The presentation was a collaboration by the members of the Green Team. They include Adrian Olson, who holds a Bachelors of Science in Applied Economics and Business Management from Cornell University; Ken Schefter, a graduate of Kansas State University with a Bachelors of Science in Business Management; Brandi Shepard, who holds a Bachelors of Science in Architecture; with a Construction Management concentration from The Catholic University of America, School of Architecture and Planning; Craig Thomas, a graduate of Sheldon Jackson College with a Bachelors of Science in Aquatic Resources and Lois Trongard, a graduate from the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee with a Bachelors of Business Administration in Accounting.
This presentation will focus on Iceland’s limited resources as it relates to their high success in sustainability. The country, which has a smaller land mass, and has less population than most countries, has emerged as one of the sustainability leaders of the world. The mission of this presentation will detail Iceland’s sustainable initiatives as it integrates the country’s history in each of the respective sectors including: Mindset of the Icelandic people, which permeates how they liveRole of their government in achieving the voice of its peopleIceland’s economic practices to ensure resource managementNatural Resources used for energy and why they are sustainableConservation practices in the environment and tourism
The people of Iceland have had their national character influenced by centuries of isolation, hardship, and being members of a small homogenous population. With a population of only 313,000, Iceland is a tight-knit nation where everyone seems to know each other and if not, there’re likely to be distantly related. Icelandic people are very family-centric, often with multiple families living near each other, or on the same farm. The major symbols of Icelandicness are the language and geography, centered on the beauty of the landscape. Many people know the names of the farms of their ancestors and can name fjords and hills. Consequently, the map in the civic center in Reykjavík has no place names because it is assumed that people know them. The nationalist-oriented ideology stresses identification with medieval culture and times, while downplaying slavery and later exploitative relations of the aristocracy and commoners.This romantic view of the saga tradition informs nationalist symbolism and nationalist-influenced folklore. There is a whole genre of romantic landscape poetry depicting the beauty of the island.The folkloristic tradition contains many stories of trolls, among them the ones that come from the wastelands to eat children at Christmas and their twelve sons who play pranks on people. Various features of landscape are associated with stories recorded in the official folklore.
The working class identified with national political movements and parties, thus helped ratify the elite's vision of Iceland. The ideology developed by members of the farming elite was one of the individual, the holiness and purity of the countryside, and the moral primacy of the farm and farmers. This viewpoint is carried into the political arena within the Progressive Party. This party is composed primarily of Farmers and its platform is focused predominately on agrarian issues. The most significant individuals were the farmers. This ideology was perpetuated in academic writings, schools, and law. Foreign scholars and anthropologists, along with local folklorists, created a bureaucratic folklorism that considered the intellectual superior to the rural people and the rural people as the most superior of all exotics. Such constructs could not be perpetuated as most people abandoned the countryside in favor of fishing villages and wage work or salaried positions in Reykjavík. Icelanders generalized and democratized the concept of the elite and combined it with competitive consumerism. This led to a new cultural context that weakened the ideology of the farmer elite. The main ideological task of the independence movement was to develop a paradigm that would prove that the nationalistic power struggle would change the lives of ordinary people. The past and the countryside were emphasized as pure, while working people in the cities were considered trash. The folklore movement displaced discussions of competition for power to earlier times and reduced diversity to uniformity in service of the state. As the population grew and the economy turned more toward fishing in the coastal towns and villages, farmers lost their economic place. The main goal of the nationalist ideology that the elite promulgated was to preserve the old order. The glory of the sagas was held up as a model, and certain celebrations were revived to emphasize the connection. However, today most Icelanders live in the area of the capital, and their culture is international. Until recently, social life was centered on households and there was little public life in restaurants, cafés, or bars. There is a thriving consumer economy. People are guaranteed the right to work, health care, housing, retirement, and education. Thus, there is no particular need to save. People therefore purchase homes, country houses, cars, and consumer goods to stock them. Private consumption in 1993 reached $10,600 per capita. The people of Iceland have long lived in an isolated part of the world with only themselves to depend on. Icelanders have a reputation as tough, hardy, seafaring types. Icelanders are self-confident, self-reliant, and independent thinkers. Icelanders have been fortunate and innovative enough to live on an island with abundant resources. However the resources available are limited, forcing Icelanders to actively conserve local resources in order to thrive for the past 1500 years. There is a lack of extreme stratification in a country that values egalitarian relationships.
