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Lecture 3 Social psychology

Lecture 3 Social psychology

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Chap4 behavior control Chap4 behavior control Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4 Behavior Control and Self-PresentationCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Chapter Outline What is Self-Presentation? Goals of Self-Presentation Appearing Likable Appearing Competent Conveying High Status and PowerCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHAT IS SELF-PRESENTATION?Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHAT IS SELF-PRESENTATION? • Self presentation - the process through which we try to control the impressions people form or us. • Self presentation is synonymous with impression management.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Considering only your physical appearance, do you look: • Socially dominant • Kind and understanding • Aggressive • Intelligent • Conscientious 1= not at all 9 = very muchCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • To what extent do you make a conscious effort to present yourself in terms of: • clothing • physical body • way you carry yourself • hair • car 1= not at all 9 = very muchCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • To what extent do you make a conscious effort to present yourself in terms of: • apartment/house/your room • friends • organizations/clubs • other? 1= not at all 9 = very muchCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHAT IS SELF-PRESENTATION? • WHY do people self present? • WHEN do people self present? • The Nature of Self PresentationCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHY DO PEOPLE SELF-PRESENT? • To acquire desirable resources • To help “construct” our self-images • To enable our social encounters to run more smoothly.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHY DO PEOPLE SELF-PRESENT? Dramaturgical perspective- the perspective that much of social interaction can be thought of as a play, with actors performances, settings, scripts, props, roles, and so forth.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHEN DO PEOPLE SELF-PRESENT? • When we think others are paying attention to us. • When others can influence whether or not we reach our goals. • When those goals are important to us. • When we think observers have impressions of us that are different from the ones we desire.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch The Spotlight Effect: Cornell students were asked to sit in room with five other subjects while wearing a Barry Manilow t-shirt.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch The Spotlight Effect: The student who wore the shirt then predicted how many of the other students in the room could recall and identify who was on the shirtCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch The Spotlight Effect: 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Predicted Actual Control The students who wore the t-shirt predicted that nearly half of the others would know who was on the shirt.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch The Spotlight Effect: 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Predicted Actual Control In reality, less than a quarter of the other subjects recalled who was on the shirt.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch The Spotlight Effect: 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Predicted Actual Control Control students who watched the subjects on video closely predicted how many students would identify the shirt.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHEN DO PEOPLE SELF-PRESENT? Public self-consciousness - the tendency to have a chronic awareness of oneself as being in the public eye.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • WHEN DO PEOPLE SELF-PRESENT? Self Monitoring - the tendency to be chronically concerned with one’s public image and to adjust one’s actions to fit the needs of the current situationCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • In deciding how to behave in a given situation, do you: • Examine your own attitudes, feelings, and opinions? • Consider what other people expect of you and act accordingly? • Are you good at acting? 1= not at all 9 = very muchCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Self-monitoring High self-monitors: • Inconsistent across situations. • Good at assessing what others want and tailoring their behavior to fit those demands. Low self-monitors: • Look inside themselves to decide how to act. • Don’t change as much across situations.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • THE NATURE OF SELF-PRESENTATION • Self presentation is sometimes deceptive, but usually not. • More often, our self-presentations focus on emphasizing our strengths and minimizing our weaknesses. • Because trust is necessary in social relationships, people go to great lengths to detect liars.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Think of an embarrassing moment you’ve had Was it linked to: • Appearing unlikable • Appearing incompetent • Appearing weak • Other?Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goals of Self-presentation • To be seen as likeable (ingratiation) • To be seen as competent (self-promotion) • To be seen as powerful (intimidation)Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • The Goal: Appearing Likeable Ingratiation: An attempt to get others to like us.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Express Liking for Others Goal: To appear likeableCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Expressing Liking for Others We express our liking for others using both verbal flattery and nonverbal behaviors such as smiling.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Express Liking for Others Goal: To appear Create Similarity likeableCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch Creating Similarity Opinion Conformity as an Ingratiation Strategy. How likely are you to change your opinions to agree with someone else? Would you be more likely to agree with someone who’s attractive?Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch Creating Similarity Opinion Conformity as an Ingratiation Strategy. In an experiment conducted by Mark Zanna and Susan Pack (1975), women anticipated interacting with a man who was either: 1. Highly Desirable 2. Not Highly DesirableCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch Creating Similarity Opinion Conformity as an Ingratiation Strategy. And who held either: 1. Traditional views of women (believing the ideal woman to be a passive, emotional homebody) 2. Untraditional views of women (believing the ideal woman to be independent and ambitious)Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch Creating Similarity Opinion Conformity as an Ingratiation Strategy. The women then filled out questionnaires for the male student to look at, including one reporting their own attitudes about gender roles.