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Gender chapter 1

Gender chapter 1



Communication 385, Chapter 1, CSULA

Communication 385, Chapter 1, CSULA



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    Gender chapter 1 Gender chapter 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 1:Communication 385
    • Research on Gender, Comm.,& CultureResearch on gender from range of fields Communication Anthropology Philosophy History Psychology Sociology
    • Studying Communication,Gender, & CultureLearning about communication, gender, and culture: Enhances appreciation of ways culture influences views
    • Research on Gender, Comm.,& CultureQuantitative research methods Data that can be quantified and analyzed  Descriptive statistics  Surveys  Experiments
    • Research on Gender, Comm.,& CultureQualitative research methods/ interpretive methods Understand nature of meaning or experiences  Textual analysis  Ethnography
    • Research on Gender, Comm.,& CultureCritical research methods Identify and challenge inequities and problems
    • Learn About Comm., Gender,&Learning about communication, gender, and Culture culture: Enhances appreciation of cultural complexities Enhances insight to your own gender
    • Learn About Comm., Gender,& CultureLearning about communication, gender, and culture: Strengthens effectiveness as communicator
    • Gender in a Transitional EraProbably don’t prescribe to grandparents’ idealsLikely are confused about gender issues
    • Gender in a Transitional EraOn one level Think women and men equalOn another level May hold traditional valuesLive in a transitional era
    • Differences between Women& MenDifficult to find language to discuss patterns of communication Women and men troublesome  Imply all can be grouped together
    • Differences betweenWomen & MenEssentializing Tendency to reduce to characteristics assume are essential in every member of category Presume all members of sex alike
    • Differences betweenWomen & MenEssentializing Obscures range of individual characteristics Book’s generalizations do not imply essentializing
    • Gender, Culture, &CommunicationSex, gender, sexual orientation, culture, communication interlinked Cannot study one without understanding others
    • SexSex = designation based on biologyGender = socially constructed and expressed Sex and gender usually go together Can be inconsistent
    • SexMale or female based on external genitalia and internal sex organsGenitalia and sex markers determined by chromosomes
    • SexY chromosome determines how fetus develops Females usually have XX Males usually have XY
    • SexOccasional variation XO XXX, XXY, XYY XY and XX
    • SexAll have cells with at least one X Males typically have one X  More vulnerable to X-linked recessive conditions
    • SexSome born with biological characteristics of each sex Traditionally called hermaphrodites Today intersexed preferred  Learn more at: http://www.itpeople.org/
    • SexHormones influence development ◦ Fetuses with Y bathed in androgens  Development of male sex organs ◦ Fetuses without Y - fewer androgens  Development of female sex organs
    • SexFemale fetus may be exposed to excessive progesterone May not develop female genitaliaMale fetus may be deprived of progesterone Male genitalia may not develop
    • SexInfluence of hormones continues throughout lifetime Males more sensitive to hormonal activityBiology influences how develop but doesn’t determine behavior or personality
    • GenderGender Neither innate nor necessarily stable Defined by society Expressed by individuals as they interact with others and media
    • GenderGender changes over timeBorn male or female (sex)Learn to act masculine and/or feminine (gender)
    • GenderGender identity: Person’s own identification as male or female
    • GenderGender depends on society’s values, In America  Masculine = strong, successful, rational, emotionally controlled  Feminine = attractive, nurturing, deferential, expressive
    • GenderFrom infancy, encouraged to learn how to embody gender that society prescribes
    • GenderGender grows out of cultural ideas that stipulate social meaning and expectationsSociety’s views permeate public and private life See as normal, natural, right
    • GenderNot passive recipientsMake choices to accept, modify, or reject Views challenged by people who define themselves as trans or gender queer
    • GenderMeanings of gender also changed by: Personal communication Role models Interactions with friendsReciprocal relationship between communication and cultural views
    • GenderUphold or remake meanings of masculinity or femininity 1970s – androgyny coined  Androgynous individuals embody qualities considered both feminine and masculine
    • GenderMeanings of gender can vary across cultures: New Guinea – three genders Arapesh – all feminine Mundugumor – all aggressive Tchambuli – gender reversal
    • GenderBody ideals for women socially constructed Current Western culture values thinness
    • Gender• 1950s – fuller-figures preferred• See photos of Marilyn Monroe at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marilyn_Monroe• Some cultures regard heavier women as beautiful
    • GenderSome cultures view person’s gender as changeableSome Native American groups – more than two genders These individuals esteemed
    • GenderIn U.S., gender varies across racial-ethnic groups African American women more assertive African American men more communal
    • GenderSocial meaning of gender varies over time Prior to Industrial Revolution – family and work intertwined Industrial Revolution – division into spheres of work and home  Femininity and masculinity redefined
    • GenderMeaning changes over time Social context changes and affects sense of identityRelational concept Femininity and masculinity make sense in relation  As meanings of one changes – so do meanings of other
    • Beyond Sex & GenderCan also define self in terms of: Sexual orientation Transgendered TranssexualSociety assumes connections between these categories
    • Beyond Sex & GenderSexual orientation Preference for romantic and sexual partners  Heterosexual  Gay  Lesbian  Bisexual
    • Beyond Sex & GenderOther cultures’ views of sexual orientation challenge U.S. views Sambia in Melanesia Ancient Greece Victorian society
    • Beyond Sex & GenderChanging views of gender and sex Intersexed individuals  Biological characteristics of male and female
    • Beyond Sex & Gender ◦ Transgendered individuals  Biological sex inconsistent with identity  Often dress and adopt behaviors of gender with which identify
    • Beyond Sex & GenderTranssexual individuals Surgery and/or hormonal treatments  Posttransition males to females  Posttransition females to males
    • Beyond Sex & GenderMTF – Deidre McCloskeyFTM – Thomas Beatie Gave birth to a child
    • Beyond Sex & GenderCross-dressers/transvestites Enjoy wearing clothing of other sex Varying motivations Majority biological, heterosexual males, attracted to women
    • Beyond Sex & GenderTransgendered, transsexed, and intersexed people challenge dualities
    • CultureCulture = structures, institutions, practices that reflect and uphold social orderUpheld by defining certain groups, values, expectations, as good
    • CultureSurrounded by communication that announces social views of gender Women give up name in marriage Judicial systemWestern culture is patriarchal
    • CultureMessages that reinforce culture views pervade lives Seldom pause to reflect Take for granted Don’t questionLearning to reflect empowers Increases freedom to choose
    • CommunicationCommunication is dynamic Continually changes, evolvesProcess No beginnings or endings
    • Communication is SystemicMore than context affects meaningAll aspects of communication are interlinkedInfluenced by how we feelTime of day, etc. may influence
    • Communication is SystemicLargest system affecting communication is cultureSocieties’ views of men and women change over timeSystems interact – each part affects all others
    • Communication is SystemicCommunication has two levels: Content level of meaning  Literal meaning Relationship level of meaning  Tell how to interpret content and how communicators see themselves in relationship
    • Meanings Created throughInteraction with SymbolsHumans symbol-using creaturesHave to think to figure out what symbol meansSymbols can be ambiguousMore than one meaning
    • Meanings Created throughInteraction with SymbolsSignificance of communication not in words themselvesCommunicating increases meanings
    • Meanings Created throughInteraction with SymbolsVerbal and nonverbal behaviors not neutralMeaning arises from interpretation
    • Meanings Created throughInteraction with SymbolsDifferences in interpretation are sources of misunderstandingCan become more effective: Ask for clarification Check to see how others are interpreting us