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  • 1. Construction Safety Safety Expectation Accidents Causes and Costs Types Prevention Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Admin.
  • 2. Safety Expectation
    • American workers EXPECT safety in the workplace.
      • In order to maintain safety, everyone needs to cooperate and follows safety rules & regulations.
      • Everyone must be alert and aware of potential health and safety hazards.
    • The necessity of safe operations and of protecting and conserving lives by preventing accidents is understood by all.
  • 3. Safety Expectation
    • Accident rates have fallen within the last twenty years
      • Primarily due to the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970
        • Specific regulations for Construction
      • But the construction industry has not improved the record, whereas other high hazard industries have.
    • CONSTRUCTION is a hazardous profession.
  • 4. Safety Expectation
    • It is the CONTRACTOR’s responsibility to see that everything possible is done to provide a safe working environment for the work force and the public in general.
  • 5. Safety Expectation
    • These factors motivate safe practices by contractors:
      • Humanitarian concerns
      • Economic costs and benefits
      • Legal and regulatory considerations
  • 6. Safety Expectation
    • Due to the high potential of accidents on a job site, the contractor must accept the liabilities associated with such hazardous environment.
      • Contractors is responsible for committing and maintaining safe practices and accident prevention on the job site
  • 7. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The heart of safety begins with:
      • People’s actions
      • Conditions on site
    • When an accident or near miss occurs on a job site, the focus tends to be on the conditions of the job site at any given time.
    • Unsafe acts or unsafe conditions cause ACCIDENTS
  • 8. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • Unsafe conditions are hazards that can cause injuries
      • Physical hazards
        • Defective tools
        • Unprotected openings
        • Improper storage of equipment and materials
      • Environmental hazards
        • Contaminants brought onto job site without proper containment
  • 9. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • Unsafe acts are caused by the actions of people on the job site
      • Things a person should have done
        • Informing others about unsafe conditions
        • Neglecting to inform is neglecting to act
      • Things a person should have done differently
        • If person performs work inappropriately, they are acting improperly
      • Things a person should not have done at all
        • If person proceeds into hazardous area despite warnings, that person is acting how they shouldn’t
  • 10. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • Typical causes of construction accidents:
      • Substance abuse (alcohol and drugs)
      • Neglect of surroundings
      • Schedule pressures
        • Leads to carelessness
      • Too much confidence in one’s skills
      • Behavior and work practices
  • 11. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The cost of accidents are staggering
      • Someone always gets hurt
        • Family suffer emotional and financial implications
        • Possible inability to work due to prolonged pain, increased fear of reinjury and loss of income potential
      • Affects worker morale
        • Especially in case where death of a worker is involved
        • Worry over the person’s welfare
        • Fear of being injured themselves
        • Guilt over not preventing the accident
  • 12. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The cost of accidents are staggering
      • Loss of labor
        • Skilled laborer is removed from job site
        • Breaks up productivity of crew
        • Deplete morale
      • Increased insurance costs
      • Decreased bonding levels
        • Both can cause competivity issues when bidding future work
  • 13. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • DIRECT COSTS:
        • Insurance
          • Health and Medical expenses
          • Workman’s compensation
        • Loss of Productivity and personnel time
        • Damaged property, material and equipment
        • Cleanup and repair
        • Cost of retraining or replacing skilled labor
  • 14. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • INDIRECT COSTS :
        • Insurance premiums
          • Workers’ Compensation
          • Medical insurance
        • Penalties
          • Contractors can be hit with monetary penalties from government agencies such as OSHA and MOSHA (Maryland OSHA)
  • 15. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • INDIRECT COSTS :
        • Liability
          • Most Workers’ Comp laws limit an employee from suing his or her employer
          • But, people can file suit against manufacturer of faulty equipment, which in turn can file suit against contractor
            • Called THIRD-PARTY lawsuits
          • Contractors can file suit against each other if the accident was caused by any one another
          • General public can file suit against contractor
  • 16. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • INDIRECT COSTS :
        • Public Relations
          • Serious accidents become the headline story for the television news and newspaper
          • Company’s reputation is seriously damaged by this type of coverage
          • Attention, both public and investigative, will hover around the job site causing work productivity to go down
          • Future jobs are compromised when contractors have to explain circumstances around accident
  • 17. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The Statistics
      • Construction accounts for 6% of work force in United States
      • Construction has 12% of the injuries in the U.S.
