Thickness - “Nominal” < 2 inches - Boards FRAMING LUMBER - MOST 2 to 4 inches - Dimension Lumber = to or > 5 inches - Timbers Widths - “Nominal” Framing Lumber - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 inches WHY NOT Typically WIDER??? Finish /lumber - 1 inch (typ.)
Nominal not equal to “Actual” dimensions LUMBER “SAWN” Close to Nominal Then dried and surfaced Up to 6 inches - actual is 1/2 inch less Greater than 6 inches - actual is 3/4 inch less WHY THE “BREAK AT 6”??? MORE DISTORTION & SHRINKAGE TO ACCOMMODATE DURING SURFACING
Typically; Two (2) foot increments Sizes; 8’, 10’, 12’, 14’, & 16’ WHY NOT Typically LONGER??? Exceptions; 93 inch studs WHY 93 INCHES??? Special order lengths
Established by American Plywood Association (APA) Standards based on; Structural adequacy Dimensional Stability UNDER VARYING MOISTURE CONDITIONS Durability of Adhesive
Lamination Process SELECT LUMBER, GRADE JOINTS - FINGER OR SCARF ADHESIVES BASED ON EXPECTED MOISTURE Why Laminate? Create a size not available naturally Create Shapes ARCHES, CURVES, ETC. Improved Quality PROCESS CONTROLLED DEFECTS REMOVED / CONSIDERED GRAIN DIRECTION CONTROLLED USES CHURCHES LARGE RESIDENTIAL LODGES, RESTAURANTS
Uses FLOORS & ROOFS Sizes Typically, 9-1/2” TO 24 “ DEEP LENGTH UP TO 40 FEET+ Composition & cost TOP & BOTTOM - LUMBER OR Laminated WEB - OSB, PLYWOOD COST - COMPARABLE TO 2x
Why Panelize? More “controlled” product (strength, shrinkage, etc.) Efficient use of forest products Increase labor productivity Types Plywood Composite panels Veneered panels
Thin layers of veneer glued together VENEERS - ROTARY CUT Odd number of veneers Alternating direction of veneers Face veneers parallel USES SAME AS OSB EXPOSED/PAINTED SURFACES FORMWORK COST MORE THAN OSB
Based on the smoothness & integrity of the veneers Classifications; A, B, C (plugged), C, D B and better sanded smooth Price Variances (2001) 23/32 Exterior A/C = $31 per panel 23/32 Exterior B/C = $20 per panel MOST FORMWORK B/C FINISH AREAS MAY REQUIRE “A”
INTRODUCED IN THE EARLY 80’s GETTING WIDESPREAD USE Long strand like wood particles Alternate grain orientation (3-5 layers) Compressed / glued Strongest of the Non-veneered WHY IS IT THE STRONGEST??? ORIENTATION OF STANDS Generally more economical than Plywood Uses; Sheathing for floor, roofs, & siding WHY IS IT GETTING WIDESPREAD USE??? STRUCTURALLY SOUND ECONOMICAL - SUBBSTITUTE FOR PLYWOOD NEW GROWTH TREES
Combustibility FIRE RETARTANT IMPREGNATED UNDER PRESSURE Decay & Insect PRESSURE IMPREGNATED UP TO 30 YEAR LIFE TYPES CREOSOTE PENTACHOROPHENOL - OILY, CAN’T PAINT WATERBORNE SALTS - GREENISH - CAN PAINT Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) being phased out HIGH MOISTURE USES – WHY NOT USE DECAY RESISTANT WOODS??? (CEDAR, REDWOOD, CYPRESS) COST & STRENGTH
Common flat heads, used mostly for structural connections Finish Nails virtually headless, finish woodwork Common - Used for Framing, Large Shank & Head Box - Smaller Shank, less chance for splitting wood, Used Shingles, Rough Casings Casing, Finish, Brad - Finish Components, Sink Head Deformed Shank - Very Hard to Remove, DW & Flr. Concrete - Masonry & Concrete Cut - Finish Flooring - SQ Head Reduces Cracking Roofing - One of Many, Some Have lead/Rubber Washers
Size - Measured in “pennies” (Price of 100 nails long ago) Corresponding Lengths Same for Common & Finish Most Common Light Frame Nails - 16d for 2”, 10D AND 8D Coatings Bright/ Plain uncoated steel MOST COMMON USED - NON CORROSIVE OR CONCEALED CONDITION Corrosion-resistant “ EXPOSED TO WEATHER RUST OR STAIN LUMBER GALVANIZED, ALUM., SS Resin/Vinyl Decrease Drive & Increase Holding This nail has a smaller shaft – commonly called a ‘sinker’
Anchorage Face - Perpendicular to Grain End - Parallel Toe - Angle to Grain Which Has the Most Holding Power??? Which is most common???