Since independence, there has been a high standard of living. From 1901 to 1960, real national income rose tenfold, with an annual average growth rate over 4 percent. This was the period in which the national economy was transformed from a rural economy based on independent farms to a capitalist fishing economy with attendant urbanization.The Relative Status of Women and Men. There is more gender equality than there is in many other countries. The open nature of the political system allows interested women to organize as a political party to pursue their interests in the parliament. There are women clergy. Fishing is largely in the hands of men, while women are more prominent in fish processing. The people of Iceland are infamous for their rigid work ethic, and the country has one of the longest workweeks in Europe. Many people have two jobs, and kids typically spend summers working odd jobs to save extra money. Productivity is perhaps the single most pervasive aspect of the national character, a fundamental source of self-respect and well-being. In Norse mythology, they are known as the valkyries - the beautiful and powerful women of Odin who escort slain warriors to the heavenly gates of Valhalla. In modern-day Iceland, the term has become interchangeable with the Icelandic women themselves who, with the 1980 election of Vigdis Finnbogadottir as one the world's first female head of state, have pioneered a culture where inequality between the sexes is shrinking every day. Currently, Iceland’s prime minister is JóhannaSigurðardóttir, is the world’s first openly gay government leader. Icelandic women like to say that their independence comes from a long history of having to tame the land while their men were off at sea, but whatever the explanation, this is not a country where you will find many women staying in the house. In fact, 90 percent of Iceland's women have jobs outside the home, and many of them, including former President Finnbogadottir (she retired in 1996) are single mothers. Unlike what they do in most western cultures, women in Iceland do not change their last names when they get married - a fact that sometimes confuses outsiders. A perfect example of the kind of no-nonsense, in-your-face feminism that takes place here occurred in 1975, when the women of Iceland decided that they would mark the beginning of the United Nations Women's Decade by going on strike. For a whole day, the country essentially ceased to functionPart of what supports this work is heavy consumerism. Icelanders like to spend their money. If you visit a typical household, you'll see plenty of useless goods, and more books per capita than anywhere else (they actually hold the world record for book ownership) Accomplishments and diverse thinking by Icelanders have allowed this independent nation to thrive and develop into world leaders in understanding their ecological system.Today the population center of Iceland is Reykjavik. It is one of the most modern cities in the world, with a strong creative air, and the feeling that anything is possible.
Iceland, only recently becoming independent after the second World War, has had a long standing government. The Althing is the world’s oldest democratic parliament, founded in 930 AD. (Althing, 2008). Since the colonization of Iceland, the country spent much of their history under to control of foreign governments. In 1262, Iceland came under the rule of the Kingdom of Norway. In 1380 Norway and Denmark formed an alliance with Denmark taking a leadership position with regards to the rule of Iceland. In 1814, the Alliance between Denmark and Norway came to an end. Denmark retained control over Iceland. Iceland began a movement towards some self-rule when a limited self-rule agreement was signed with Denmark in 1874. From that point forward Iceland largely had control over their government and policies within their own borders. Denmark continued to represent Iceland’s interests in all matters of trade and foreign relations. June 16, 1944 Iceland formally gained their independence. This was largely a byproduct of the events of World War II and Germany’s occupation of Denmark. Germany’s occupation of Denmark effectively severed all communication between Denmark and Iceland. This event allowed Iceland to act on clauses in their agreements previously signed with Denmark to formally state their independence. Politically Icelanders were able to maintain a sense of independence through all the years of foreign rule because they were able to maintain The Althing. (Their parliamentary body). Having their own functioning government allowed them to maintain a spirit of independence even when governed by others.The political changes since Iceland’s independence in 1944 are easily recognized through the various political parties. The Progressive Party is the oldest of the parties in power and represents the views predominantly of the two big areas in Iceland, agriculture and fishing. The next oldest party is the Independence Party with its center-right politics. The Independence Party has been the most successful party in parliamentary elections, winning every election held from 1944-2007. Like most parliamentary governments no one party is strong enough to rule. They have to form a coalition with at least one other party in order to establish a majority and govern. For many years the Independence party would join with the Progressive party to achieve a majority.The newest parties are the Social Democratic Alliance and the Left-Green Parties. The Social Democratic Alliance was formed by a merging of all the center-left political parties in existence in 1999. Many individual members of these parties did not agree with the platform of the Social Democratic Alliance and formed their own party the Left-Green Party. (Trade Council Of Iceland, N.D.)
