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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOPSYCHOLOGY  HOW BIOPSYCHOLOGISTS THINK ABOUT BEHAVIOR COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON <ul...
CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW <ul><li>What is Biopsychology? </li></ul><ul><li>Human Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Genetics...
CONSIDER THIS.. <ul><li>Does the brain have the capacity to understand something as complex as itself? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT...
FOUR MAJOR THEMES <ul><li>Thinking Clearly about Biopsychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting the text to real life </li...
WHAT IS BIOPSYCHOLOGY? <ul><li>“ the scientific study of the biology of behavior” </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as behavior...
BIOPSYCHOLOGY IS AN INTEGRATIVE DISCIPLINE  <ul><li>Knowledge from other disciplines of neuroscience is applied to the stu...
OTHER DISCIPLINES OF NEUROSCIENCE <ul><li>Neuroanatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of the nervous system </li></ul></u...
OTHER DISCIPLINES OF NEUROSCIENCE <ul><li>Neuropathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous system disorders </li></ul></ul><ul...
BEHAVIOR IS THE PRODUCT OF INTERACTIONS AMONG: <ul><li>Genes (“genetic endowment”, nature) </li></ul><ul><li>Experience (n...
HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>While Darwin was not the 1 st  to propose that species evolve, he was the 1 st  to compile support...
HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Darwin’s evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil evidence of evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No...
EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR <ul><li>Just as physical features can contribute to “fitness”, so do behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Evolution does not proceed in a single line </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have only been...
THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Evolution is a tinkerer, not an architect – results are not perfect </li></ul><ul><...
THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Not all existing adaptive characteristics evolved to perform their current function...
THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Homologous structures – similar structures due to a common evolutionary origin </li...
EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN <ul><li>There is no relationship between brain size and intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Brain ...
EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN <ul><li>Brain stem regulates reflex activities that are critical for survival </li></ul><ul><...
EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN <ul><li>The human brain has increased in size during evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the ...
EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
BIOPSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVES BOTH HUMAN AND NONHUMAN SUBJECTS <ul><li>Why would we look at rats, mice, and nonhuman ...
WHY USE NONHUMAN SUBJECTS? <ul><li>While some questions about behavior can only be addressed using human subjects, much ca...
WHY USE NONHUMAN SUBJECTS? <ul><li>Simpler brains makes it more likely that brain-behavior interactions will be revealed <...
FUNDAMENTAL GENETICS <ul><li>Dichotomous traits – occur in one form or another, not normally in combination </li></ul><ul>...
MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Crossed a line bred true for brown seeds with one bred true for white </li></ul><ul><li>First...
MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>True-breeding lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White (ww) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown (BB) </...
MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Phenotype – observable traits </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype – traits present in the genes </li><...
MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>1 st  generation Bw </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd  generation consists of individuals that are BB, B...
MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Each inherited factor is a gene </li></ul><ul><li>Two genes that control the same trait are c...
CHROMOSOMES AND REPRODUCTION <ul><li>Genes are located on chromosomes in the  nucleus  of each cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Hum...
CHROMOSOMES AND REPRODUCTION <ul><li>Gametes, eggs and sperm, are produced by meiosis  </li></ul><ul><li>When egg and sper...
SEX CHROMOSOMES AND SEX-LINKED TRAITS <ul><li>Sex chromosomes, X and Y, look different and carry different genes </li></ul...
SEX CHROMOSOMES AND SEX-LINKED TRAITS <ul><li>Color-blindness – a recessive sex-linked trait </li></ul><ul><li>Who is more...
CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION <ul><li>Each chromosome is a double-stranded molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ...
CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION <ul><li>Replication of each strand must occur prior to mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Erro...
COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
THE GENETIC CODE AND GENE EXPRESSION <ul><li>Structural genes – code for synthesis of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Operator ...
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT: WHAT’S NEXT? <ul><li>Why don’t we now have all the answers? </li></ul><ul><li>How genes interact wit...
THINKING ABOUT THE BIOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR: MIND-BRAIN AND NATURE-NURTURE ISSUES <ul><li>The mind-brain issue </li></ul><ul><u...
THE MIND-BRAIN ISSUE <ul><li>Dualism – human brain and mind are separate </li></ul><ul><li>While we generally accept that ...
CONSIDER THIS.. <ul><li>What evidence is there that mind and brain are one? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
THE NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE <ul><li>Is it inherited or is it learned? </li></ul><ul><li>Watson – father of behaviorism – beli...
CONSIDER THIS.. <ul><li>Is the “nature-nurture” debate alive today? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
THE NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE <ul><li>Behavior is impacted by factors other than genetics (nature) or learning (nurture) </li><...
THE HERITABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES <ul><li>What conclusions can be made, if any about the heritability of individu...
