Zimbardo02 final

1,871 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,871
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
525
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
73
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Zimbardo02 final

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Biopsychology Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  2. 2. What is Biopsychology? <ul><li>The specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and mental processes </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  3. 3. What is neuroscience? <ul><li>Focuses on how the brain produces mental processes and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary field </li></ul><ul><li>psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>biologists </li></ul><ul><li>computer scientists </li></ul><ul><li>chemists </li></ul><ul><li>neurologists </li></ul><ul><li>linguists </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  4. 4. How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Evolution has fundamentally shaped psychological processes because it favors genetic variations that produce adaptive behavior
  5. 5. Darwin and Natural Selection <ul><li>Darwin – 1831 </li></ul><ul><li>5 years surveying the coastline of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Radical idea about relationship among species </li></ul><ul><li>All creatures, including humans, share a common ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>On the Origin of Species (1859) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection – Individuals best adapted to the environment are more likely to flourish and reproduce </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  6. 6. How Natural Selection Works Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Environmental pressure (changes in the environment) Competition (for resources) Selection of fittest phenotype (from among a variety of phenotypes) Reproductive success (genotype corresponding to fittest phenotypes passed to next generation) Frequency of that genotype increases (in next generation)
  7. 7. Genes and Inheritance <ul><li>Genotype – An organism’s genetic makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype – An organism’s observable physical characteristics </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  8. 8. Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA <ul><li>DNA – A long, complex molecule that encodes genetic characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Genes – The functional units of a chromosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of nucleotides </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  9. 9. Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA <ul><li>Chromosomes – Tightly coiled threadlike structures along which the genes are organized </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Sex chromosomes – The X and Y chromosomes that determine our physical sex characteristics
  10. 10. Genetic Explanations for Psychological Processes <ul><li>Human phobias </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Jealousy </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attraction </li></ul><ul><li>Mate selection </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>-Never attribute psychological characteristics to genetics alone </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  11. 11. How Does the Body Communicate Internally? Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 The brain coordinates the body’s two communication systems, the nervous system and the endocrine system, which uses chemical processes to communicate with targets throughout the body
  12. 12. The Body’s Dual Communication System <ul><li>Neurons (Nerve cells): fundamental unit in the brain </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Nervous system: network of neurons that extends all through the body Endocrine system: a group of glands that operates together and in parallel with the nervous system
  13. 13. The Neuron <ul><li>Types of Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory neurons (carry messages from sense receptors towards the CNS) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 <ul><ul><li>Motor neurons (carry messages from CNS toward muscles and glands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interneurons (carry messages between nerve cells) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Structure of a Neuron Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  15. 15. The Neural Impulse <ul><li>Resting potential </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Action potential Synapse Synaptic transmission All-or-none principal
  16. 16. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Neurotransmitters – Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse to the next neuron </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  17. 17. Seven Important Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins
  18. 18. Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Produces sensations of pleasure and reward; used by CNS neurons in voluntary movement Problems with Imbalance: Schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease Substances that Affect: Cocaine, amphetamines, Ritalin, alcohol
  19. 19. Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Regulates sleep and dreaming, mood, pain, aggression, appetite and sexual behavior Problems with Imbalance: Depression, certain anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder Substances that Affect: Prozac, hallucinogenics (e.g. LSD)
  20. 20. Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Controls heart rate, sleep, sexual responsiveness, stress, vigilance and appetite Problems with Imbalance: High blood pressure, depression Substances that Affect: Tricyclic antidepressants, beta blockers
  21. 21. Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Primary transmitter used by neurons carrying messages from CNS; involved in some kinds of learning and memory Problems with Imbalance: Certain muscular disorders, Alzheimer’s disease Substances that Affect: Nicotine, botulism toxin, curare, atropine
  22. 22. Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in neurons of CNS Problems with Imbalance: Anxiety, epilepsy Substances that Affect: Barbiturates, tranquilizers (e.g. Valium, Librium), alcohol
  23. 23. Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Primary excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS; involved in learning and memory Problems with Imbalance: Brain damage after stroke Substances that Affect: PCP (“angel dust”)
  24. 24. Neurotransmitters Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Pleasurable sensations and control of pain Problems with Imbalance: Lowered levels resulting from opiate addiction Substances that Affect: Opiates: opium, heroin, morphine, methadone
  25. 25. Plasticity <ul><li>Plasticity – Ability of the nervous system to adapt or change as the result of experience; sometimes helps the nervous system adapt to physical damage </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  26. 26. Glial Cells <ul><li>Glial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide structural support for neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help in forming new synapses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form myelin sheath </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  27. 27. The Organization of the Nervous System Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  28. 28. The Endocrine System <ul><li>(the body’s chemical messenger system) </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  29. 29. The Endocrine System <ul><li>Pituitary gland – </li></ul><ul><li>master gland that produces hormones influencing the secretions of all other endocrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>produces hormone that influences growth </li></ul><ul><li>attached to hypothalamus </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  30. 30. How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 The brain is composed of many specialized modules that work together to create mind and behavior
  31. 31. Windows on the Brain <ul><li>EEG (electroencephalograph) – Device for recording brain waves, typically by electrodes placed on the scalp </li></ul><ul><li>Brain waves – Patterns of electrical activity generated by the brain </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  32. 32. Windows on the Brain <ul><li>Epilepsy – </li></ul><ul><li>Brain disorder that is often marked by seizures and loss of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by out-of-control electrical activity in the brain </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  33. 33. Windows on the Brain <ul><li>Brain scans – Recordings of the brain’s electrical or biochemical activity at specific sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT scanning (computerized tomography) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PET scanning (positron emission tomography) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  34. 34. Three Layers of the Brain <ul><li>Brain stem and cerebellum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive vital functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds emotions, complex motives, increased memory abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables reasoning, planning, creating, problem solving </li></ul></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  35. 35. Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  36. 36. The Brain Stem and Cerebellum Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  37. 37. The Limbic System <ul><li>Hippocampus – Involved in establishing long-term memories </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  38. 38. The Limbic System <ul><li>Amygdala – Involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  39. 39. The Limbic System <ul><li>Hypothalamus – Serves as the brain’s blood-testing laboratory, constantly monitors blood to determine the condition of the body </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  40. 40. The Cerebrum <ul><li>Cerebrum – Topmost layer of the brain; the bulbous cap over the limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex – Thin gray-matter covering of the cerebrum; carries on thinking and perceiving </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral hemispheres – The two walnut shaped halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  41. 41. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
  42. 42. The Cooperative Brain <ul><li>Every mental and behavioral process involves the coordination and cooperation of many brain networks </li></ul><ul><li>Association cortex – Cortical regions that combine information from various other parts of the brain </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  43. 43. Cerebral Dominance <ul><li>Cerebral dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency of each brain hemisphere to exert control over different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasia </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of speech caused be brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Process of locating one’s body or other objects in space </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  44. 44. Specialization of the Cerebral Hemispheres Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  45. 45. The Split Brain <ul><li>Split-brain patients – Individuals who have had the corpus callosum surgically severed </li></ul><ul><li>Duality of consciousness – Condition in which a split-brain patient has a separate consciousness in each hemisphere </li></ul>Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009
  46. 46. Figure 2.2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009

×