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch Creating Similarity Opinion Conformity: 5.0 Amount of 4.0 Attitude 3.0 Conformity (Shift toward 2.0 man’s views) 1.0 0.0 0.0 Undesirable Desirable Man Man Women about to interact with the undesirable man did not shift their opinions.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch Creating Similarity Opinion Conformity: 5.0 Amount of 4.0 3.7 Attitude 3.0 Conformity (Shift toward 2.0 man’s views) 1.0 0.0 0.0 Undesirable Desirable Man Man However, women about to interact with the desirable man adjusted their opinions to match his more closely.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • esearch Creating Similarity These findings demonstrate that people sometimes change their public opinions to get desirable others to like themCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Express Liking for Others Goal: To appear Create Similarity likeable Make Ourselves Physically AttractiveCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Making Ourselves Physically Attractive Attractive people receive many benefits, including: –They are seen as more honest. –They are more likely to be hired for managerial positions and elected to public office. –They receive shorter sentences for felonies.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Making Ourselves Physically Attractive Realizing this, most people try to make themselves more attractive. – In 1999, Americans had approximately 4.6 million plastic surgeries. – Over 4 million Americans currently wear braces or other orthodontic devices. – People in the U.S. spend $33 billion a year on diet foods, weight loss programs, and health clubCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Express Liking for Others Goal: To appear Create Similarity likeable Make Ourselves Project Modesty Physically AttractiveCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Projecting modesty Cultural differences in modesty: African Americans most tolerant of bragging. Asian Americans most likely to project modesty.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing likeable Sex differences in likeability: Women more likely to: • Smile • Compliment others • Agree with others • Present themselves modestlyCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing likeable Why are women more agreeable? One explanation stresses socialization - women may get more social rewards for being agreeable Girls become more nonverbally agreeable as they move through adolescence and learn social expectations.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing likeable Why are women more agreeable? Another explanation stresses biology - women have lower levels of hormones that may incline men to be more disagreeable and confrontational.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing likeable Testosterone: A hormone present in both males and females – but usually in much greater quantities in males – responsible for important aspects of sexual development. People with higher levels are more confrontational and smile less.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing likeable We are generally interested in being liked by people with whom we want to start or maintain a friendship and by people who are in positions of power.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing likeable Multiple Audience Dilemmas We sometimes find ourselves in circumstances in which we want to be liked by multiple audiences, who differ in what they value. Multiple audience dilemma: situation in which a person needs to present different images to different people, often at the same time.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing likeable Multiple Audience Dilemmas We try to manage these dilemmas by: Segregating the audiences Moderating our presentations Presenting different messages on different communication channels Texturing messages so they mean different things to the different audiencesCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • The Goal: To Appear Competent Self-promotion: An attempt to get others to see us as competent.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Staging Performances Goal: To Appear CompetentCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Staging Performances Because successes are sometimes overlooked we may seek opportunities to stage performances, or demonstrate our competence in public. Conversely, people who are incompetent at something will avoid public stagings.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Staging Performances Claiming Competence Goal: To Appear CompetentCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Claiming Competence People rarely just tell others about their abilities. Why? – Interferes with projecting modesty – Commonly held belief that people who are truly competent don’t need to claim it.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Claiming Competence However, claims off competence are appropriate: – when they are invited (e.g. at job interviews) – When they are second-hand (e.g. if friend talk us up or if we show people letters of recommendation)Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Staging Performances Claiming Competence Goal: Using the Trappings To Appear of Competence CompetentCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Using the Trappings of Confidence Good self-promoters often surround themselves with the props and habits of competence, such as: – waiting to return our phone calls – carrying cell-phones and pagers – wearing clothes associated with competenceCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Staging Performances Claiming Competence Goal: Using the Trappings To Appear of Competence Competent Making Excuses or Claiming ObstaclesCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Making Excuses and Claiming Obstacles • Follows from the discounting and augmenting principles (chap. 3) • Some people go so far as to create real obstacles.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Making Excuses and Claiming Obstacles Self-handicapping: The behavior of withdrawing effort or creating obstacles to one’s future effort.