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Elt magazine winter 2012


Issue 2 of ELTmag is now online at This issue contains practical teaching ideas from teachers around the world - Spain, Britain, Austria, Iran, New Zealand and Chile - including …

Issue 2 of ELTmag is now online at This issue contains practical teaching ideas from teachers around the world - Spain, Britain, Austria, Iran, New Zealand and Chile - including well-known authors Russell Stannard, Charlie Hadfield, Jamie Keddie , Nicky Hockly, Thomas Jerome Baker and Marjorie Rosenberg.

Besides the usual features, we have two new features this issue: Into the Classroom and Weblinks.

Into the Classroom, aims to bring research into classroom practice and features articles outlining a piece of research in a brief and readable way and exploring direct applications for the classroom.

Weblinks provides a list of links to sites with useful materials for teachers.

Happy reading!

Jill Hadfield
Editor ELTmag
Unitec Institute of Technology

Published in Education , Technology
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  • 1. Issue 2, Winter 2012 Department of Language StudiesELTmag In this IssueWelcome to ELTmag! Lessons for all page 2 Practical teaching ideas including suggestions for teaching used to and relative clauses, listening toAbout ELTmag a youtube video, revising tenses, and using mobileThis ezine is funded by Te Waka o nga Reo, The Department phones, contributed by Jamie Keddie, Amir Abbasof Language Studies at Unitec in New Zealand, and edited Ravael, Emma Lay, Marjorie Rosenberg, Heatherby Jill Hadfield, author and teacher-trainer, who is a Senior Richards, and Clare ConwayLecturer in the department. It has an emphasis on practical TT Time page 9teaching ideas with a global/universal appeal. The aim isto provide an counterbalance to the largely Eurocentric Charlie Hadfield shares ideas on varying feedbackcultural bias of many of the materials available today. The formatMaori name of our Department, Te Waka o nga Reo, means Try This! page 10The Canoe of Languages, a metaphor for the fact that, Russell Stannard explores the Connected Classroomwhatever our nationality, whatever our language, we areall bound on the same journey. The main section of our Webwise page 13ezine, devoted to practical teaching ideas, has the same In her regular feature Nicky Hockly introducesphilosophy. GlogsterThis issue contains practical teaching ideas from teachers Hi-Tech/Lo-Tech page 14around the world - Spain, Britain, Austria, Iran, New Zealand Joanna Smith uses Sound Recorder or Audacity toand Chile - including well-known authors Russell Stannard, explore awareness of discourse structureCharlie Hadfield, Jamie Keddie, Nicky Hockly and Marjorie Lit Kit page 15Rosenberg. Besides the usual features, we have two new Jenni Percy’s regular feature on useful websites forfeatures this issue: Into the Classroom and Weblinks.Into the Classroom, aims to bring research into classroom literacy teachingpractice and features articles outlining a piece of research Into the Classroom page 15in a brief and readable way and exploring direct applications Chris Baldwin explores the classroom implications offor the classroom. Weblinks provides a list of links to sites his research on error correctionwith useful materials for teachers. Conferenceshare page 17Happy reading! Thomas Baker shares some highlights from theJill recent Edcamp ‘unconference’ Bookcase page 18 Unitec Institute of Technology welcomes visitors from Short and sweet: 100 word reviews New Zealand and around the world to use this website. By accessing and using this website you agree: Weblinks page 18 1. that the copyright in each article on the website vests in Links to useful websites for language teachers the relevant contributor of that article; 2. that the content of any article may be reproduced free of Submit An Article page 18 charge in any format or media for personal or non- Guidelines for contributors commercial use provided it acknowledges the contributor as the author, is reproduced accurately, is not sold or otherwise disposed of on a commercial basis and not used in a misleading manner; and Enjoy! 3. that you are responsible for determining and clearing And send in your articles for the next issue! copyright and obtaining permissions if you wish to reproduce or distribute the contents of any article otherwise than in accordance with point 2.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10
  • 2. ELTmag 2012 Decide how you are going to display the clip in class. Possibilities include: » Laptop or desktop (good for small groups) » Computer, projector + screen » iPhone or other mobile device (good for one-to-ones/intimate classes) Don’t forget the loudspeakers Lesson plan 1. Tell students that you have a recipe for them. Give out copies of the worksheet (Mystery recipe). 2. Tell students that something is missing. Ask them to tell you what it is (answer = ingredients). 3. Make sure students understand that: » Ingredient (1) appears on the recipe five times and ingredient (3) appears twice. » In some cases, students will have to write moreLessons for all than a single word in the spaces provided on the worksheet.An unusual recipeJamie Keddie 4. While students complete the worksheet, help with any unknown words or problematic vocabulary. A reading activity based on a youtube video: Alternatively, allow access to bilingual dictionaries. 5. Let students compare their answers and conductLesson type a feedback. Pay close attention to singular, plural, » Language level: Pre-intermediate (A2) + countable and uncountable forms.» Learner type: Teens; Adults; CLIL Common answers include:» Time: 30 minutes (+ follow up) 1. Spaghetti / pasta / rice» Main activity: Reading 2. Salt» Topic: Food and cookery 3. Oil / butter 4. Garlic» Language: The imperative 5. Peppers / tomatoes» Materials: Video + worksheet 6. Bay leaf / handful of basil / bunch of basil (or other herb)Preparation, equipment and materials 7. Spoonful of sugar / sugar lump 8. Butter / cream1. For this activity, you will need a short animation 9. Cheese from filmmaker PES called Western Spaghetti. It can 10. Salt and pepper be seen on YouTube. To access the video, copy and paste the following link into the address bar at the top of your browser: 6. If you have students who cook, ask them if this is how they would prepare pasta or spaghetti. Find out what 2. Make a copy of the worksheet on the last page they would do differently. (Mystery recipe) for each student. 7. Show the video. 8. Ask students to recall as many of the objects in the video as possible. In many cases, they won’t know the names and will have to rely on descriptions.Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 2
  • 3. Mystery recipe Objects in the video: To prepare the ___________________ (1): 1. Pick-up sticks (a game in which you have to remove a stick from a pile without disturbing the remaining » Turn on the gas and place a pot of water on the heat ones) » Add some ___________________ (2) 2. Plastic eyes (perhaps from a doll or teddy bear) » When the water starts to boil, add a handful of 3. Aluminium foil _________________(1) 4 A Rubik’s cube » After boiling for about 10 minutes, the ______________ 5. Pin cushions (1) should look like rubber bands – this means that it is 6. A one-dollar bill ready. 