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ACH 121 Lecture 14 (Finishes)
 

ACH 121 Lecture 14 (Finishes)

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    ACH 121 Lecture 14 (Finishes) ACH 121 Lecture 14 (Finishes) Presentation Transcript

    • Finishes Purpose of Interior Finishing Interior Surfaces Wall Finishes  Floor Finishes  Ceiling Finishes  Finish Carpentry Architectural Moldings and Woodwork 
    • Why do we Finish interiors?
      • Finishes include materials and systems used to make the visible surfaces of the interior floors, walls and ceilings.
      • Must cover
        • structural framing
        • thermal & moisture protection
        • mechanical/electrical systems
    • Why do we Finish interiors?
      • Critical influence on the aesthetic
        • Color
        • Texture
        • Pattern
      • Interior finishes must be resistant to wear and cleanable
      • Additional factors:
        • Acoustic qualities
        • Fire-resistance
        • Thermal insulation value
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Applied to the interior plane of the framing
      • Additional paints and coatings are applied
      • Moldings and woodwork are applied over this surface
      • Installed around openings (doors, windows, vents)
      • Electrical boxes (outlets, switches) installed flush with surfaces
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Types of Wall Finishes
        • Gypsum wall board systems
        • Plaster and lath
        • Sheet paneling
        • Board paneling
        • Tile
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Gypsum wall board systems
        • Prefabricated plaster sheet material
          • Core: slurry of calcined gypsum, starch, water, pregenerated form
          • Faced with special paper
        • Most popular
        • Cost effective (least expensive)
        • Easy installation
        • Typical size is 4ft x 8ft
        • Thickness vary: 1/8” to ¾”
          • Most popular is ½” or 5/8”
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Gypsum wall board systems
        • Types of Gypsum Board
          • Regular gypsum board
          • Water-resistant gypsum board
            • Water-repellent paper facing
            • Moisture resistant core
            • Used in bathrooms and kitchens
          • Type X gypsum board
            • Required for fire-rated assemblies
            • Core is reinforced with short glass fibers
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Gypsum wall board systems
        • Types of Gypsum Board
          • Ceiling board
            • High-strength board for ceilings with widely spaced joists
            • Typically ½” thick, but light enough to eliminate sag
          • Foil-backed gypsum board
            • Used as an vapor retarder
          • Veneer-plaster base board; “blueboard”
            • Used with veneer-plaster finishing system
            • Speeds the curing process of the veneer plaster
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Gypsum wall board systems
        • Two Finish systems
          • Drywall Finishing System
            • Joints and fasteners are covered with joint compound
            • “ mud” dries by evaporation
            • Joints are first covered with reinforcing tape
            • Typically 2-3 coats, with sanding in between
          • Veneer Plaster Finishing System (Thincoat)
            • One coat system that produces a smoother, harder surface
            • Fiberglass mesh installed over joints
            • Entire wall is covered with 1/8” layer of plaster
            • Cures by hydration
            • No sanding is required
    • Corner bead Joint Compound Joint Reinforcing Tape Joint Tape Applied
    • Finishing Operations & Materials/Equipment
      • Screw Attachment
      Nail attachment (note damaged surface)
    • Applying Joint Compound
    • Sanding
    •  
    • Drywall Suspension System
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Plaster & Lath
        • 2 or 3 coat system applied over a metal or gypsum lath (mesh)
        • Used in older homes built in the mid 1800’s
        • Was not used as widely after WWII
        • Can be applied over wood frame and masonry
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Board Paneling
        • Used in lieu of plastering
        • Made from softwoods (pine, fir, cedar)
        • Tongue-and-goove edge detail
        • Fastened with blind nails to framing
        • Thickness: 1” nominal
        • Not used as widely as gypsum board
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Types of Finishes applied over gypsum wall board, plaster or board paneling
        • Paint
          • Latex enamel
          • Oil-based
        • Stains and varnishes
        • Wallpaper
          • Vinyl