The most interesting political story in Iceland has occurred during the last decade. In 1999 all the left and center-left parties in the country met to discuss the possibility of banding together. The left side of the political spectrum was so fractured that they could never manage a victory over the Independence Party. The smaller center-left parties agreed to band together forming the Social Democratic Alliance. The center-left party members that did not agree with the platform of the SDA formed their own party the Left-Green Party As you can see from the numbers on the slide the Social Democratic Party solidified their positions within parliament, and has maintained a steady presence in The Althing. The rising star appears to be the Left-Green party. This is the one party in Iceland that puts “Green” front and center in their name and their political platform. As you can see from recent elections they have made the most gains in parliament. In 2009, the center-left political parties won their first ever parliamentary election since Iceland gained its independence in 1944. The Social Democratic Party won with the election with 20 seats taken out of a possible 63. The Left-Green party took second with 14 seats. The Social Democratic Party joined with the Left-Green party to form the ruling coalition party at the present time. (Wikipedia, 2009).
Some of the impressive features of Iceland’s economy prior to the financial crisis were high, consistent growth rates, low unemployment and low inflation. In 2008, three of Iceland’s large private banks failed and were taken into government administration.“However, the foundations of the Icelandic economy remain strong and Iceland is moving towards economic recovery with multilateral assistance from the International Monetary Fund playing a key role. Iceland’s clean energy, it’s marine resources, strong infrastructure and well educated workforce, provide a firm basis to overcome the current economic difficulties and implement necessary reforms” (Iceland.org, 2010)The main underpinnings of Iceland’s economy are their natural resources. The primary resources are hydro and geothermal energy, fishing and agriculture. Iceland is self sufficient in the production of eggs, dairy products, meat and fish and to some extent vegetables. Some of the other sectors that contribute to Iceland’s economy are heavy industry and information technology services.
There is no national grid in Iceland – harnessing the energy comes via the remarkably simple method of sticking a drill in the ground near one of the country's 600 hot spring areas, and using the steam that is released to turn the turbines and pump up water that is then piped to nearby settlements (Aldred, 2008).
The government believes that utilizing geothermal energy for heating saves Iceland $100 million in imported fossil fuels each year, and also means less CO2 emissions. It also estimates that the total release of CO2 in the country is cut by nearly 40% if the geothermal energy used for heating homes in one year is equivalent to the heat obtained from the burning of 646,000 metric tons of oil, (Aldred, 2008). But because Iceland's fishing fleet, cars and buses run on oil and gasoline, it is one of the highest per capita greenhouse gas emitters in Europe. Research is underway on how to use geothermal electricity to split hydrogen from water, and then to use hydrogen fuel cells to power the country's vehicles and fishing fleet (Aldred, 2008). If this is achieved, Iceland would be 100% powered by renewable energy and self-sufficient. Extensive distribution of hot water to heat homes began in the capital in 1930. Iceland began to exploit these natural resources into the 1940s, but was still getting 75% of its energy from coal until the oil crisis of the1970s (Aldred, 2008). This forced the government to alter its energy policy, focusing on hydropower and geothermal heat. It put funding and resources into searching for new geothermal resource areas, and built new heating services and transmission pipelines from thermal fields into towns, villages and farms. Iceland was transformed from one of the poorest countries in the European Economic Area to one of the most productive in the world in terms of GDP per capita and quality of life rankings because of the estimated $8.2 billion saved over 30 years by switching from oil to geothermal energy (Aldred, 2008).
This YouTube video presents Iceland’s clean energy approach by harnessing the “fire within the earth”. CNN’s Charles Hodson discusses geothermal energy with Oiafar Grimsson, Iceland’s current president.
Fish and fish products are the most important industry in Iceland. The fishing industry is 7% of gross domestic product, employs 4.1% of the workforce, and represents 1.4 million tons of fish worth 128 billion dollars. Because Icelanders use very few chemicals on their crops and the population is so small they have very little pollution in their waters.Iceland has a catch limitation system in place that limits the total catch and prevents overfishing of the fish stock. Iceland believes effective marine resource management is a cornerstone to the sustainability of a large sector of their economy.