7. A dice (or ‘a die’ if you prefer) » Drain the ___________________ (1) in a colander 8. A Post-it note 9. A ball of wool 10. Glitter (from a kaleidoscope) To prepare the sauce: » Add some ______________________ (3) to a frying pan Note that some learners, especially young learners, will » Chop a clove of ___________________ (4) and add it to have little or no knowledge of some of these items (pick- the hot ________________________ (3) up sticks, Rubik’s cubes or kaleidoscopes, for example). » Add a few ripe _____________________ (5) and squash them with a wooden spoonFollow up » Stir the sauce » Take a _____________________ (6) (perhaps you grow Ask students to write out their own recipes (serious orsilly). Note that they should refer to the language in the this in your own house or garden), chop it up finely and worksheet as a model for their own writing. add it to the sauce » Add a ____________________________ (7) to sweetenVariation » Melt some ___________________ (8) into the sauceTry to get hold of as many of the items from the video as And finally:possible (a ball of wool, a pin cushion, a dice, etc). Use theseto play a game in which you pass each object around the class » Transfer the _______________________ (1) to a plateand in pairs, students have to think and write down something » Add a good-sized spoonful of sauceit could be used for. After this, tell students that they are going » Grate some _______________________ (9) on topto do something completely different and then move onto the » Season with _______________________ (10)main activity. Students will be especially surprised to see the » Light a candle, sit down and enjoy your meal!objects make an unexpected appearance in the video. Jamie Keddie 2012Comments» For more great animations, go to the filmmaker’s own website:» The difficulty of this lesson plan may depend more on students’ experience or (cultural) knowledge of cooking and recipes than on the language used in the worksheet.Jamie Keddie is a European-based teacher, teachertrainer, writer and presenter. He is the founder, the site that was formerly knownas TEFLclips, winner of a British Council ELTons award. Hispublications include Images in the in the Resource Books forTeachers series published by Oxford University Press. Jamieis an associate trainer at Norwich Institute for LanguageEducation in the UK.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 3
  • 4. ELTmag 2012 Lessons for all 5. Now ask studentsask studentssentences into the sentences i 5. Now to separate the to separate the two parts (main and relative clauses). Sometimes students We’re Relatives relative clauses). Sometimes students will jus will just break the sentence in half and not realise that the Emma Lay 5. Now ask students to separate the sentencesandstudents to the main clause. sentences into th 5. Now ask is not realise that (main the relative clause embedded in separate and clause is embe into the two parts the relative relative clauses). Sometimes studentsrelative clauses). Sometimes students will just brea will just break the sentence in half Overview 5. Now ask students separate the sentencesand the two in the (mainto Khaled wants embedded parts the relative and study finance Time: 30-40 minutes accuracy canto that the relative clause isintonot realise thatmain clause.clause is embedded Using relative clauses with not realise and present syntactical and conceptual challengesclauses). Sometimes students will just break the sentence in half relative for many learners of English. This interactive activity aims to wants these challenges studyKhaled Khaled address to financewants next used year study who to to work . finance in n Time: 30-40 notof grammar fun!the and minutes that and make this tricky area cards enough forrelative long sentences with one card per realise clause is embedded in the main clause. Materials: A4-size 4 or 5 Aims: word/punctuation mark (see below), a markerto felt-tipfinancewho in student. Jeddah to who used or work pen for eachnext used year is useful . for work in Khaled wants to study At this point, it students to put th 1. to promote understanding of the syntax of non-defining Materials: with relationship between the clauses.5 long sentences with one card per A4-size cards per for 4 or 5 long sentences the one card enough for 4 or relative clauses and relative clause second just to highlight the ‘ext a markerPreparation:who of punctuation andfor to a markerstudents to put the main long clause. and the to put the mai 2. toword/punctuation mark point, it the students to or felt-tip penand each relative or felt-tip awareness At in the(see below), raise pen for each student.used useful of move in forinmake it is useful for At the student. space this room is absence for work about this point, a clause first students Jeddah ough for 4 or 5 long sentences with clause second just to highlight the ‘extra’ nature of the information the subject pronoun in non-definingcard per relative one relative clauses. ‘sentence’ line. relative clause second just to highlight the ‘extra’ na 6. They will have 2 spare commas and no subjelow), a markerPre-intermediateinpoint, in is useful for students to move about anduseful for students to put the main Level: or felt-tip pen for each student. – Intermediate At this point, it is or students toPreparation: space itathe room for At this make long move about and the relative clause. to put in the relativerelative clause second just to the main clause firstlong the make a and clause first and the clause.students what is ‘wrong’ with clause. Ask Time: 30-40 minutes ‘sentence’ line. They will second just to highlight thehighlight nature pronounof thetheno full-stop). Give them b relative clause have 2 spare commas and no subjecthavethe spare commas and no subject pr 6. Language practice: relative clausessentences 6.‘extra’ the ‘extra’ nature forand relative the They will of pronoun information in subject 2 information Materials: A4-size cards enough for 4 or 5 long relative clause. oom for studentscard move about and clause.students what is ‘wrong’ with the second sentenceis(no to per word/punctuationAsk a long in the clause. make (see below), a relative mark clause. Ask students what with one these features, and no subject pronoun with the s ‘wrong’ 6. They will have 2 spare commas replacing ‘who’ with ‘He’ and ad marker or felt-tip pen for each student.spare commas and no subject pronoun for the relative is ‘wrong’ 6. They subject relative and no will have 2uses Language practice:pronoun clauses full-stop). Give themAsk them and nothe and addGive them blank c subjectblank cards to write combined sentence aga for the relative clause. Ask students what 7. pronoun make full-stop). Procedure: in the room for students to move about Preparation: space with the second sentence (no subject pronoun and no clause. Ask students what is ‘wrong’ full-stop). adding thesentence ‘who’ with these with the features, replacing (no second full and make a long ‘sentence’ line. features, replacing ‘who’ with ‘He’ and Give them blank cards to write and add ‘He’ and adding t these these relative clausestop. to physically ‘embed’ the haveve clauses subject pronoun and nothe combined sentence again. make with ‘He’ and with the full stop. again. T 7. Ask clauses make full-stop). Give themAsk replacing ‘who’ studentsadd ‘who’ ,remove one o them features, cardsThe 7. blank them to write and adding sentence the 1.Procedure: Language practice: relative replace the the combined Show students a sentence that includes a non-defining relative clause ‘He’ card with – these relative clause have to physically7. Askrelativethe full the combined sentence. The and adding remake stop. them to features, replacing ‘who’ with ‘He’ ‘embed’ themselveshave tomain clause, the commas the physically ‘embed’ themselve clause in back have This really students with the relative clause in. . to physically gets the me ideally have as many items in the sentence (including punctuation) as Procedure: 7. Ask them make the combined ‘who’ ,remove one of relative the main clause, replace the replace the ‘He’ card with sentence ‘embed’ themselves in clause again. The students with the put replace the ‘He’ card that occur between the 2 ‘f the ‘full-stop’ with and cards hat includes Show 1. Show sentence that sentencenon-defining a non-defining thechanges one– ‘who’ ,remove one of the o 1. a non-definingthe class.clause – a that includes students in students a includes students a relative ‘He’ card with ‘who’, remove of the ‘full-stop’ cards ideally punctuation) itemsphysically ‘embed’ themselvespunctuation) clause, relative clause have items . the commas to (includingpart the sentence really relative message in back 2. Ask them ideally have asmanyback in the Thissentenceandthe the commas across and highlights main relative clause – to identify many part the really gets the message extra . as with the gets in the sentence (including have aswhich as is the main clause andput commas is back in.This really gets the theclause. which combined in. This replace the ‘He’ card with occur between message across and highlightsand changes that occur 2 original nce that includes a (including punctuation) as students– the class. sentence non-defining relative clause in ‘full-stop’ cards the between students the changes that ‘who’ ,remove one the 2 changes steps occur put a the the sentence. the the Repeat that 1-7 with of information. in the class. 