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ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)
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ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)

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Transcript

  • 1. Construction Safety Safety Expectation Accidents Causes and Costs Types Prevention Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Admin.
  • 2. Safety Expectation
    • American workers EXPECT safety in the workplace.
      • In order to maintain safety, everyone needs to cooperate and follows safety rules & regulations.
      • Everyone must be alert and aware of potential health and safety hazards.
    • The necessity of safe operations and of protecting and conserving lives by preventing accidents is understood by all.
  • 3. Safety Expectation
    • Accident rates have fallen within the last twenty years
      • Primarily due to the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970
        • Specific regulations for Construction
      • But the construction industry has not improved the record, whereas other high hazard industries have.
    • CONSTRUCTION is a hazardous profession.
  • 4. Safety Expectation
    • It is the CONTRACTOR’s responsibility to see that everything possible is done to provide a safe working environment for the work force and the public in general.
  • 5. Safety Expectation
    • These factors motivate safe practices by contractors:
      • Humanitarian concerns
      • Economic costs and benefits
      • Legal and regulatory considerations
  • 6. Safety Expectation
    • Due to the high potential of accidents on a job site, the contractor must accept the liabilities associated with such hazardous environment.
      • Contractors is responsible for committing and maintaining safe practices and accident prevention on the job site
  • 7. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The heart of safety begins with:
      • People’s actions
      • Conditions on site
    • When an accident or near miss occurs on a job site, the focus tends to be on the conditions of the job site at any given time.
    • Unsafe acts or unsafe conditions cause ACCIDENTS
  • 8. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • Unsafe conditions are hazards that can cause injuries
      • Physical hazards
        • Defective tools
        • Unprotected openings
        • Improper storage of equipment and materials
      • Environmental hazards
        • Contaminants brought onto job site without proper containment
  • 9. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • Unsafe acts are caused by the actions of people on the job site
      • Things a person should have done
        • Informing others about unsafe conditions
        • Neglecting to inform is neglecting to act
      • Things a person should have done differently
        • If person performs work inappropriately, they are acting improperly
      • Things a person should not have done at all
        • If person proceeds into hazardous area despite warnings, that person is acting how they shouldn’t
  • 10. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • Typical causes of construction accidents:
      • Substance abuse (alcohol and drugs)
      • Neglect of surroundings
      • Schedule pressures
        • Leads to carelessness
      • Too much confidence in one’s skills
      • Behavior and work practices
  • 11. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The cost of accidents are staggering
      • Someone always gets hurt
        • Family suffer emotional and financial implications
        • Possible inability to work due to prolonged pain, increased fear of reinjury and loss of income potential
      • Affects worker morale
        • Especially in case where death of a worker is involved
        • Worry over the person’s welfare
        • Fear of being injured themselves
        • Guilt over not preventing the accident
  • 12. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The cost of accidents are staggering
      • Loss of labor
        • Skilled laborer is removed from job site
        • Breaks up productivity of crew
        • Deplete morale
      • Increased insurance costs
      • Decreased bonding levels
        • Both can cause competivity issues when bidding future work
  • 13. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • DIRECT COSTS:
        • Insurance
          • Health and Medical expenses
          • Workman’s compensation
        • Loss of Productivity and personnel time
        • Damaged property, material and equipment
        • Cleanup and repair
        • Cost of retraining or replacing skilled labor
  • 14. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • INDIRECT COSTS :
        • Insurance premiums
          • Workers’ Compensation
          • Medical insurance
        • Penalties
          • Contractors can be hit with monetary penalties from government agencies such as OSHA and MOSHA (Maryland OSHA)
  • 15. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • INDIRECT COSTS :
        • Liability
          • Most Workers’ Comp laws limit an employee from suing his or her employer
          • But, people can file suit against manufacturer of faulty equipment, which in turn can file suit against contractor
            • Called THIRD-PARTY lawsuits
          • Contractors can file suit against each other if the accident was caused by any one another
          • General public can file suit against contractor
  • 16. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly
      • INDIRECT COSTS :
        • Public Relations
          • Serious accidents become the headline story for the television news and newspaper
          • Company’s reputation is seriously damaged by this type of coverage
          • Attention, both public and investigative, will hover around the job site causing work productivity to go down
          • Future jobs are compromised when contractors have to explain circumstances around accident
  • 17. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The Statistics
      • Construction accounts for 6% of work force in United States
      • Construction has 12% of the injuries in the U.S.
      • 250,000 – 300,000 injuries per year
        • 3,000 result in death
