Pinel basics ch02

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Pinel basics ch02

  1. 1. Chapter 2 The Anatomy of the Brain The Systems, Structures, and Cells that Make Up Your Nervous System Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. General Layout of the Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System (CNS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain (in the skull) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord (in the spine) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located outside of the skull and spine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves to bring information into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  3. 3. General Layout of the Nervous System <ul><li>PNS – 2 divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic Nervous System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afferent nerves (sensory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent nerves (motor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic Nervous System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both are efferent </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  4. 4. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>All nerves are efferent </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves generally have opposite effects </li></ul><ul><li>Two-stage neural paths, neuron exiting the CNS synapses on a second-stage neuron before the target organ </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  5. 5. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracolumbar </li></ul><ul><li>“ fight or flight” </li></ul><ul><li>Second stage neurons are far from the target organ </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Craniosacral </li></ul><ul><li>“ rest and restore” </li></ul><ul><li>Second stage neurons are near the target organ </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  6. 6. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  7. 7. Meninges, Ventricles, and CSF <ul><li>CNS - encased in bone and covered by three meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dura mater - tough outer membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnoid membrane - weblike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pia mater - sticks to CNS surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid serves as cushion </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  8. 8. Protecting the Brain <ul><li>Chemical protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The blood-brain barrier – tightly-packed cells of blood vessel walls prevent entry of many molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meninges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  9. 9. Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Generally two types </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons – specialized for reception, conduction, and transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Glial cells – outnumber neurons by 10 to 1. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  10. 10. Anatomy of Neurons <ul><li>Neurons – structural classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bipolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interneurons </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  11. 11. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  12. 12. Anatomy of Neurons <ul><li>Nuclei – clusters of cell bodies in the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Ganglia – clusters of cell bodies in the PNS </li></ul><ul><li>Tracts – bundles of axons in the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves – bundles of axons in the PNS </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  13. 13. Glial Cells: The Forgotten Majority <ul><li>Myelin producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligodendrocytes (CNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schwann cells (PNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Astrocytes – largest, many functions (composed the blood-brain barrier) </li></ul><ul><li>Microglia – smallest, involved in response to injury or disease </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  14. 14. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  15. 15. Terminology Note Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon CNS PNS Myelin-providing glia Oligodendrocytes Schwann Cells Clusters of cell bodies Nuclei (singular nucleus) Ganglia (singular ganglion) Bundles of axons Tracts Nerves
  16. 16. Some Neuroanatomical Techniques <ul><li>Golgi stain – allows for visualization of individual neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Nissl stain – selectively stains cell bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Electron microscopy – provides information about the details of neuronal structure </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  17. 17. Neuroanatomical Directions <ul><li>Anterior (rostral) – towards the nose </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior (caudal) – towards the tail </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal – towards the surface of the back or the top of the head </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral – towards the surface of the chest or the bottom of the head </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  18. 18. Neuroanatomical Directions <ul><li>Medial – towards the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral – towards the side </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal – close </li></ul><ul><li>Distal – far </li></ul><ul><li>Superior – top of the primate head </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior – bottom of the primate head </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  19. 19. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  20. 20. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  21. 21. Sections of the Brain <ul><li>Horizontal – a slice parallel to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal (coronal) – slicing bread or salami </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal – a midsagittal section separates the left and right halves </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  22. 22. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  23. 23. The Spinal Cord <ul><li>Gray matter – inner component – primarily cell bodies </li></ul><ul><li>White matter – outer – mainly myelinated axons </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal – afferent, sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral – efferent, motor </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  24. 24. The Five Divisions of the Brain Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  25. 25. The Five Divisions of the Brain Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  26. 26. Major Structures of the Brain <ul><li>Myelencephalon = medulla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed largely of tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin of the reticular formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metencephalon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons – ventral surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum - coordination </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  27. 27. Major Structures of the Brain <ul><li>Mesencephalon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tectum (dorsal surface) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior colliculi – audition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior colliculi - vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tegmentum (ventral) – 3 ‘colorful’ structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periaqueductal gray – analgesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantia nigra – sensorimotor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red nucleus– sensorimotor </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  28. 28. Major Structures of the Brain <ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus – sensory relay nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of motivated behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls hormone release by the pituitary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Telencephalon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal ganglia </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  29. 29. Telencephalon – Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Convolutions serve to increase surface area. </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal fissure – a groove that separates right and left hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum – largest hemisphere-connecting tract </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  30. 30. Consider this.. <ul><li>Why would evolution have favored fitting more brain into less space, as opposed to the brain simply getting bigger and bigger? </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  31. 31. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  32. 32. Telencephalon – Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>About 90% of human cerebral cortex is neocortex . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neocortex consists of 6 distinct layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of cortical neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramidal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stellate </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  33. 33. Limbic System <ul><li>Regulation of motivated behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>“ a circuit of midline structures that circle the thalamus” </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive cortex - hippocampus and cingulated cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcortical structures - mammillary bodies, amygdala, fornix, septum </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  34. 34. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  35. 35. Basal Ganglia <ul><li>Subcortical structures that play an important role in voluntary movement </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala, striatum (caudate + putamen), globus pallidus </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to pathway from striatum to midbrain seen in Parkinson’s disease </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon
  36. 36. Copyright © 2007 by Allyn and Bacon

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