8. original sentences and different between the 2 original sentences and the combined items in 2. Ask them to identify which punctuation)This really relative clause. which part is extra the sentence the commas backwhich clause and gets the message across and highlights part is the main 2. Ask(includingidentify in. . ask them main clause sentencesentence with of relative clause. them a part each and asart is the main clausestudentscombined extra part is the to write sentence with the relative clause.the the pronouns the most to which part and which card is 3. Give is extra information. sentence with combined onto the the and with the changing the changes steps occur between the 8. Repeat The with a differenta the 8. Repeat that 1-7 with a different sentence. steps 1-7 with time. information. 8. Repeat steps 1-7 studentsandsentence. 2 original sentences who different sentence. The s struggle 3. Givecards. For example: ask them to write the students a card each and cards the second The students who struggle with the changing of the sentence clause cards. For example: extra relative clause. with thecould take of the pronouns the most 3. Give sentenceaonto each the ask them to pronouns the most could take these particular repetitive nature combined sentence is part with of ich part is the main onto the and which changing andthe pronouns write mostsentence onto the particularcards the could nd ask them to write the studentsthecardthe with the 9. Repeat as required. The the changing these 8. Repeat steps 1-7 with time. cards. For example: second time. cards the second a different sentence. The sentence structures and you should start to students who struggle cards the second time. ach and ask them to with Repeat as required. The repetitive Repeat takerequired. Jeddah repetitive nature reall Khaled write ,the sentence onto the 9. who used to 9. Repeat as required. The repetitive nature really helps to work in changing of the pronouns the most nature as these particular the could really helps toThe 9. the sentence at making the ‘drill’ ‘drill’ faster structures and you should start to changes. cards sentence structures and you should start to getstructures get at making the start to notice the second time. notice them notice themfaster fastershould sentence faster in well, you and and to Khaledwork to in , 10. If this is going and you could move up a not used , wants study Jeddahused who finance to changes. work next year . Jeddah 9. Repeat as at making the changes. faster required. The repetitive nature really making the ‘drill’ separate but related senten at helps to two the faster Show studentschanges. 10. If this is going well, you could move up a notch and ho used tosentence structures and youJeddah move to notice themShow students two separate but a notch an 10. If work is going well, you should startreverse theis going get faster could move up this in could 10. If this activity. well, you and up a notch and reverse the activity.dy finance , next wants year to . study finance next year related sentences. For example: . faster Show studentschanges. at making the two separate but related sentences. For example: but related sentences. Show students two separatetaught in Japan. She is Emma has Emma has taught in Japan. She is from Birmingham. study 4. finance If thisthen stand up and ‘be’ the sentence (the surprise element activity. Ask 10. nextis going well, you could move up a notch and reverse the them to year . 11. Ask them to combine them using a non-defining Show students two separate but related sentences. fromexample: relative is ForEmma student taking physical She here really engages them all!). has taught in Japan. Sheclause with eachhas taught inaJapan. role is from B Emma Birmingham.and ‘be’ the Ask them to then stand upthen‘be’ the sentence (the the sentencesentence. They will have to decide which 4. sentence (the surprise element up and ‘be’ 4. Ask them to and stand in the (the surprise element surprise element here really engages them all!). information is extra and reuse/write cards for commas . here really engages themtaught in Japan. She is relative pronouns. Emma has all!). and from Birmingham.d up and ‘be’ the sentence (the surprise elementm all!). 11 12 Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 4 11 12
  • 5. Conclusion Lessons for allThis works very well as a reinforcement activity, especially Grammar Bingofor students who are having problems with the punctuationand substitution of the subject pronoun for the relative Marjorie Rosenbergpronoun. The kinaesthetic and analytical aspect highlights Aims: to revise tensesthe structural and conceptual manipulation that needs totake place to create and understand sentences with relative Level: Pre-intermediate – Intermediateclauses. One of its strengths is that it is a collaborative, Time: 30-40 minuteslearner-centred task with students working together tobuild their sentences, with all students playing a part. The Materials: A copy of the worksheet for each student.teacher is truly a facilitator and guide in this activity and it’s Preparation: Copy the worksheet Ensure there is space ingreat to be able to watch the activity and witness the penny the room for students to move about.drop the more they do it! Language practice: mixed tensesExtensions Procedure:» Ask students to then write and ‘be’ their own sentences (a nice personalised touch that will aid retention of the 1. Give out copies of the worksheet and ask students to patterns). write the answers in the boxes.» Students can try to remember the sentences for 2. Students then move around the room trying to find homework and write them up as a record, as two people with the same answers as theirs. sentences and then the combined version. 3. The aim is to find five answers that make a line (across, down or diagonal).Variations 4. The first person to do this can shout ‘Bingo!”» You can have students with the relative clauses stand closer together/sit down, stand up to exploit the activity Marjorie Rosenberg teaches general and business English for intonation practice. as well as exam preparation (CAE) at the University of Graz» If you don’t have space to move about, you can do this in and is employed at the University of Teacher Education in small groups/pairs and index cards on tables or with Styria where she teaches ESP to ICT students. She is an cards and blu-tack on the whiteboard. active teacher trainer and holds seminars, workshops and conference presentations throughout Europe. Marjorie is» For larger groups you can have two or three sentences a co-author of ‘Friends’, a text book for lower secondary going at the same time or the groups racing to finish the schools and of ‘Business Connections’ and ‘Technical same sentences to add a fun, competitive element. Connections’, course books for upper secondary professional» This can be done for defining relative clauses too as well schools in Austria. She has published ‘In Business’ and as other grammatical structures such as cleft sentences. ‘Business Advantage Intermediate and Advanced Personal Study Books’ with Cambridge University Press, ‘English for» Different colour cards can be used for the punctuation Banking and Finance 2’ for Pearson and has revised Pass marks to really get the point across and add an extra Cambridge BEC Vantage for Heinle-Cengage/National visual dimension. Geographic. She currently writes regularly for Professional English Online, the CUP website. Her newest book, ‘SpotlightEmma Lay has worked in various sectors of ELT for 11 years on Learning Styles’ with Delta is due out in autumn. Marjoriein the UK, Italy and Japan. She teaches EAP and EFL at the is currently the co-ordinator of the Business English SpecialUniversity of Leicester and is interested in authenticity English Group (BESIG) of the classroom, the Dogme approach and learnerempowerment through involvement in the learning process.Contact and of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 5