APPLICATIONS FRAMING SHEATHING ROOFING
“ Head” type PHILLIPS SLOTTED SQUARE HEAD PAN, FLAT, ROUND, ETC. Sizing - Gauge & Length WIRE GAUGE (SAMPLES #8 & #10) LENGTH IN INCHES (AND FACTIONS) Installation HAND SCREW DRIVER “ SCREW GUN”, OR DRILL HOLDING POWER TIGHTER, STRONGER THAN NAILS CAN BE “BACKED” OUT, & REINSERTED Uses CABINETWORK SOME FRAMING APPLICATIONS DECKING - BETTER HOLD - LESS SQUECK
Lag Screws Large screws Very LARGE Screws, Wrench, ¼ “@ 2-6 in., ½ to 10” FOR HEAVIER STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS Square or octagonal head Installed w/ wrench Drywall screws Used to attach drywall Drywall Screws (Size, 1 ¼, 1 5/8, 2 “, Screw Gun - Fast, Wood or Metal,
Heavier structural connections Sizes 1/4 inch to 1 inch+ LENGTH; ABOUT ANY (PRACTICALLY 10-12”) Types Machine SQUARE OR OCTAGONAL HEAD USED WITH WASHER Carriage ROUND BUTTON HEAD SQUARE SHANK INHIBITS TURNING Washers DISTRIBUTE THE COMPRESSIVE FORCE
NUMEROUS TYPES AND SHAPES MOST COMMON - JOIST HANGER LIGHT WOOD FRAMING - ATTACHED WITH SCREWS OR NAILS HEAVY TIMBER - ATTACHED WITH BOLTS / LAGS
ON SITE LESS USES BECAUSE OF NEED TO CLAMP USES FLOOR SHEATHING BASE (SOLE) PLATES WALL PANELS PANELING (WHERE THERE IS A NEED FOR CONCEALED FASTENERS) INCREASE STIFFNESS, ELIMINATE “SQUEAK”
New Age of Building Materials Becoming Common Place in Homes
by Jill Mayfield, City of Austin Green Building Program
There's a new breed of building products that are changing the face of the building industry. They're called engineered building materials, and as conventional building materials become more expensive and harder to get, more homebuilders are using these new materials. One class of these products that is becoming widely used is "engineered" wood. Wood that once laid on the mill floor and was thrown away is now part of a new age of building materials.
But are engineered wood products weaker or inferior to solid pieces of lumber? No, they are designed by licensed structural engineers to do their job well, and have withstood rigorous testing at national labs. The advantages of engineered wood are better performance for the cost, a reduced use of natural resources, and less waste on the job site.
One of the most common uses of engineered wood are roof and floor trusses . The builder gives the house plans to a licensed engineer at the truss mill who designs a configuration of wood members and special metal fasteners that safely bear the load of the building.
A major environmental benefit is that short pieces of small dimension lumber can be used in a truss. This spares the trees in old growth forests-the source of the longest spans of lumber.
Engineered studs are another wood product gaining acceptance among builders and homeowners. These studs are made of short pieces of wood that have finger-like joints cut in each end that are glued together end to end. Wood that was once considered too short to be used for structural purposes, and often just went to the landfill, is now made into finger-jointed studs. Engineered studs are strong, straight and less likely to warp after installation like many solid lumber studs.
If your builder, architect, or designer is specifying engineered products in your home, it means he or she is using smart and proven building technology that is cost-effective. And by incorporating engineered materials into your home, the builder is using a material that may have once gone to waste, and is protecting resources-such as old growth forests-that can never be replaced.