Iceland is primarily a country whose economy is based upon food production. At the present time there are 3800 farms but the numbers are decreasing. Most farms have been in the same families for generations and 75% of farmers own their land. The government’s main purpose in developing agriculture is to make Iceland self sufficient in food production since it is vital to the nation’s security.Iceland is self sufficient in the production of meat, dairy product, eggs and certain vegetables. Farms in Iceland are highly mechanized using the latest production technology. The main animals raised are cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. Most full time farmers belong to the Farmers Association of Iceland. A representative board of farmers fix the prices of milk, beef and sheep. Interestingly enough, many of the farmers are becoming involved with eco-tourism. Iceland produces a number of commercial crops using greenhouse production methods. They currently have 180,000 meters under glass. The greenhouses are built close to geothermal energy to use as a heat source. The predominate crops are tomatoes, cucumbers, green peppers, roses, gerberas, lilies and potted plants. There is no pollution from chemical fertilizers since they use insects and mites for pest control of crops. In the winter the demand for vegetables and flowers is met by importing large quantities of these products. Fruit cannot be grown in Iceland with the exception of blueberries so all fruit is imported.In the beginning there were very few shrubs, trees and plants being produced. Today production of plants amount to five million plants per year.
Heavy industry in Iceland includes it’s competitively priced and renewable hydro and geothermal energy, aluminum, ferro-silicon, fishing machinery and equipment for the fishing industry. Forty percent of the exported products comes from the export of aluminum and alloy products. Most of these exports go to the European Union.Another up and coming industry in Iceland is the service industry. Icelandic firms provide software solutions and information technology services to many large international companies. Export of expertise and a variety of high tech products count for a large portion of the national foreign currency. Icelanders love their technology, being one of the greatest computer users. Three fourths of the population have internet and 9 out of 10 people use cell phones. Their telecommunications system is the most sophisticated anywhere.
Iceland was over half covered in vegetation when it was first settled 1100 years ago (Geography of Iceland, n.d.). Due to livestock grazing, wood-cutting, farming, and climate deterioration, half has been damaged by erosion, bringing the total area covered in vegetation down to 23.1%. Icelandic Soil Conservation Service has been fighting erosion since 1907. Their goal is to revegetate sites totaling more than 2% of Iceland’s land area (The Environment in Iceland, n.d.). These efforts include reforestation, afforestation, reseeding, and fencing land to keep sheep out (Vegetation, n.d.). Nearly 97 million trees have been planted since organized afforestation efforts began in Iceland (Benassi, 2006). The aim of land reclamation is to conserve vegetation and soil, cultivate plants in barren areas, and fortify existing flora. All of these activities also serve to bind carbon from the atmosphere in vegetation and soil. In that way increased carbon sequestration will counteract increases in greenhouse gas emissions (Benassi, 2006). The fight to reverse erosion will remain a top environmental priority for decades to come (The Environment in Iceland, n.d.).
Almost half of the wetland areas that existed when Iceland was settled have been lost, destroying habitats and ecosystems for birds, small animals, and plants. Since 1993, drainage of lowland wetlands has virtually ceased. Attempts to reclaim wetland areas have been moderately successful, recovering about 500 hectares, or 1,235 acres over a 10 year period, between 1996 and 2005 (Benassi, 2006). The Icelandic government decided to consider wetland restoration as an option in reducing GHG emissions in its Climate Change Strategy for 2007-2050. This is one of several types of carbon sequestration tools in Iceland´s strategy for meeting Kyoto commitments, and subsequent higher targets (Why Iceland, 2008).
Iceland did not start protecting wilderness areas until 1930. In Fact, few existed prior to 1970. As it stands, 90 areas are protected, mostly under the Natural Protection Act. The total area protected is 11,000 km2, or 11% of the total area of the country. It has been determined that Iceland is 38% wilderness. A nature conservation plan will increase these numbers in the near future by close to 20% (Benassi, 2006).