      • 250,000 – 300,000 injuries per year
        • 3,000 result in death
      • Days lost per 100 workers reach 144.5 annually
        • Two times national average
  • 18. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The Statistics
      • Construction yearly revenues is about $650 billion
        • Risk and liability insurance averages about 1% of direct labor costs
        • Workers’ comp insurance averages about 7% of direct labor costs
        • Direct labor costs is about 25% of project costs
  • 19. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The Statistics
      • DO THE MATH:
        • $650 billion x 25% = $162 billion in payroll
        • Risk and liability insurance: $162 billion x 1% = $1.6 billion
        • Workers’ compensation insurance: $162 billion x 7% = $11.3 billion
        • TOTAL INSURANANCE COSTS = 12.9 billion
  • 20. Accidents Types
    • Leading type of construction accidents:
      • FALLS
      • BEING STRUCK BY SOMETHING
      • BEING INJURED BY ELECTRICITY
    • These make up about 90% of all deaths in the construction industry
  • 21. Accidents Prevention
    • Safety is an ATTITUTE
      • starts with top management and is reflected on the job and to the people
        • Safety training
        • Housekeeping (keeping site clean of debris)
        • Tool box meetings
        • Adherence to safety measures
        • Maintenance of equipment and tools
        • Intolerance to violations
  • 22. Accidents Prevention
    • Implement Safety Programs
      • Development of program is mandated by OSHA
      • Typical safety program has two components:
        • Overall corporate safety program
        • Site-specific safety program
      • A strong corporate program is the foundation of the site safety program
        • Needs constant feedback from site to be effective
  • 23. Accidents Prevention
    • Overall corporate program
      • Lay out responsibility of the top executives in regards to safety
      • Identify methods of measuring performance
      • Institute control measures through supervisory personnel
      • Define reporting requirements in the event of an accident
      • Develop safety training for employees
      • Institute disciplinary warnings
      • Provide incentives for those who achieve high standards of safety
  • 24. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Explains the work that must be done at the site before and during the construction
      • Safety team is identified
        • Project manager
        • Superintendent
        • Crew Foremen
      • Procedures are put in place and enforced throughout job
  • 25. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Layout of job site; location of:
        • Jobsite entrance
        • Jobsite trailer
        • First-aid station
        • Sanitation facilities
        • Right-to-know information postings
        • Breakout areas
      • Areas must be clearly visible, well marked and easy to reach
  • 26. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Layout of job site must also consider how the public will be protected.
        • Signs
        • Barricades
        • Police details
        • Temporary lighting
        • Walkways and overhead protections
  • 27. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Program should also include documentation of emergency notification procedures
        • Who to call in case of emergency with correct phone numbers
  • 28. Accidents Prevention
    • Employee Orientation and Training
      • Educating ignorance of the hazard
      • Message is delivered in various ways
        • First-day orientation
        • On-the-job training
        • Attendance at OSHA courses and conferences
        • Toolbox meetings
  • 29. Accidents Prevention
    • Safety Meetings
      • Monthly meetings are held to direct and monitor the effectiveness of the safety program
        • Report of any accident or near miss with review of corrective action
        • Review of new regulatory activity
        • Results of project safety audits
      • Weekly toolbox meetings conducted by foreman
        • Focus on spreading info about specific safety hazards
        • Accidents and near misses are discussed
        • Updated info regarding hazardous substances/material
  • 30. Accidents Prevention
    • Preventive Devices
      • Provide safe conditions for the workers on job sites
        • FALL PROTECTION
          • Required when workers above 6 feet in areas with sides and edges are open
          • Protections include guardrails, safety nets, personal fall restraints, covers and controlled access zones
        • PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
          • Hard hats, safety goggles, protective clothing (including pants and boots)
  • 31. Accidents Prevention
    • Preventive Devices
      • Provide safe conditions for the workers on job sites
        • FIRE PROTECTION
          • Combustibles and flammables must be kept in special containers
          • Fire extinguishers must be available and placed on jobsite
        • SIGNS, SIGNALS AND BARRICADES
          • Gives info to workers and general public about hazardous conditions
          • Flag-waving garments, traffic control, visible signs and signals and barricades
  • 32. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • In 1970, federal government passed the OSHAct
      • Ensures workers have consistently safe work environments
      • Provides standards and rules for healthful and safe work environments, tools, equipment and processes
    • OSHA conducts investigations to make sure its standards are being followed
  • 33. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • OSHA will inspect workplace or jobsite
      • If violations are found, inspectors will likely issue citation listing violations
      • Infractions and penalties could be imposed
        • Fines range from $7,000 to $70,000
    • OSHA ensures compliance through SURPRISE visits to job sites.
      • Responds to worker’s complaints regarding unsafe conditions
  • 34. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • OSHA allows individual states to establish their own programs for safety
      • States regulations must meet or exceed OSHA’s standards
      • Maryland has MOSHA (Maryland OSHA)
  • 35. NEXT CLASS Last Lecture: Project Closeout Read pages 212-216 in your books