          • Fabric
    • Ragging
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Sheet Paneling
        • Prefinished panels
        • Plywood, OSB, hardboard or veneered gypsum board with wood, fabric, paper or vinyl
        • Thickness: 1/8” to ¾”
        • Fasteners are generally visible
          • Grooves are created to camouflage fasteners
        • Edges are shiplapped, butted or covered with trim
    •  
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Tile
        • Small, modular units
        • Clay or ceramic
          • Glazed: glossy, matte finishes
          • Unglazed: hard and dense, rough
        • Water-resistant, durable, easy to clean
        • Types of Ceramic Tile
          • Glazed Wall Tile
          • Ceramic Mosaic Tile
          • Quarry and Paver Tiles
    • Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
      • Tile
        • Applied in two processes
          • Thinset Process
            • Tile is bonded to gypsum board with a thin coat of dry-set mortar or latex-portland cement
            • In bath and kitchen areas, glass-fiber-reinforced concrete backer is used
          • Thickset Process
            • Tile is applied over a bed of portland-cement mortar
        • Each process requires grout to fill spaces between tiles
    • Fireplace surround & hearth using ceramic tile
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Major functional component
      • Affects acoustics of room
      • Floors reflect light in various ways
      • Primary wearing surface
        • Subject to water, grit, dust, abrasive and penetrating actions of feet and furniture
      • Require more cleaning and maintenance
      • Designed to deal with
        • sanitation issues
        • skid resistance
        • noise reduction
      • Must also serve as an aesthetic to the space
      • Additional consideration concerns fire resistance and combustibility
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Types of Floor Finishes
        • Wood Flooring
        • Resilient Flooring
        • Carpet
        • Terrazzo
        • Tile
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Wood Flooring
        • Tongue-and-grooved strips or planks of wood nailed to subflooring
        • White oak, red oak, pecan or maple
        • Strips are held tightly together and blind nailed by driving nails diagonally through upper interior corners of the tongue
        • Strips are sanded smooth, stained and finished with clear coating
        • Low fire-resistance
        • Highly durable
        • High cost
    •  
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Types of wood flooring systems
        • Standard strip flooring
        • Prefinished wood plank flooring
          • Includes Parquet tiles
          • Glued to subfloor
          • Sanding and finishing not required
        • Floating floor system
          • Laminated veneered planks are glued together, not to subfloor
          • Laid over a polystyrene sheet
          • Floor expands and contracts with humidity or temperature change; gap is left around edges at walls
    •  
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Resilient Flooring
        • Sheet or tile flooring made with linoleum or vinyl
          • Linoleum made of ground cork in a lindseed oil binder over burlap backing
          • Today’s flooring is made from polyvinyl chloride in combination with reinforcing fibers
            • Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT)
        • Flooring is glued to subfloor
        • Wide range of colors and patterns
        • Moderately high degree of durability
        • Low cost
    •  
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Carpet
        • Sheet of fibers (or pile) woven on a fiberglass mesh
          • Creates a style or pattern
            • Plush
            • Shag
            • Loop (Berber)
          • Many weaves & colors available
        • Stretched over a carpet pad and attached around the perimeter of the room using a tackless strip fastened to subfloor
        • Low to moderate durability
        • Sanitation issues
        • Costs vary
    •  
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Terrazzo
        • Mosaic floor material consisting of concrete with an aggregate of marble or stone chips which is ground and polished smooth after curing
        • Marble and granite chips are selected for size and color
        • Colors and patterns are separated with metal or plastic divider strips, then terrazzo mixture is poured
        • Formed-in-place or factory-made tiles
        • Highly durable
        • High cost
    • http://www.ntma.com/07__honor_awards.php
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes
      • Tile
        • Stone tile
        • Quarry tile
        • Ceramic tile