Around 300 indigenous species of fish live in the ocean around Iceland, of which 20 of these species are from the bulk of the fishing industries catch, not including shrimp and lobster (Life in the Sea, n.d.). Freshwater fisheries are overseen by the government, but delegated to local fishing associations, such as the Icelandic Fishing Vessel owners Association. Starting in the late 1990’s, some fish species’ populations were declining due to overfishing. The government and Marine Research Institute implemented quotas and setting total allowable catches. The species’ covered have begun to rebound, however the shrimp population has been slow to recover (Benassi, 2006).
Iceland has one of the most naturally diverse portfolios of activities from nature in the world. It is richer in hot springs and high-temperature activity than any other country in the world. In the case of tourism, the hot springs are used for open-air-swimming pools and health spas. Inland tours are very popular for hiking, horseback riding, bird watching, and even 4x4 expeditions over the highlands (Leisure Activities in Iceland, n.d.). Iceland has three national parks, including the biggest in Europe that covers 11% of the country (National Parks, n.d.). Water activities are also very popular, including river rafting, fishing, and especially whale watching (Leisure Activities in Iceland, n.d.).
This YouTube video highlights Iceland’s unique geology that provides renewable energy to the country. It also discusses Iceland’s tourism industry, and how it has impacted the environment.
Iceland has no reserves of fossil fuels. In 1970, Bragi Arnason, nicknamed “Dr. Hydrogen”, proposed Iceland use geothermal, hydro, and wind energy to produce hydrogen to run all motorized vehicles, thereby eliminating fossil fuel imports, reduce its CO2 emissions per capita, strengthen the economy, and become the first country to run its economy 100% on renewable (G. Tyler Miller, 2007, p. 411). In 1999, a public-private consortium announced a plan to make this come true by 2050. In 2003, the world’s first commercial hydrogen filling station opened in Reykjavik and is used to fuel a fleet of hydrogen-powered buses. The next steps will be to run a test fleet of cars with fuel cells for government employees to use and then power all cars with fuel cells. Iceland’s size would allow the entire cars to travel across country with fuel cells by only building 16 hydrogen fueling stations. The last steps would be converting the fishing fleet and finally establishing an export market for its hydrogen to make it a net exporter of energy (G. Tyler Miller, 2007, p. 411).
Environmental challenges include how to manage the large numbers of visitors to the most popular attractions, especially the national parks and protected areas that are very sensitive to human traffic (Benassi, 2006). Whaling has become a very new challenge to the tourism industry. It was announced last year that Iceland will resume whaling, citing that it would be economically viable (Veal, 2010). This could cause serious harm to whale watching tours and Iceland’s reputation as a sustainable society. Another environmental challenge Iceland is facing is to balance the need to protect the unspoiled nature of their country and the exploitation of energy resources to attract business that will support their people and economy. In 2006, Iceland built a massive dam to harness the hydroelectric energy to power an Alcoa smelter plant, ultimately providing 400 jobs to Icelanders and revitalizing the baron eastern region of the country, but at the same time, putting 22 square miles of highland wilderness under water (Del Giudice, 2008).
In 2007, the latest data available for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Iceland’s total was 4,482 metric tons, excluding emissions from land use, land-use change, and forestry, or referred to as LULUCF (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2009). Based on the 2007 population of 311,000, this equates to 14.4 metric tons of GHG emissions per capita and is an increase of 31.8% from the 1990 baseline year (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2009). When emissions from LULUCF are taken into account, the total GHG emissions were 5694 metric tons, an increase of 16.1% from the 1990 baseline (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2009). By taking into account the LULUCF GHG emissions, which have decreased from 1,180 to 874 metric tons (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2009), the increase is smaller because of Iceland’s efforts at revegetation, afforestation, wetland reclamation, and land-use change. Iceland published a Climate Change Strategy in 2007, which has five main objectives. First, the government of Iceland will fulfill its obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. Second, greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced by 50-75% from the baseline 1990 levels by the year 2050, with special attention being paid to replacing fossil fuels. Third, the government will attempt to utilize carbon sequestration through by using revegetation, afforestation, wetland reclamation, and land-use changes. Fourth, the government will support research and innovations in fields related to climate change, and promote the exportation of Icelandic expertise in climate change and renewable energy technologies. Lastly, the government will make preparations for adaptation to climate change (Climate Change Strategy, 2007).
