Who Has Primary Responsibility for Building Material Selection?
DEPENDS on Contractual Arrangements, often
Designer/Architect, with input from the
Owner for Appearance and/or Performance & the
Contractor for Cost, Availability, & Constructability
Who is Primarily Responsible for Construction Methods?
AIA 201; The contractor shall be solely responsible for and have control over means, methods, techniques, sequences and procedures and for coordinating all portions of the Work under the contract ( unless instructed otherwise )
Type of Soil
How well a specific material will perform in a given environment
Skilled construction workers
Construction Budget (MONEY!!)
How much is there to spend
Who will lend it to you or invest
Additional Building Constraints Building Codes Zoning Ordinances Legal Constraints
To protect public health and safety by setting a minimum standard of quality
Codes are to be followed & maintained, but are to be used as basic foundations for quality
Codes do place limitations on design and aesthetics
“… establish minimum construction standards for the protection of life, health, and welfare of the public.”
model building codes
Codes are Nationally and Internationally Developed
These are the basis in which all codes are standardized in the United States
Prepared by a National Group of Code Administrators that organize locally
Adopted by local jurisdictions
Townships, Counties, States, Etc…
Local amendments may be issued to make certain restrictions either more strict or lax
They are regulations based on construction type
Types of building codes
IBC 2000 & IBC 2003 - International Building Code
Developed by the International Code Council (ICC)
Used by most jurisdictions throughout the United States.
First unified code in history.
Site, Construction, Mechanical, Electrical, Etc…
IBC has both standard and residential code restrictions.
Life Safety 2003 – More specific towards safety of occupants (NFPA 101)
Developed by National Fire Protection Agency
Also adopted by most jurisdictions
Addresses design decisions that are essential to the life safety of building occupants, general public, and first responders.
Minimum criteria for the egress of facilities.
Addresses minimum construction performance in the event of an emergency.
What happens when both codes have different minimum requirements?
Select the most restrictive of the two
Consult with local code official for their interpretation
Older Codes Are…
Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA - 1996)
Uniform Building Code (UBC)
Standard Building Code (SBC)
Council of American Building Officials (CABO)
BOCA, UBC and SBC codes are not as commonly used today as they were in the past.
CABO One- and Two-Dwelling Code of 1995 was replaced by IRC
Life Safety & Building Code Issues
Means of Egress
Methods of exiting the building in the event of an emergency
Exit Access (doors, windows)
Exit (halls, stairs)
Exit Discharge (outside)
Points of Refuge (safe places for people to go)
More people may require more exits and fire protection.
The minimum amount of time an object or construction assembly must last until the fire burns through.
Three Major Factors Determines the Development of a Building:
The Code Relationship
Intended purpose of building
Some building are mixed use
These are broken down into “ USE GROUPS ”
Type of Occupancy Building Use
The Code Relationship
What the building is made of
How the materials relate to each other
These are broken down into “TYPES”
Type of Occupancy Building Use Fire-Resistance Rating of Construction Construction Type
The Code Relationship
Drawn up by local jurisdictions to manage:
density & pattern
types of development
Regulations based on land use
Allowable Height & Area Zoning Ordinances Fire-Resistance Rating of Construction Construction Type
The Code Relationship Type of Occupancy Building Use Allowable Height & Area Zoning Ordinances Fire-Resistance Rating of Construction Construction Type
Type of Occupancy
Possible to have multiple uses. We refer to this as “ MIXED USE ”
Building classifications have existed since the Uniform Building Code – Established in 1929
Broken into 5 basic types based on fire resistance and combustibility
5 basic types of construction ranging from the most fire-resistant – least fire resistant.
Type IA is the most fire resistant
Type 5B is the least fire resistant
Construction types are paired against occupancy groups to determine the maximum size of the building allowed.
Materials are broken down into two categories:
Materials that will ignite and burn when subjected to fire.
Fire treatment / protection may increase the resistance of some materials.