  • 6. ELTmag 2012Grammar BingoWrite your own answers to the questions. Then find someone with the same answer.Try to get five answers in a row (across, down or diagonal) from five different people. Then you can say ‘Bingo’! What were you doing What haven’t you done What do you do every What are you going What do you hope will on Saturday at 8pm? since you were a child? morning? to do at the winter happen next year? break? What did you do What do you do What are you going to What do you do on the What book are you yesterday? several times a month? do next summer? weekends? reading? How many films have What are you going to What did you enjoy What are you Which sport have you you seen this year? do after class? doing as a teenager? studying? never done? What event do you What are you going to What do you dislike What do you do in the When did you begin to think will be important do this weekend? doing? evenings? learn English? next year? When are you going to What were you doing How many times have Name one other class How do you usually finish your this morning at 9 am? you been abroad this that you are taking. get to the university? studies? year?Marjorie Rosenberg 2010Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 6
  • 7. Lessons for all Feedback Provide feedback on both language and culture.Noticing classroom diversity: Mobile phonesHeather Richards and Clare Conway 1. Language: Depending on the level of the class, feedback may involve error correction; new vocabulary (eg. ‘apps’); new structures (eg. ‘I really like’, ‘I wish I had’, ‘I don’t need’). 2. Culture: Acknowledging range of phones in class (variety of models, colour, range of uses etc.) gives learners the opportunity to reflect on diversity of practice amongst classmates. Activity Classroom diversity: Mobile phones Tell your group about your mobile phone if you have one. If you don’t have a mobile phone, tell the group about your landline.Teachers’ Notes Answer these questions:Aim: To provide opportunities for learners to noticediversity within their own environment in the context of » What make is it?talking about mobile phones. » What colour is it?Level: Elementary and above » Have you got a case for it?Time: 10 -15 minutes » Where did you buy it?Materials: One mobile phone; set of questions » Where do you keep it?Preparation: Write questions on board; group chairs in » When do you mainly use it?threes for student discussion. » What do you use it for?Skills » How would you feel if you lost it?Speaking and listening » What does your phone reveal about you?Language » Do you want a new phone?Present simple for describing an everyday object OverviewCulture Effective lessons for learners integrate language andMaking connections with own culture culture. The Intercultural Language Learning Framework (see References) provides teachers with a guide whenProcedure planning lessons to develop intercultural language speakers. The framework has five domains:1. Group learners in threes. » Make connections with own cultures2. Teacher shows learners mobile phone (preferably an older model). Say, “This is my mobile phone. I want a new » Compare and contrast and make meaning one.” » Link culture and language3. Show questions and depending on level, check » Reflect on own culture through the eyes of others vocabulary (eg. ‘reveal’,) in questions. » Interact in the target language across boundaries4. Tell learners to talk about their phone – mobile or landline. This mobile phone activity can be linked to the domain ‘Make connections with own cultures’ and gives learners the5. Set students off to talk in groups.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 7
  • 8. ELTmag 2012opportunity to recognise diversity within their immediate and the other of you when you were younger. Or, for fun,environment, encouraging them to see beyond stereotypes. use a picture of someone who is totally different to you, but obviously younger (I use Brad Pitt for example).ReferencesConway, C. Richards, H., Harvey, S. & Roskvist. A. (2010) Procedure Opportunities for learners to develop Language 1. Engage Knowledge and Cultural Knowledge. Asia Pacific Journal of Education. 40, 449–462. Stick the pictures on the board and tell the students some things about each person, using the present simpleRichards, H., Conway, C., Roskvist, A. & Harvey, S. (2011). A framework for analysing observation data: Language Young me Me now teacher provision of opportunities for learners to Smoked 30 cigarettes a day I don’t smoke develop intercultural competence. In A. Witte & T Harden Played football every other day Plays golf once a (Eds.). Intercultural Competence: Concepts, Challenges, week Evaluations. pp 239-252. Oxford, England: Peter Lang. Ask the students to guess some further ideas about you now and before. Write correct guesses up. If there aren’t Clare and Heather work in Language Teacher Education in enough correct guesses tell them some more facts: aim to the School of Language and Culture at AUT University. Their get about 6 sentences in each column.research interests are in intercultural language teachingand reflective practice. They have published and presented 2. Studylocally and internationally. Usage 1: Past habits/states Elicit some sentences about the younger you, using a gap Lessons for all fill for the first example. e.g. I _____________ to smoke 30 cigarettes a day.When I was young… Ask for further sentences using ‘used to’Amir Abbas Ravaei Now note the negative form i.e. “I didn’t USE to play golf” and ask for further example sentences. Usage 2: To contrast past and present Show an example using the young you and now I used to smoke 30 cigarettes a day, but now I don’t smoke. Ask for some further examples. Study activity 1: Put students in pairs and ask them to write six sentences about themselves that were true but aren’t true now., eg » I used to go out a lot , but now I stay home and watch TV » I didn’t use to like cabbage, but now I do.Teacher’s Notes » Ask students to shareLevel: Intermediate 3. ActivateTime: 20 minutes The way we were!Aim: In this lesson we will look at “used to” + infinitive for First, tell them that they shouldn’t write their names on past habits and states which are now finished, and contrast the sheets but should write male or female at the top.past routines with a present state Students complete the activity sheet for themselves Language: “used to” + infinitive for past habits when they were 10 years old and now, filling in columns 1 and 2 only. Tell them not to write anything in column 3.Preparation: Blow up two pictures one of yourself nowTel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 8
  • 9. Swap the sheets around the class and get each student TT Time to write a brief summary in column 3 from the information on the sheet they have, using both Varying Feedback Format affirmative and negative of ‘used to’ if possible. Charlie Hadfield Swap the sheets randomly again, and they have to Feedback can take place in either oral or written form, or guess who the people are. both. I believe trainees can learn most if they receive both kinds of feedback , as each medium has its advantages andMaterials: A questionnaire can carry a different message. 1 2 3 Written feedback gives the opportunity for a more Me aged Me now Sentence carefully thought out and elaborated message which can be read and re-read and pondered on. Oral feedback 10 on the other hand maximizes trainees’ opportunities to look like learn from each other and also to ask questions or clarify misunderstandings. Here are some suggestions for feedback formats that offer variety and a mixture of oral and written feedback. be like 1. a) Put trainees in pairs to talk to each other for 5 minutes , then regroup the pairs so that everyone has a new partner. Continue regrouping until everyone favourite has talked to everyone else. food Ask them to give each other: one ‘praise’ one question for that trainee favourite TV one question to ask the tutor later show b) Now make a circle, including the tutor. Get them to ask their ‘tutor questions’. clothes 2. a) Ask them, individually, to formulate a question about their own practice, to share with the whole group. b) Form a circle, and each trainee asks the question, and hobbies then each of the other trainees and tutor responds if they can. sports Favourite music dreamsAmir Abbas Ravaei has been an English language teacher,teacher trainer, and ELT manager for 23 years. He is alsoa Cambridge ESOL Speaking Examiner and runs TESOLcourses at Hakim Language Institute which is the partnerschool of “ London Teacher Training College” in Iran.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 9
