar objetos no sábado dentro de toda área cercada), pois pode haver objeto que é muktsê.

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