      • Days lost per 100 workers reach 144.5 annually
        • Two times national average
  • 18. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The Statistics
      • Construction yearly revenues is about $650 billion
        • Risk and liability insurance averages about 1% of direct labor costs
        • Workers’ comp insurance averages about 7% of direct labor costs
        • Direct labor costs is about 25% of project costs
  • 19. Accidents Causes & Costs
    • The Statistics
      • DO THE MATH:
        • $650 billion x 25% = $162 billion in payroll
        • Risk and liability insurance: $162 billion x 1% = $1.6 billion
        • Workers’ compensation insurance: $162 billion x 7% = $11.3 billion
        • TOTAL INSURANANCE COSTS = 12.9 billion
  • 20. Accidents Types
    • Leading type of construction accidents:
      • FALLS
      • BEING STRUCK BY SOMETHING
      • BEING INJURED BY ELECTRICITY
    • These make up about 90% of all deaths in the construction industry
  • 21. Accidents Prevention
    • Safety is an ATTITUTE
      • starts with top management and is reflected on the job and to the people
        • Safety training
        • Housekeeping (keeping site clean of debris)
        • Tool box meetings
        • Adherence to safety measures
        • Maintenance of equipment and tools
        • Intolerance to violations
  • 22. Accidents Prevention
    • Implement Safety Programs
      • Development of program is mandated by OSHA
      • Typical safety program has two components:
        • Overall corporate safety program
        • Site-specific safety program
      • A strong corporate program is the foundation of the site safety program
        • Needs constant feedback from site to be effective
  • 23. Accidents Prevention
    • Overall corporate program
      • Lay out responsibility of the top executives in regards to safety
      • Identify methods of measuring performance
      • Institute control measures through supervisory personnel
      • Define reporting requirements in the event of an accident
      • Develop safety training for employees
      • Institute disciplinary warnings
      • Provide incentives for those who achieve high standards of safety
  • 24. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Explains the work that must be done at the site before and during the construction
      • Safety team is identified
        • Project manager
        • Superintendent
        • Crew Foremen
      • Procedures are put in place and enforced throughout job
  • 25. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Layout of job site; location of:
        • Jobsite entrance
        • Jobsite trailer
        • First-aid station
        • Sanitation facilities
        • Right-to-know information postings
        • Breakout areas
      • Areas must be clearly visible, well marked and easy to reach
  • 26. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Layout of job site must also consider how the public will be protected.
        • Signs
        • Barricades
        • Police details
        • Temporary lighting
        • Walkways and overhead protections
  • 27. Accidents Prevention
    • Site-specific programs
      • Program should also include documentation of emergency notification procedures
        • Who to call in case of emergency with correct phone numbers
  • 28. Accidents Prevention
    • Employee Orientation and Training
      • Educating ignorance of the hazard
      • Message is delivered in various ways
        • First-day orientation
        • On-the-job training
        • Attendance at OSHA courses and conferences
        • Toolbox meetings
  • 29. Accidents Prevention
    • Safety Meetings
      • Monthly meetings are held to direct and monitor the effectiveness of the safety program
        • Report of any accident or near miss with review of corrective action
        • Review of new regulatory activity
        • Results of project safety audits
      • Weekly toolbox meetings conducted by foreman
        • Focus on spreading info about specific safety hazards
        • Accidents and near misses are discussed
        • Updated info regarding hazardous substances/material
  • 30. Accidents Prevention
    • Preventive Devices
      • Provide safe conditions for the workers on job sites
        • FALL PROTECTION
          • Required when workers above 6 feet in areas with sides and edges are open
          • Protections include guardrails, safety nets, personal fall restraints, covers and controlled access zones
        • PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
          • Hard hats, safety goggles, protective clothing (including pants and boots)
  • 31. Accidents Prevention
    • Preventive Devices
      • Provide safe conditions for the workers on job sites
        • FIRE PROTECTION
          • Combustibles and flammables must be kept in special containers
          • Fire extinguishers must be available and placed on jobsite
        • SIGNS, SIGNALS AND BARRICADES
          • Gives info to workers and general public about hazardous conditions
          • Flag-waving garments, traffic control, visible signs and signals and barricades
  • 32. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • In 1970, federal government passed the OSHAct
      • Ensures workers have consistently safe work environments
      • Provides standards and rules for healthful and safe work environments, tools, equipment and processes
    • OSHA conducts investigations to make sure its standards are being followed
  • 33. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • OSHA will inspect workplace or jobsite
      • If violations are found, inspectors will likely issue citation listing violations
      • Infractions and penalties could be imposed
        • Fines range from $7,000 to $70,000
    • OSHA ensures compliance through SURPRISE visits to job sites.
      • Responds to worker’s complaints regarding unsafe conditions
  • 34. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • OSHA allows individual states to establish their own programs for safety
      • States regulations must meet or exceed OSHA’s standards
      • Maryland has MOSHA (Maryland OSHA)
  • 35. NEXT CLASS Last Lecture: Project Closeout Read pages 212-216 in your books

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