  • 10. has talked to everyone else . Ask them to give each other: one ‘praise’ ELTmag one question for that trainee one question to ask the tutor later 2012 b) Now make a circle, including the tutor.Get them to ask their ‘tutor questions’. 2. a) Ask them, individually, to formulate a question about their own practice, to share with the whole group. b) Form a circle, and each trainee asks the question, and then each of the other3. trainees and main thoughts about the lesson on the Jot down tutor responds if they can. example, language of instruction-giving, we often focus Pic of people in a circle whiteboard/flipchart. Try to find 3 or 4 relating to each solely on this and run the feedback session as a micro- trainee. They can be put up in random order. As a group, teaching session. In this example, trainees could be 3) Jot down main thoughts about the lesson on the whiteboard/flipchart. Try to together, they have to comment on the topics, and say asked to script a set of instructions for a complex find 3 or 4 relating to each trainee. They can be put up in random order. As a why you have put them up, and who they might relate activity, such as a card game or information gap activity group, together, they have to comment on the topics, and say why you have put to. The board might look a bit like this: and try them out on each other. This is particularly them up, and who they might relate to. The board might look a bit like this: helpful in the early stages of TP. Whiteboard work correction of student X 9. Silence…. Make no particular comments, but see which posture instructions issues are on their minds, and what they need to talk timekeeping!! about. This is very helpful mid-course on a full-time OHP?? Jokes course when they are feeling most pressured. SMILE! Students’ names 10. During the TP, write out small slips of paper with key topics on (similar to activity (3) above) Trainees draw a Grading of language slip from the hat, and have to say how they think it Accuracy/fluency Use of colour relates to the lesson. 11. Looking forward: instead of dissecting the lesson just TTT finished, start by looking at the planning for next TP. pronunciation drill Each trainee must say what s/he will improve on next time. Charlie Hadfield has worked as 24 a teacher and teacher4. Ask them as individuals to write down three action-plan trainer in Britain, France, China, Tibet, Madagascar, run points for each of their co-trainees for the next TP. short courses and seminars for teachers in many other5. “I wish I was you” activity parts of the world, and worked as a consultant for the UK’s Each trainee singles out one or two features of their Department of International Development, reviewing aid co-trainees’ teaching style that they admire/ projects in Africa. Charlie now teaches at ELA, Auckland envy/regard highly and which they’d like to develop University. He has written several books, including Reading in themselves. They tell the group in turn what these Games, Writing Games, five books in the Oxford Basics are and why. This activity can really help quieter/shyer/ series and An Introduction to Teaching English (OUP). He is less confident trainees. Usually trainees sense when a also the author of 4 books of poems. colleague is not doing so well or having a downturn, and will instinctively rally round to help in this way. Everyone leaves feeling praised and patted on the back. Try This!6. Some TPs, not all the trainees teach. I then put the The Connected Classroom-Using Technology ‘teacher’ in a group with one or two ‘observers’. Teacher to get students speaking asks the observers about his/her performance. Russell Stannard With a very solid bunch, one can develop into pairs/ There has been a general belief that technology and groups talking in terms of especially the internet facilitate listening, reading and a) a positive comment + writing skills more than they do speaking. This perception b) a question ? has perhaps changed to some degree with the introduction c) an action point of the podcasting since it offers the chance for students but only if you are sure they can be supportive and to make “oral” recordings of them speaking, telling stories, practical and not negative. doing interviews, describing places and much more.7. One trainee (roll a dice) is volunteered to role-play the However over the last 3 years, there has been a steady Tutor – what issues am I going to bring up with regard to trickle of web 2.0 tools that can easily facilitate speaking. the lesson? Among these are two free tools: mailVu and Eyejot, which8. Generally, I manage to write a set of General Feedback are what are known as videocam tools. Both are available notes as well as their own individual ones, which I copy on the internet and offer excellent opportunities for for them all after the TP. These are thoughts that occur students to develop their speaking skills. At the Centre to me during the TP which I feel will be generally for Applied Linguistics at the University of Warwick, I have helpful to all.If there is one outstanding issue, for been experimenting with these tools and the results andTel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 10
  • 11. outcomes are very interesting. One even more pleasing I then told the students to do the same thing. They had tothing is that these tools are incredibly easy to use, so even draw a timeline and add in some dates. I also suggestedthe most technophobic teacher will be able to engage with they add a few notes in English to help them rememberthe ideas I have outlined below. what happened at each date. I encouraged them to include anything they felt was “important in their life”. After, I the students into A/B pairs. Student A started by talking about his/her timeline and student B listened and could askYou will never find an easier tool to use than mailVu. You questions and then student B talked and student A listened.need a computer, microphone and webcam. You go to the I moved around the class, listening and taking notes. After Isite, click on a button and then record yourself speaking. asked some of the students to talk about what their partnerThe system also videos you at the same time. You can then had on a second button, write in the address of the personyou want to send the video-mail to and that is it. The person I then went over some of the mistakes or problems thatwho receives the video mail, simply clicks on the link and I had noted. Obviously the students were using the pastcan listen and watch you talking. tenses a lot so I went over some of the pronunciation problems and irregular verbs. We also looked at the adverbsThis is used a lot in business where organisations need to and how to contextualise events.send video messages rather than simple e-mails. Howeverit can also be used in language teaching. Students can I then showed the students MailVu and explained that weprepare speaking activities in the classroom then go home, were going to use it for their homework. I explained thatopen up mailVu and record themselves speaking and then the students had to go home, go onto MailVu and recordsend the video-mail to their teacher. The teacher can then themselves talking about their lives. They were allowed toclick on the link and listen. It opens up a whole new world use their pieces of paper with the dates on to help them. So( especially for homework) where we can get our students it meant they had a sort of “framework” from which to workdoing speaking outside of the class and what is now and help them organise their thoughts.important is that it is free and easy to use. Not a single student thought that the activity I had suggested was strange and only one person complainedThe Connected Classroom they didn’t have a webcam. I simply suggested they did theirI have been working on several different scenarios with this recording on a friend’s laptop.tool and with a lot of success. However one thing is clearabove everything else. The more you prepare the speaking Resultsactivity in the class, the better the students will do the All the students did the activity. In fact many of them usedrecordings