On behalf of the Green Team, we thank you for reviewing our presentation on Iceland: A study of sustainable initiatives. A list of references used to develop this presentation are cited in the following slides.
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Iceland: A Study of Sustainable Initiatives <br />Marylhurst University <br />SUS 500<br />Principles of Sustainability<br />
A collaboration of the SUS 500 B1 Green Team<br />Adrian Olson<br /> Cornell University <br /> Bachelors of Science in Applied Economics and Business Management<br />Ken Schefter<br /> Kansas State University<br /> Bachelors of Science in Business Management<br />Brandi Shepard<br /> The Catholic University of America<br /> Bachelors of Science in Architecture; Construction Management concentration<br />Craig Thomas<br /> Sheldon Jackson College<br /> Bachelors of Science in Aquatic Resources<br />Lois Trongard<br /> University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee<br /> Bachelors of Business Administration in Accounting<br />
Sustainability in Iceland<br />Scope of the Presentation:<br />Focus on Iceland’s limited resources as it relates to their high success in sustainability, marking them one of the sustainability leaders in the world. <br />Detail Iceland’s sustainable initiatives in each of the respective sectors including: <br />Mindset of the Icelandic people, permeating how they live<br />Role of government in achieving the voice of its people<br />Economic practices to ensure resource management<br />Natural resources used for energy and why they are sustainable<br />Conservation practices in the environment and tourism<br />
Understanding the People<br />The people of Iceland have always carried a rich, long lasting respect for the environment and own self well-being.<br />Symbolism in language and geography, centered on the beauty of the landscape<br />
Understanding the People<br />The people of Iceland have strong sense of national identity.<br />Working class is identified with national political movements and parties. <br />Icelanders are self-confident, self-reliant, independent thinkers, however they are also conservationists. <br />
Understanding the People<br />Indicators of historical and current events indicate the overall acceptance of sustainability and conservation.<br />This has been accomplished through social welfare and change programs<br />Gender equality<br />Ability to organize and assemble freely<br />
Voice of the Government<br />Iceland’s independence:<br />930 AD: Founding of the Althing (world’s oldest democratic parliament).<br />1262-1944: under control of Denmark or Norway.<br />June 16, 1944: full independence for Iceland.<br />Political Parties:<br />Progressive Party 1916.<br />Independence Party, 1929. <br />Social Democratic Alliance, 1999.<br />Left-Green Party, 1999. <br />
Voice of the Government<br />Recent Political Trends showing the rise of the Left-Green Party<br />
Mainstays of the economy are Iceland’s renewable natural resources:<br />Energy: Hydro and Geothermal<br />Marine Life: Rich Fishing Grounds<br />Agriculture: Pastureland/Green House Crops<br />Other Industry Resources:<br />Heavy Industry<br />Service - Information Technology <br />Economic Resources<br />
hydro and geothermal energy<br />Economic Resources<br />Per capita, energy consumption in Iceland is one of the highest in the world. <br />These are sustainable, environmentally friendly, ‘green’ resources, without the atmospheric emissions of fossil fuel. The energy infrastructure is state-of-the-art, using the latest technology, with great reliability and efficiency, and is ranked #1 in the world according to the IMD [International Institute for Management Development]. <br />Source: iceland.org (2010)<br />
Geothermal Energy<br />90% of Icelandic homes are heated with geothermal energy <br />Provides 20% of electric needed to support the country <br />Only 20% of all geothermal power available is harnessed. <br />Hydropower Energy<br />80% of the electricity generated is by using hydropower and only 20-25% of all hydropower available is harnessed.<br />hydro and geothermal energy<br />Economic Resources<br />
This YouTube video presents Iceland’s clean energy approach by harnessing the “fire within the earth”. CNN’s Charles Hodson discusses geothermal energy with OiafarGrimsson, Iceland’s current president. <br />If you are unable to view the video, click here. <br />
Marine Products: Fish and fish products constitute half of all Iceland’s exports.<br />7% of it is gross domestic product <br />Employs 4.1% of the workforce<br />Primary types of fish exported are cod, haddock, saithe, redfish, herring and capelin<br />The fish harvested represents 1.4 million tons worth 128 billion dollars<br />marine life<br />Economic Resources<br />