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Pinel basics ch01

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  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOPSYCHOLOGY HOW BIOPSYCHOLOGISTS THINK ABOUT BEHAVIOR COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW <ul><li>What is Biopsychology? </li></ul><ul><li>Human Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking about the Biology of Behavior: Mind-Brain and Nature-Nurture Issues </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  3. 3. CONSIDER THIS.. <ul><li>Does the brain have the capacity to understand something as complex as itself? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  4. 4. FOUR MAJOR THEMES <ul><li>Thinking Clearly about Biopsychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting the text to real life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical Implications </li></ul><ul><li>The Evolutionary Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The comparative approach – what can we learn from other species? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting brain activity and cognition </li></ul></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  5. 5. WHAT IS BIOPSYCHOLOGY? <ul><li>“ the scientific study of the biology of behavior” </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as behavioral neuroscience, behavioral biology, psychobiology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology: the scientific study of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Hebb (1949) proposed that psychological phenomena might be produced by brain activity </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  6. 6. BIOPSYCHOLOGY IS AN INTEGRATIVE DISCIPLINE <ul><li>Knowledge from other disciplines of neuroscience is applied to the study of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Each discipline studies a different aspect of the nervous system that informs our understanding of what produces and controls behavior </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  7. 7. OTHER DISCIPLINES OF NEUROSCIENCE <ul><li>Neuroanatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of the nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurochemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical bases of neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuroendocrinology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system </li></ul></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  8. 8. OTHER DISCIPLINES OF NEUROSCIENCE <ul><li>Neuropathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous system disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuropharmacology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of drugs on neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions and activities of the nervous system </li></ul></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  9. 9. BEHAVIOR IS THE PRODUCT OF INTERACTIONS AMONG: <ul><li>Genes (“genetic endowment”, nature) </li></ul><ul><li>Experience (nurture) </li></ul><ul><li>Perception of the current situation </li></ul><ul><li>The brain – where these 3 factors interact </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  10. 10. HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>While Darwin was not the 1 st to propose that species evolve, he was the 1 st to compile supporting evidence and to suggest how evolution works </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin presented 3 kinds of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>The most convincing evidence comes from direct observation of evolution in progress </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  11. 11. HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Darwin’s evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil evidence of evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noted structural similarities among living species, suggesting common ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of selective breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct observation of evolution in progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant (1991) – finches of the Galapagos islands changed dramatically after a single season of drought </li></ul></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  12. 12. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR <ul><li>Just as physical features can contribute to “fitness”, so do behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to find food, avoid predation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Social dominance and courtship displays </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  13. 13. THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Evolution does not proceed in a single line </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have only been around for a brief period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid evolutionary changes do occur </li></ul><ul><li>< 1% of all known species are still in existence </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  14. 14. THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Evolution is a tinkerer, not an architect – results are not perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Not all existing behaviors or structures are adaptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spandrels – incidental non-adaptive by-products (such as the human belly button) </li></ul></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  15. 15. THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Not all existing adaptive characteristics evolved to perform their current function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaptions – evolved to do one thing, but now do something else (such as bird wings) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similarities among species do not necessarily mean that the species have common origins </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  16. 16. THINKING ABOUT HUMAN EVOLUTION <ul><li>Homologous structures – similar structures due to a common evolutionary origin </li></ul><ul><li>Analogous structures – similar structures without a common origin </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution – the evolution of similar solutions to the same enivironmental demands by unrelated species </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  17. 17. EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN <ul><li>There is no relationship between brain size and intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Brain size is generally correlated with body size </li></ul><ul><li>More informative to look at relative size of different brain regions </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  18. 18. EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN <ul><li>Brain stem regulates reflex activities that are critical for survival </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum is involved in complex adaptive processes such as learning, perception, and motivation </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  19. 19. EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN <ul><li>The human brain has increased in size during evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the increase in size has occurred in one region - the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Increased convolutions in the cerebrum have increased the volume of the cerebral cortex </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  20. 20. EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  21. 21. BIOPSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVES BOTH HUMAN AND NONHUMAN SUBJECTS <ul><li>Why would we look at rats, mice, and nonhuman primates to further our understanding of the human brain? </li></ul><ul><li>How different are you and a rat? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  22. 