at home. Below are 2 great ideas of activities you up the whole 10 minutes of the recording time ( mailVu iscan do with this tool. limited to 10 minutes). As the teacher, I simply received the emails, clicked on them and could play back their videoActivity One mails. I took notes on some of the mistakes and problemsThe first activity was with a group of 24 Japanese students they were having and I gave them back their notes in thewhose level was probably somewhere around IELTS 6.0. next lesson.The level is not that important and this activity could easily I found marking the work really interesting. Instead ofhave been done in a lower or higher level class. marking an essay, an exercise or the normal sorts ofIn the lesson I drew a time line on the board. It was simply a things we set our students for homework, suddenly I wasline across the whiteboard with a series of dates on it listening to my students speaking and telling me about their lives. I found it really interesting. I simply clicked on1965 1970 1979 1983 1986 1988 1993 1999 2000 the link, listened and took notes as I played the video. In the2007 2009 2010 2011 questionnaires and feedback we did with the students afterI told the students that these were “Important dates in the activity, the students were very enthusiastic about themy life” and I then began to talk to the students about the idea. Some even said that they were going to use mailVudates, giving a short history behind each date. It took about for other things in their lives. In other words, the activity10 minutes of the lesson and I encouraged the students to was not only useful for learning English but also for theask me questions to get more information. I told them about knowledge they picked up about technology which they feltthings like my first ever football match, first time I went they could transfer to other areas of their life. I also playedabroad, first time I visited China, first time I fell in love, my some of the best examples back in the lesson and we talkedjob in Spain, winning the Times Higher award, when I met about why they were good in terms of the language ormy best mate, a great holiday etc. organisation of ideas.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 11
  • 12. ELTmag 2012A second idea key to making the most of these tools is that we connect very tightly what we do in the class with what we get ourThe second idea is not my own but rather one that was students to do at home. It is this connection between thesuggested me by someone who had seen one of my class teaching and the homework which I really like. Thepresentations on the “Connected Classroom.” homework is almost an extension of the lesson and not anThe idea in this activity is to get the students to interview after thought. In fact the way these lessons are organised ,each other. It would work well in any level class but the it becomes an essential component of the lesson plan.activity I am going to describe was actually done in an This is why I like the term “Conneted Classroom”elementary adults class. What I like about this activity isthat it exploits the use of the web cam as well as the sound. More ideasThe students were put into groups and asked to think of You can use mailVu for a whole range of speaking activities.all the personal information questions they could think Here are a list of a few ideasof. They were told to think of questions in the following 1. Get the students to talk about their typical daycategories: general information, hobbies, job, education,travel. They were told to think of at least 10 questions. 2. Get the students to talk about a holiday they likedAfter the teacher asked one member of each group to read 3. Get the students to talk about their best friend ( they out their lists of questions. The teacher and students then could even bring them onto the camera)selected some of the best questions and the teacher wrotethem on the board. 4. Get the students to talk about an object that is important to them. Again this makes use of the visual element The students then worked in pairs and interviewed each since the students can hold up the object to the camera.other. Student A asked B the questions and then student Basked student A the questions. The teacher moved around 5. Get students to debate a topic in groups of pairsand took notes and after provided some feedback regarding 6. Get the students to prepare a monologue around an the questions and answers. issue that is important to them.The teacher then explained to the students how mailVu Many teachers have asked me if the videos can beworked. The students were asked to work in pairs and to downloaded. The way the system works, the videos areinterview each other. The students were told to organise kept “ in the cloud” so with mailVu you can only play thea time to use the computer rooms and do the recordings videos by clicking on the link. However there is another toolthere. The computer rooms have laptops with microphones called Eyejot which works in similar way. You can only makeand cams. Students could either do their homework at videos for 5 minutes with Eyejot but you can downloadhome in pairs or meet and do the recordings in the school them if you want them for your records. This can be verycomputer rooms. important if you want to build up a portfolio of evidence of the speaking skills of students. This tool is great forResults demonstrating student’s progress and providing evidenceThe results were very encouraging. Again students really of how students develop overtime. Some of my ideas withenjoyed the activity. What I felt worked here was the MailVu and Eyejot have created a lot of interest amongstpreparation and practice that the students had done before teachers who want to get their students to providethey actually did the recordings. One suggestion is to get portfolios. MailVu and Eyejot can really help to producethe students to add two more questions to the list so that more inventive and interesting ways of keeping a record of aeach interview is slightly different. The teacher listened to students learning and development. I have been using themthe interviews, took notes and then in the next lesson went in my own learning of Chinese and found it quite interestingover some of the problems the students had. The teacher to play back examples I had made several months ago andalso played some of the more interesting interviews in compare them to my progress now.the next lesson so that students could hear what otherstudents had done. Video HelpConclusions How to use MailVuMailVu ( or Eyejot) offer great possibilities for developing speaking skills. They are very simple technologies How to use EyeJotto use and they are free and generally very reliable. They up great possibilities for speaking. What seems to beTel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 12
  • 13. Russell Stannard runs » Students can create ‘culture capsule’ glogs in small a website that offers free step by step videos to show groups, with multimedia examples of cultural artefacts teachers how to use technology in their language teaching. from their own or other culturesIt received around a quarter of a million visits in 2011. » Students can create glogs in pairs or small groups Russell won the British Council ELTons award and the Times with the results of research on a particular topic (the Higher “Outstanding Initiative Award” for his work on the environment, animals, history, famous people or website. inventions, etc.) » Students can create glogs summarising the main points Webwise in a short story, book, film, or You Tube videoGlogster » Students can create glogs with key words and images to Nicky Hockly revise a topic or course book unitThe Internet provides a great range of free tools that » Students can create glogs about their school or country, English language teachers can use with students. In this and share them with students in other schools or second in the Webwatch series, Nicky Hockly takes a look at countriesGlogster. » Teachers can create a class glog to collate and showcase What is Glogster? students work e.g. videos, drawings, posters...Glogster ( is a multimedia online Some example glogsposter tool. You can create posters with text, images, Glogpedia: the best glogsaudio and video. Glogster Edu ( isespecially