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Making Excuses and Claiming Obstacles Ways people self-handicap: – Taking condition-impairing drugs – Not practicing – Consuming alcohol – Choosing unattainable goals – Giving competitors a performance advantageCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Competence Motivation and Shyness Competence motivation: The desire to perform effectively Shyness: The tendency to feel tense, worried, or awkward in novel social situations and with unfamiliar peopleCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Competence Motivation and Shyness Compared to shy people, socially confidant individuals are especially likely to promote themselves: – after their reputations have been shaken by failure – but not if their true competence can be easily checked by othersCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Competence Motivation and Shyness Also, self-promoters often create a social environment in which others feel compelled to self promote.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Appearing competent Situations which increase the desire for competence Competitive settings such as workplaces, classrooms, and athletic fields. Recent failures increase the desire for competence.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Display Artifacts of Power Goal: To Convey StatusCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Displaying the Artifacts of Status and Power • Doctors, CEOs, and other powerful people have items which indicate their position (waiting rooms, fancy desks, etc.) • Some people misappropriate these items to gain respect.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Display Artifacts of Conspicuous Power Consumption Goal: To Convey StatusCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Conspicuous Consumption People often display their status through: – Spending lavishly on houses, automobiles, and burial chambers – Giving away and wasting money – Being generally wasteful, even to the point of damaging the environmentCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Display Artifacts of Conspicuous Power Consumption Goal: Basking in Reflective To Convey Glory Status Cutting off reflected failureCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Personal Associations Basking in reflected glory: The process of presenting our associations with successful, high- status others and events. Cutting off reflected failure: The process of distancing ourselves from unsuccessful, low-status others or events.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Display Artifacts of Conspicuous Power Consumption Goal: Basking in Reflective To Convey Glory Status Cutting off reflected Non-verbal failure dominanceCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Status and Power and Nonverbal Expressions Body language: The popular term for non-verbal behaviors like facial expressions, posture, body orientation, and hand gestures.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Status and Power and Nonverbal Expressions Compared to low-status people, high- status people are more likely to: – Maintain eye contact when speaking – Pay less attention when listening – Interrupt others – Place themselves in positions of prominence – Touch others and enter others’ personal spaceCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Gender, Status, and Power Men, more than women, focus on displaying status and power. – Men are socialized to present themselves as dominant and learn that girls prefer dating dominant men.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Gender, Status, and Power Men, more than women, focus on displaying status and power. – Biology also plays crucial role • Females in many animal species choose to mate with males best able to provide food, territory, etc. • Men who have higher levels of testosterone are more aggressiveCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status The Self Presentational Dilemma of Aspiring Women Women face an especially difficult self-presentational dilemma: Women who present their status and power are frequently disliked by both men and women.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Threats to Personal and Material Resources People are most likely to present themselves as having high status and power when: – Existing resources are threatened. – Newly available resources lie unclaimed.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Conveying status Different Strategies for Different Audiences Men present differently to other men than to women. – Less likely to be violent in front of women – More likely to buy charity raffle tickets, etc. in front of women.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • SummaryCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Likeable Factors in the Person • GenderCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Likeable Factors in the Situation • Audiences of Potential Friends • Audiences of Power-HoldersCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Likeable Interactions The values held by multiple audiences interact to influence how people get others to like them. Continued Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Likeable Interactions If everyone in the audience holds the same values, people can readily sculpt their self-presentations to conform with them. Continued Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Likeable Interactions When the audience is composed of people having differing and incompatible values, more creative ingratiation tactics are necessary.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Competent Factors in the Person • Competence Motivation • ShynessCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Competent Factors in the Situation • Competence Settings • Impending or Actual FailureCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Competent Interactions Compared to shy people, socially confident individuals promote themselves in exaggerated ways after their public reputation for competence has been shaken by failure but not if their true competence can be easily checked by others. Continued Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Appearing Competent Interactions Self promoters create social environments in which others feel compelled to self-promote as well.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Conveying Status and Power Factors in the Person • GenderCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Conveying Status and Power Factors in the Situation • Competition for Existing Resources • Availability of Unclaimed ResourcesCopyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon
  • Goal: Conveying Status and Power Interactions The gender of the presenter interacts with the gender of the audience to determine which tactics work best to convey images of status and power. Men typically use more direct, physical tactics when presenting to men than to women.Copyright © 2002 by Allyn and Bacon