22. WHY USE NONHUMAN SUBJECTS? <ul><li>While some questions about behavior can only be addressed using human subjects, much can be learned from studying the brains of other species </li></ul><ul><li>Differences are more quantitative (relating to size) than qualitative (relating to function) </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  23. 23. WHY USE NONHUMAN SUBJECTS? <ul><li>Simpler brains makes it more likely that brain-behavior interactions will be revealed </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative approach – gain insight by making comparisons with other species </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer ethical restrictions </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  24. 24. FUNDAMENTAL GENETICS <ul><li>Dichotomous traits – occur in one form or another, not normally in combination </li></ul><ul><li>True-breeding lines – interbred members always produce offspring with the same traits </li></ul><ul><li>Mendel studied dichotomous traits in true-breeding lines of pea plants </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  25. 25. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Crossed a line bred true for brown seeds with one bred true for white </li></ul><ul><li>First generation offspring all had brown seeds </li></ul><ul><li>When the first generation were bred, the result was ¾ brown and ¼ white seeds </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  26. 26. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>True-breeding lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White (ww) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown (BB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown was the dominant trait, appearing in all of the 1 st generation offspring (Bw) </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  27. 27. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Phenotype – observable traits </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype – traits present in the genes </li></ul><ul><li>If the dominant trait is present in the genotype (Bw), it will be observed in the phenotype (brown seeds) </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  28. 28. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>1 st generation Bw </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd generation consists of individuals that are BB, Bw, and ww </li></ul><ul><li>BB, Bw = brown </li></ul><ul><li>ww = white </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON ww Bw w Bw BB B w B
  29. 29. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Each inherited factor is a gene </li></ul><ul><li>Two genes that control the same trait are called alleles </li></ul><ul><li>Homozygous – 2 identical alleles (BB, ww) </li></ul><ul><li>Heterozygous – 2 different alleles (Bw) </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  30. 30. CHROMOSOMES AND REPRODUCTION <ul><li>Genes are located on chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with an allele on each chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis – a process of cell division that yields cells with just 23 chromosomes </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  31. 31. CHROMOSOMES AND REPRODUCTION <ul><li>Gametes, eggs and sperm, are produced by meiosis </li></ul><ul><li>When egg and sperm combine to form a fertilized egg (zygote), 23 pairs of chromosomes are again present </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis – a form of cell division that yields daughter cells that have 23 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  32. 32. SEX CHROMOSOMES AND SEX-LINKED TRAITS <ul><li>Sex chromosomes, X and Y, look different and carry different genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female = XX, Male = XY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex-linked traits - influenced by genes on the sex chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant traits on the X chromosome will be seen more commonly in females, recessive ones in males </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  33. 33. SEX CHROMOSOMES AND SEX-LINKED TRAITS <ul><li>Color-blindness – a recessive sex-linked trait </li></ul><ul><li>Who is more likely to be color-blind? </li></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  34. 34. CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION <ul><li>Each chromosome is a double-stranded molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Each strand consists of a sequence of nucleotide bases – their sequence constitutes the genetic code </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  35. 35. CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION <ul><li>Replication of each strand must occur prior to mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Errors may occur </li></ul><ul><li>Each strand consists of a sequence of nucleotide bases – their sequence constitutes the genetic code </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  36. 36. COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  37. 37. COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  38. 38. THE GENETIC CODE AND GENE EXPRESSION <ul><li>Structural genes – code for synthesis of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Operator genes – control a structural gene or a group of structural genes </li></ul><ul><li>Operator genes control gene expression </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  39. 39. HUMAN GENOME PROJECT: WHAT’S NEXT? <ul><li>Why don’t we now have all the answers? </li></ul><ul><li>How genes interact with one another and experience is still not clear. </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  40. 40. THINKING ABOUT THE BIOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR: MIND-BRAIN AND NATURE-NURTURE ISSUES <ul><li>The mind-brain issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the mind and brain one and the same? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The nature-nurture issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What makes you how you are – genes or environment? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The genetics of individual differences </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  41. 41. THE MIND-BRAIN ISSUE <ul><li>Dualism – human brain and mind are separate </li></ul><ul><li>While we generally accept that mind and brain are really one today, there are some who still believe that some components of the mind are not just products of brain activity </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  42. 42. CONSIDER THIS.. <ul><li>What evidence is there that mind and brain are one? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  43. 43. THE NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE <ul><li>Is it inherited or is it learned? </li></ul><ul><li>Watson – father of behaviorism – believed that all behavior was the product of learning (nurture) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethology – the study of animal behavior in the wild – focused on instinctive behaviors, emphasizing nature </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  44. 44. CONSIDER THIS.. <ul><li>Is the “nature-nurture” debate alive today? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  45. 45. THE NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE <ul><li>Behavior is impacted by factors other than genetics (nature) or learning (nurture) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nurture” now encompasses learning and environment </li></ul><ul><li>While it is generally accepted that behavior is a product of nature and nurture, many still ask how much is determined by each </li></ul><ul><li>But genetic and experiential factors do not merely combine in an additive fashion </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
  46. 46. THE HERITABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES <ul><li>What conclusions can be made, if any about the heritability of individual differences? </li></ul><ul><li>What would a biological psychologist say about what makes you who and how you are? </li></ul>COPYRIGHT © 2007 BY ALLYN AND BACON
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