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Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
Cellular
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Cellular

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Cellular

Cellular

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  • 1. Cellular Networks
  • 2. Mobile phone subscribers worldwide 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 year Subscribers [million] GSM total TDMA total CDMA total PDC total Analogue total Total wireless Prediction (1998)
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • The MSC (mobile switching center) plays a central role in GSM
      • switching functions
      • additional functions for mobility support
      • management of network resources
      • interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC)
      • integration of several databases
    • Functions of a MSC
      • specific functions for paging and call forwarding
      • termination of signaling
      • mobility specific signaling
      • location registration and forwarding of location information
      • provision of new services (fax, data calls)
      • support of short message service (SMS)
      • generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information
    Mobile Services Switching Center
  • 5.
    • Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a certain transmission area (cell)
    • Mobile stations communicate only via the base station
    • Advantages of cell structures:
      • higher capacity, higher number of users
      • less transmission power needed
      • more robust, decentralized
      • base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally
    • Problems:
      • fixed network needed for the base stations
      • handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary
      • interference with other cells
    • Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side (GSM) - even less for higher frequencies
    Cell structure
  • 6. Frequency reuse patterns
  • 7. 1G 2G 3G 2.5G IS-95 cdmaOne IS-136 TDMA D-AMPS GSM PDC GPRS IMT-DS UTRA FDD / W-CDMA EDGE IMT-TC UTRA TDD / TD-CDMA cdma2000 1X 1X EV-DV (3X) AMPS NMT IMT-SC IS-136HS UWC-136 IMT-TC TD-SCDMA CT0/1 CT2 IMT-FT DECT CDMA TDMA FDMA IMT-MC cdma2000 1X EV-DO Source: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/ MC SS 02 Development of mobile telecommunication systems
  • 8. AMPS is an analog cellular phone system using FDMA. Note :
  • 9. Figure 17.5 Second-generation cellular phone systems
  • 10. D-AMPS, or IS-136, is a digital cellular phone system using TDMA and FDMA. Note :
  • 11.
    • GSM
      • formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982)
      • now: Global System for Mobile Communication
      • Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute)
      • simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991, 1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations (Germany: D1 and D2)  seamless roaming within Europe possible
      • today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 184 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America)
      • more than 747 million subscribers
      • more than 70% of all digital mobile phones use GSM
      • over 10 billion SMS per month in Germany, > 360 billion/year worldwide
    GSM: Overview
  • 12. GSM bands
  • 13.
    • Communication
      • mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services
    • Total mobility
      • international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers
    • Worldwide connectivity
      • one number, the network handles localization
    • High capacity
      • better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell
    • High transmission quality
      • high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains)
    • Security functions
      • access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN
    Performance characteristics of GSM
  • 14.
    • There is no perfect system!!
    • no end-to-end encryption of user data
    • reduced concentration while driving
    • electromagnetic radiation
    • abuse of private data possible
    • high complexity of the system
    • several incompatibilities within the GSM standards
    Performance characteristics of GSM
  • 15. GSM is a digital cellular phone system using TDMA and FDMA. Note :
  • 16. IS-95 is a digital cellular phone system using CDMA/DSSS and FDMA. Note :
  • 17. The main goal of third-generation cellular telephony is to provide universal personal communication. Note :
  • 18. IMT-2000 radio interfaces
  • 19. Satellite Networks
  • 20. Satellite categories
  • 21. Satellite orbit altitudes
  • 22. Table 17.1 Satellite frequency band 3500 500 500 70 15 Bandwidth, MHz 20 11 4 1.9 1.5 Downlink, GHz 30 Ka 14 Ku 6 C 2.2 S 1.6 L Uplink, GHz Band
  • 23. Satellites in geosynchronous orbit
  • 24. Triangulation
  • 25. GPS
  • 26. LEO satellite system
  • 27. Iridium constellation
  • 28. The Iridium system has 66 satellites in six LEO orbits, each at an altitude of 750 km. Note :
  • 29. Iridium is designed to provide direct worldwide voice and data communication using handheld terminals, a service similar to cellular telephony but on a global scale. Note :
  • 30. Teledesic
  • 31. Teledesic has 288 satellites in 12 LEO orbits, each at an altitude of 1350 km. Note :

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