Economic Resources<br />Agriculture:<br />Self sufficient in the production of meat, dairy products, eggs and certain vegetables. <br />Animals:<br />Farms are highly mechanized and use the latest farming technology. <br />Main animals raised are cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. <br />Greenhouse Crops:<br />Growth of crops using greenhouse production methods. <br />Predominate crops are tomatoes, cucumbers, green peppers, roses, gerberas, lilies and potted plants. <br />agriculture<br />
Economic Resources<br />Heavy Industry:<br />Renewable hydro and geothermal energy<br />Aluminum<br />Alloy products<br />Machinery and equipment for the fishing industry<br />Service:<br />Software Solutions<br />Service – Information Technology<br />other industry<br />
Natural Resource Conservation<br />Soil Conservation<br />Iceland was over half covered in vegetation when it was first settled 1100 years ago. <br />Icelandic Soil Conservation Service has been battling erosion since 1907.<br />The aim of land reclamation is to conserve vegetation and soil, cultivate plants in barren areas, and fortify existing flora.<br />The fight to reverse erosion will remain a top environmental priority for decades.<br />
Natural Resource Conservation<br />Wetland Conservation<br />Almost half of the wetland areas settled have been lost<br />Drainage of lowland wetlands has virtually ceased since 1993.<br />Attempts to reclaim wetland areas have been moderately successful.<br />Wetland restoration is considered as a viable option for carbon sequestration.<br />
Natural Resource Conservation<br />Wilderness Protection<br />Iceland is 38% wilderness. <br />Did not start protecting wilderness areas until 1930.<br />Currently, 90 areas are protected.<br />A nature conservation plan will increase these numbers in the near future by close to 20%.<br />
Marine Life<br />Around 300 indigenous species of fish in the ocean<br />Twenty species from the fishing industries catch, plus shrimp and lobster.<br />Freshwater fisheries overseen by the government, but delegated to local fishing associations.<br />Some fish species’ populations were declining in the late 1990’s.<br />The government and Marine Research Institute implemented quotas and total allowable catches.<br />Natural Resource Conservation<br />
EcoTourism<br />Iceland has one of the most diverse portfolios of nature-related activities in the world.<br />
This YouTube video highlights Iceland’s unique geology that provides renewable energy to the country. It also discusses Iceland’s tourism industry, and how it has impacted the environment. <br />If you are unable to view the video, click here. <br />
Sustainability Paradigms<br />Future of transportation and fossil fuels<br />Iceland has no reserves of fossil fuels<br />Bragi Arnason first proposed using hydrogen for fueling vehicles in 1970.<br />1999 consortium announced plan to make this vision come true by 2050.<br />First commercial hydrogen fueling station opened in 2003 to fuel a fleet of hydrogen-powered buses.<br />Next steps are testing and converting cars, and finally the fishing fleet.<br />
Environmental challenges <br />Managing the large numbers of visitors to the most popular attractions <br />Especially the national parks and protected areas that are very sensitive to human traffic.<br />Whaling <br />Could cause serious harm to whale watching tours and reputation as a sustainable society<br />Nature vs. Business<br />Balancing unspoiled lands against the economic growth in the country <br />Sustainability Paradigms<br />
Climate Change Strategy, 2007<br />Fulfill obligations of the Kyoto Protocol<br />GHG emissions will be reduced 50-75% by 2050<br />Attempt to utilize carbon sequestration<br />Revegetation<br />Afforestation<br />Wetland reclamation<br />Land-use changes<br />Support research and innovations related to climate change & renewable energy<br /> Prepare to adapt to climate change <br />Sustainability Paradigms<br />
Iceland: A Study of Sustainable Initiatives <br />Marylhurst University <br />SUS 500<br />Principles of Sustainability<br />
References<br />Aldred, J. (2008, April 22). Iceland's Energy Answer Comes Naturally. Retrieved April 18, 2010, from Guardian.co.uk: Http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/apr/22/renewableenergy.alternativeenergy <br />"Althing." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: Http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Althing.html <br />Benassi, A. (2006). Welfare for the Future - Iceland's National Strategy for Sustainable Development. Retrieved April 18, 2010, from Ministry for the Environment - Publications: Http://eng.umhverfisraduneyti.is/publications <br />Bindloss, J. & Harding. P. (2004). Lonely Planet Iceland. Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. <br />Page 1 of 7 <br />