designed for teachers, and enables you to set up These are examples of glogs produced by students andaccounts for students and manage these centrally. Pricing teachers on a wide range of topics on the Glogster Edu siteplans for student managed accounts vary, but teachers (or can set up free individual accounts to create their Personal glogsown ‘glogs’ or online posters. A glog created by the author to introduce herself in onlineWhat do you need? teacher training coursesYou need an Internet connection to create a glog (poster) and view others’ glogs. Glogs are stored online, not on your g-6nbhff03mb7f0eeisgm1a27computer, so it is easy to share glogs via their web addresses. Greetings from the worldYou can add ready-made media (images, audio and video)to your glog, or you can create media at the same time as These student glogs were produced as part of ancreating your glog. If you plan to create media for your glog, international project will need a headset with microphone to create audio, or a webcam to video record or take still images Ghost storieson the spot. But you can also easily add any media you A glog created by a teacher to collate videos of her youngalready have stored on your computer, to your glog. learners telling illustrated ghost storiesHow can you use Glogster? digital-stories/» Students can create individual personal glogs about themselves, their family, hobbies or interests, and share QR codes in education the glogs with classmates, or use them as the basis for A glog explaining how QR codes can be used by educators; an oral presentation. This works well at the beginning of this is an example of a blog being used as a tool to introduce a new school term or year, for students who don’t yet teachers to new concepts know each other» Students can create individual glogs about a special trip, education/ holiday or occasion (eg. a birthday or other celebration), Party invitation or a party invitation A party invitation glog created by the moderators of an» Students can create individual personal glogs with online teachers’ association examples of their English work, with scanned examples of texts, photos, and audio or video recordings.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 13
  • 14. ELTmag 2012Nicky is Director of Pedagogy of The Consultants-E (www. within two minutes. They may like to practise once beforetheconsultants-e,com). She is co-author of several recording. Recording can be done with Sound Recordermethodology books about ICT and ELT. Her most recent (free on most PCs) or Audacity (freely downloaded from thepublication is an e-book on Webinars (http://the-round. internet).com/resource/webinars-a-cookbook-for-educators/), Students then save their sound recording as an MP3 file,and she is currently co-writing a book on Digital Literacies and post it onto a discussion forum, such as can be found in(forthcoming 2012). She lives in Spain, and is an ex- Blackboard, or Moodle. Here, they can then also access theirtechnophobe turned technophile. classmates’ recordings as well. Analysis task: Allow students to spend some time listening to the various ‘orders’ that are now posted on the discussionHi-tech/Lo-tech forum from their classmates. This can bring a lot ofTeaching discourse structure humour. They may wish to post response comments on theJoanna Smith discussion forum, either to their own posts, or classmates’ posts. Students then complete the following tasks: 1. Write down what is common to all the different recordings, e.g. specific items of vocabulary, (both words and fixed expressions – greetings, idioms, phrases) and structure. 2. Are any of the recordings unusual in any way? Why? 3. What ‘stages’ do you think these conversations all go through? 4. Can you develop a ‘formula’ for this type of conversation? After discussing initial answers, show students what some researchers have come up with, explaining the stages that such ‘service encounters’ go through. Discuss withHi-tech the class whether they can see the researcher’s formula working in their own generated conversations. It mayLevel of students: Advanced also be a good idea to have a couple of back-up ‘real life’Time allowed: 2 hours in the computer lab service encounters, such as some clips from YouTube, to show and analyse, to see the formula at work, just inAim of activity: to help students understand the concept case the students don’t produce typical service encounterof spoken discourse schematic structure – i.e. that certain conversations. The students themselves are often able totypes of conversations have particular ‘rules’ or a ‘structure’ see which conversations are ‘more typical’ than others.that fluent speakers follow. Ask students whether they think that a service encounterProcedure: in their own country would follow a similar pattern. (ThisThis activity has two parts to it – production and analysis. highlights the fact that genre are usually culturally specific.)Production task: In the computer lab, invite students to The point of lesson can then be discussed – students needpair up, and use a double headphone jack to plug in two to become aware and listen to the everyday ‘formulas’ thatheadphone sets into one machine. Alternately, if there is they hear, if they want to achieve a high degree of fluencyonly one headset per computer, students will need to hold in the language. Formulas are everywhere – coffee orders,the microphone, and take turns speaking closely into it. supermarket exchanges etc.Tell students they are going to do a role-play. One student Lo-techis a McDonald’s employee, and the other student is about to This activity can be done completely ‘lo-tech’ as well, byorder through a drive-through window. having students write down the McDonalds’ orderingTell them to record themselves having a normal drive- conversation, rather than recording it digitally. Studentsthrough ordering conversation. It does not matter what can simply share their pieces of butcher’s paper around thethey order. They should aim to complete the conversation classroom during the analysis phase.Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 14
  • 15. The advantage of doing it orally, through recording, is that reminds me of the old 4-3-2-1 method of having 4 minutes tostudents can have a chance to listen to themselves talk tell a story to person 1, three minutes to repeat it to personin English, and compare their pronunciation with that of 2, 2 minutes with person 3 and finally, when you are reallytheir classmates, and/or with their expectations of what an honed, just 1 minute to repeat it to person 4. By the finalEnglish service encounter should sound like. The advantage time, learner fluency and confidence is much enhanced.of digitally recording it, and posting it to a forum, over using Idiomscassette recorders in a language lab, is that students canaccess classmates’ recordings easily, and also can have Below are links to 2 examples from a whole series of shortaccess at other times, from home. Written and/or spoken YouTube clips (from 30 to 90 seconds in length) calledresponses can also be made on the forum from either peers ‘Quite Literally”. Produced by PearsonLongmanELT, theyor teacher. introduce idioms to learners in a fun way, that gets them talking about what the idioms might really mean. They canWhen I did this activity recently, one student told me after be used at many levels because the jokes are visual andthe class that that lesson had given her an epiphany – they contain very little language. Once you click on the linksshe was able to hear each student’s accent, and see the below you will have access to many others.difference that the L1 influence made. It’s important to notethat this student had been with the same classmates for weeks prior to this, and had never ‘noticed’ all the e=related (pull my leg) anddifferent accents. But the opportunity to listen carefully to classmates’ speech, at her own speed, with no other =related (let the cat out of the bag)disruptions, and with no expectation on her part to interact,was a new experience for her, and one which she valuedhighly. Into the ClassroomJoanna has a background in descriptive linguistics andhas been teaching English for more than a decade. She is To correct or not to correct, that is the questioncurrently a lecturer at Unitec, New