Material of which no part will ignite and burn when subjected to fire.
Construction types are further broken down into sub-categories designating their fire protection:
#A = Protected
#B = Unprotected
The more fire protection, the larger you can build
Even buildings constructed in steel have both classifications because steel will melt and deflect under extreme heat.
The principal elements of type I & II construction are made of noncombustible materials.
Principal elements generally refers to the structure
Type I & II generally relies on steel, concrete of masonry for its structure.
Section 402.0 TYPE 1 CONSTRUCTION
402.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 1 construction are those in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs and the exits are constructed of approved non-combustible materials and protected to afford the fire resistance rating specified in Table 401. Buildings are Type 1 construction shall be further classified as Type 1A or 1B.
Same description as Type II
Type III buildings area mix of both combustible and noncombustible materials.
Noncombustible exterior walls
Combustible interior structure
Designed to prevent fires from spreading from one structure to another
Ex.: a Wood Frame Building with a brick veneer on all sides.
Section 404.0 TYPE 3 CONSTRUCTION
404.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 3 construction are those in which the exterior, fire walls, and party walls are constructed of masonry or other approved non-combustible materials of the required fire resistance rating and structural properties; the floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly constructed of wood, metal, or other approved construction; ……..
Type IV buildings addresses heavy timber construction.
Heavy timber members begin to flame and char at about 400 degrees.
As charring continues, it begins to act as a fire protection by insulating the interior of the wood members.
Section 405.0 TYPE 4 CONSTRUCTION
405.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 4 construction are those in which the exterior walls are constructed of non-combustible materials having a fire resistance rating not less than that specified in Table 401 and the interior structural members are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces.
Type V construction is the most restrictive in terms of what you can build BUT least restrictive in what you can use to build it.
Allows the use of any material permitted by code
Type V is the conventional light-wood frame construction in residential homes.
V-A protects all major building elements (stairs, bearing walls, columns) with a 1 hour rating
V-B is generally unprotected construction
Section 406.0 TYPE 5 CONSTRUCTION
406.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 5 construction are those in which the exterior walls, bearing walls, partitions, floors and roofs are constructed of any materials permitted by this code and in which the structural elements have the required fire resistance rating specified in Table 401. Buildings of Type 5 construction shall be further classified as Type 5A or 5B.
Groups A-1 through A5
(theaters, lecture halls, churches,
night clubs, restaurants, libraries,
museums, sports arenas, etc.)
Group B – Business Occupancy
Group E – Educational
Groups H-1 through H-5
High Hazard Occupancy
Groups I-1 through I-4
Health car, geriatrics, prisons
Group M – Mercantile
Groups R-1 through R-4
Homes, apartments, dorms, etc.
Group S-1 and S-1
Group U – Utility Buildings
Building Type & Fire Resistance Ratings
Other Codes Affecting Buildings
Mechanical & Energy Code
Life Safety Code (NFPA 101)
Focuses its regulations on the building inhabitants
Fire Resistance Ratings
MANY CODE REQUIREMENTS HAVE TO DO WITH “FIRE RATING” REQUIREMENTS
Measured in Hours (or fraction thereof)
Typically, increased Fire Resistance results in increased construction cost
INCREASED RATING - GENERALLY INCREASED SAFETY, BUT ALSO INCREASED COST
THEREFORE OFTEN BUILD TO LOWEST ACCEPTABLE RATING.
WHY??? OWNERS WANT TO BE UNSAFE???
NO, OWNERS WANT TO BE COMPETITIVE
Establishing Fire Ratings
Full Scale Laboratory Tests - Often UL
MOCKUP, ACTUAL COMPONENTS
TEST TO DESTRUCTION
Published Ratings (by various industry groups)
Tables/Standards are published
Component(s) - Material Specifications
Construction “details” / Requirements
Fire Ratings Issued by:
Who typically pays for tests to rate materials and assemblies?