References<br />Climate Change Strategy. (2007, February). Retrieved April 21, 2010, from Ministry for the Environment: Http://eng.umhverfisraduneyti.is/publications <br />Culture of Iceland ? History, People, Women, Beliefs, Food, Customs, Family, Social, Marriage, Men, Life, Population, History and Ethnic Relations. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from Http://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Iceland.html#ixzz0l3YtanXE <br />Del Giudice, M. (2008, March). Power Struggle. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from National Geagraphic: Http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/03/iceland/del-giudice-text/2 <br />"Economy and Industry." Iceland.is - Gateway to Iceland. 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2010. <http://www.iceland.is/economy-and-industry/>. <br />Page 2 of 7 <br />
References<br />Geography of Iceland. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2010, from Iceland.is - Gateway to Iceland: Http://www.iceland.is/country-and-nature/nature/Geography/ <br /> Hallsdóttir, Birna S., Kristín Harðardóttir, Jón Guðmundsson, and Arnór Snorrason. National Inventory Report; Environment Agency of Iceland. Rep. no. UST-2009:07. Reykjavík: Ministry for the Environment, 2009. Print. <br />Icelandic Agricultural Information Service. (1997). Icelandic Agriculture. Retrieved on April 17, 2010, from Http://landbunadur.is/landbunadur/wgbi.nsf/key2/icelandic_agriculture <br />Lacy, Terry G. Ring of Seasons: Iceland, Its Culture and History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1998. Print. <br />Page 3 of 7 <br />
References<br />Leisure Activities in Iceland. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2010, from Iceland.is - Gateway to Iceland: Http://www.iceland.is/travel-and-leisure/LeisureActivities/ <br /> Life in the Sea. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2010, from Iceland.is - Gateway to Iceland: Http://www.iceland.is/country-and-nature/nature/AnimalLife//nr/39 <br /> Linssen, Stefan, and Christopher Sindik. "2020 Global Sustainability Centers." Ethisphereâ„¢ Institute. 7 Sept. 2008. Web. 9 Apr. 2010. <http://ethisphere.com/2020-global-sustainability-centers/>. <br />Miller, G. Tyler. Living in the Environment Principles, Connections, and Solutions. Ed. Scott Spoolman. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007. Print. <br /> National Parks. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2010, from visiticeland: http://www.icetourist.is/Seedo/NationalParks/<br />Page 4 of 7 <br />
References<br />"People and Society." Iceland.is - Gateway to Iceland. 2010. Web. 4 Apr. 2010. <http://www.iceland.is/people-and-society/>. <br /> The Environment in Iceland. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2010, from Iceland.is - GAteway to Iceland: http://www.iceland.is/country-and-nature/nature/Environment/<br /> Trade Council Of Iceland, N.D., Political Parties. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from Http://www.iceland.is/government-and-politics/PoliticalParties/ <br /> United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (2009, October 21). National greenhouse gas inventory data for the period 1990-2007. Retrieved April 26, 2010, from United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/sbi/eng/12.pdf<br />Page 5 of 7 <br />
References<br />YouTube - [CNN] Iceland's Unique Clean Energy Solution 2008.06.30. YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. NewsRevue, 30 June 2008. Web. 22 Apr. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXa6LU667EI><br />YouTube - Geothermal Energy in Iceland. YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Schreinervideo, 4 Feb. 2008. Web. 22 Apr. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRAQrDduaU0>.<br />Veal, L. (2010, April 16). Whaling Profitable but Bad for Iceland's Image. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from Inter-Press Service: http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=51067<br /> Vegetation. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2010, from Icland.is - Gateway to Iceland: http://www.iceland.is/country-and nature/nature/Vegetation/<br /> <br />Page 6 of 7 <br />
References<br /> Why Iceland. (2008, May 9). Retrieved April 26, 2010, from 3rd Informal Dialogue on LULUCF: http://landbunadur.is/landbunadur/wgrala.nsf/key2/hhjn7etf6x.html<br /> Wikipedia, 2009. Elections in Iceland. Retrieved April 21, 2010 from Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elections_in_Iceland <br />Page 7 of 7 <br />
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