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes STONE TILE
      • Types
        • Marble
        • Granite
        • Slate
        • Sandstone
      • Installation
        • Setting Bed
        • Grouted joints
    • Marble Flooring
    • Granite Flooring
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes QUARRY TILE
      • Fired Clay tiles
      • Multiple shapes/sizes
      • Installation
          • Setting Bed (typical)
          • Thin Set
          • Grout Joints
    • Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes CERAMIC TILE
      • Fired Clay - Typ. Smaller than Quarry tile
      • Often Glazed Finish
      • Floors & Walls
      • Multiple sizes & colors
    • Ann Sacks Daltile
    • Ceramic Tile Flooring
    •  
    •  
    • Interior Surfaces – Ceiling Finishes
      • Applied to the interior plane of the framing
      • Affects acoustics of room
        • Prevents passage of sound vertically from floor to floor
      • Designed to resist the passage of fire
      • Distribution of conditioned air, artificial light, electrical energy and fire suppression (sprinklers)
      • Must also serve as an aesthetic to the space
    • Interior Surfaces – Ceiling Finishes
      • Types of Ceiling Finishes
        • Gypsum Wall Board
        • Acoustical Ceiling Tile
        • Suspended Acoustical Ceiling
        • Specialty Ceilings
    •  
    • The what and why of Architectural Woodwork :
      • Interior and exterior finishes typically found on walls, ceilings and passages
      • Often ornamental in design
      • Used as reproduction for historical authenticity
      • Sometimes structural (less common)
    • Some examples of Architectural Woodwork : Mouldings Mantles Columns
    • Columns
      • Greek origin; structural in design
      • Orders (styles) developed over Greek and Roman periods in history
      • Typical uses today are generally ornamental and to define spaces
    • Standard Column Orders Doric Ionic Corinthian
    • Rendering of an Ionic column from top to bottom: Abacus Volute Echinus Shaft
    • Examples of Greek and Roman Column Orders Roman Doric Roman Tuscan Greek Ionic Greek Corinthian
    • Columns Outdoor structural use
    • Columns Indoor structural use
    • Columns Outdoor decorative use
    • Columns Indoor decorative use
      • Originally used indoors as a functional need at the beginning in the Middle Ages
      • Became a decorative element in the late Gothic period
      • Used today as a decorative element
      • More ornate designs will be a focal point in the room
      Mantles
    • Rendering of part of a mantle in a traditional paneled style with a carved medallion. Mantels
    • Mantels
    • Mantels Historically influenced mantles with columns and broken pediments
    • Mantels Mantles as the focal point of a room
    • Mouldings
      • Typically used as finish work on floors; these are known as base mouldings
      • Also used on all portions of walls (dado/main field/cornice) as well as doors/doorways and windows
      • Can be very simple to quite ornate
      • Are used to formalize a room’s décor
      • Are used as a historical element when decorating or restoring a space
    • Rendering of part of a crown moulding in a traditional style with a dentil trim. Mouldings
    • Passage into a Room Mouldings
    • Historical influence Mouldings
    • Architects and Designers must specify :
      • Species and cut of wood;
      • Grain direction and articulated joints;
      • Ornamental details for scale, aesthetics and historical integrity (if applicable);
      • Joinery for proper function;
      • Fire retardant rating (if applicable) and preservative treatment (exterior only)
      • Specification of grade level (for quality of workmanship)
      • Smoothness of flat and moulded surfaces
      • Installation recommendations
      • Finishing recommendations
      • Fire-retardant solid lumber
      • Sources for wood ornamentation
      Architects and Designers must specify :
    • Criteria for Specifications:
      • Materials
      • Machining and joinery
      • Smoothness of exposed surfaces
      • Tightness and flushness of plant assembled joints
      • Selection of grain and color
    • Specification Requirements
      • The Architectural Woodwork Institute (AWI) lists the quality standards for engineering, fabricating, finishing and installing architectural woodwork.
      • Minimum requirements are listed in three grades: premium, custom and economy.
      • The architect/designer must specify which grade in order to ensure materials meet expectations.
      • Any additional requirements must be explicitly made known to woodworkers and carpenters.
    • End of Lecture Series Prepare for Final Exam Final Exam: Dec. 12 th at 10:00am