Zealand. She particularly Chris Baldwinenjoys teaching various aspects of speaking, from discourseanalysis to pronunciation. She’s also interested in WorldEnglishes, and the place of New Zealand English in that mix.Lit KitSupporting Oral and Visual LiteracyJenni PercyIn this issue are a couple of ideas for using technology tosupport oral and visual literacy.Oral PresentationsHave you ever had a look at, wherethe motto is ‘Enlighten us, but make it quick’. The conceptis that a series of 20 slides auto-advance after 15 seconds, To correct or not to correct, that is the question – whethergiving a speaker a total of 5 minutes to talk about a topic, ’tis nobler in the classroom to suffer the tenses and syntaxusing graphics to highlight the key points. While not of outrageous grammar or to take red pens against adesigned for ESOL learners, higher level learners may be sea of errors and by correcting end them (to misquoteable to use some presentations for listening and note taking Shakespeare, 1602).practice. Also, critical analysis of the presentations could This question has troubled us all, I’m sure – we correct theirsupport learners to improve their own presentation skills. errors until our red pens have run out and we’re blue in theHowever, I have drawn you attention to the idea, because face, but they keep on making the same mistakes. Why doesI can see the value of this type of format if your learners this happen? What can we do about it? I started to thinkneed to give short presentations supported by Powerpoint, about these questions when I was doing my Master’s inPrezi or whatever. 15 seconds requires the learners to really TESOL with Aston University (UK) and I found the researchfocus on just the key ideas and be succinct and fluent. It to be fascinating. Here’s a brief summary.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 15
  • 16. ELTmag 2012Truscott (1996, 1999) makes a very strong case against correctable, but grammar errors cannot improve by beingwritten error correction, stating that correcting errors corrected, in particular morphosyntactic errors, becausedoesn’t work, and can be harmful because it can cause they come from complex systems. One very good examplestudents to avoid trying to use hard language. He makes to think about is the famously hard to crack third person ‘s’.the point that many studies on the subject are either This looks on the surface to be simple, but as it’s part of theshort-term, thereby not able to show long-term effects on underlying morphosyntactic system, which is very complex,language acquisition, or they do not have control groups it should not be correctable. We all know it isn’t, so thiswhich did not receive error correction. helps us to understand why.On the other hand, Ferris (1999, 2004) strongly argues that The questionnaire showed that while students liked beingcorrection is effective, although most of the studies she sites corrected, some did admit to avoiding using structures theyare only looking at short term effectiveness of error correction. found to be hard. The non-correction group generally didn’t like not being corrected, but the higher level students wereMy research keener on non-correction. On the other hand, half of them said that they wrote more freely because they were notIn order to test this myself I decided to set up a study with worried about making mistakes.both corrected and non-corrected groups. I had the fortuneto be teaching several groups of experienced primary What it all means in the classroomteachers who wanted to teach English in their classes, sohad a lot of willing guinea pigs to do participatory action The conclusion I came to is that a selective error correctionresearch with. strategy is needed – correct some errors, not all. The basis upon which to select the errors to correct is how correctableI divided the classes into correction and non-correction they are, rather than the more traditional ‘where thegroups, giving the students the choice of which they student is in the course’.preferred. One of the arguments against correction isthat class time used to go through and try to understand One of the criticisms of correcting errors is that it leads tothe corrections is better used to produce new writing (in a negative atmosphere in class – look at their faces whenline with the output hypothesis (Swain 1985). In order you hand back an essay covered in red ink. On the otherto address this issue, I gave the whole class an essay to hand, non-correction is criticised for not taking into accountwrite, then the next lesson gave the correction group their students’ desire to receive correction. This selectiveessays back, with an error code system used, and the non- methodology strikes a balance between the two positionscorrection group a new essay to write. I repeated this cycle in that there won’t be too much red ink, but students willseven times over a two month period. feel that there errors are being considered. They should even notice an improvement themselves in there errors,At the end of the study I analysed the first and last essays which they probably wouldn’t if many complex errors wereof both groups to see if there were any changes in the corrected all the time.number and type of error. Space doesn’t allow me to give a detailed explanation of allI also conducted a short survey to assess the participants’ the implications of my study, but this is a summary:attitudes and feelings towards both being corrected andnot being corrected. » Selective correction is a valid methodology. Lexical errors can be corrected. » Findings » Simple grammar errors may be corrected, but notWhen I looked at the total numbers of grammar errors with elementary level students.between the correction and non-correction groups, I found » Complex morphosyntactic errors should not be that there was no difference in correctability between the corrected.groups. In order to analyse further, I categorised the errorsaccording to type, such as simple errors in a word’s meaning, » Fossilised errors should not be corrected, unless as misspelling, verb tenses, syntactic errors and morphology. part of a larger defossilisation strategy.I did this because both Truscott and Ferris agree that some » Follow-up grammar instruction may be a way to help types of error should be more correctable than others, and improve problems with complex forms.this categorisation allowed me to test this. » A positive atmosphere should be cultivated in class When I compared changes in errors with and without towards writing correction.correction, I found that the simpler the error, the more » Students should use corrected lexis repeatedly, possibly correctable it is. What this means in practice is that errors by re-writing and recording words in vocabulary spelling, punctuation and errors in word meaning areTel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 16
  • 17. » Students should be encouraged not to avoid difficult Conferenceshare language. Edcamp Santiago 2012: An “UnConference” Report» Simple codes may be an effective correction system for lexical errors. by Thomas Jerome BakerIf you would like to see my reasons for these points thenyou can download my whole dissertation from my website: in the world?One of the aims of this publication is to give a world-wideview on language teaching, avoiding the euro-centric ideasthat are often seen. When I carried out this work I was, infact, based in Italy. Shortly after, however, I moved to HongKong and began to implement the suggestions above intomy own teaching and training. There I found similar reactionsto those in Italy in that students and teachers were a littleunsure at first, but it seemed to work as they got used toit. It’s interesting to note that Truscott, noted above carriedout his work in Taiwan, where you might expect students REdCamp Santiago 2012 was held in Santiago, Chile into dislike not being corrected, but he found again that after January. Being the middle of summer, it was hot. However,some learner training and experience that the non-grammar the level of excitement at this conference would have beencorrection methodology worked very well. Why not give it a impossible to cool down.go - your red pens might even last a bit longer! The high level of excitement and enthusiasm was special. Nobody present that day had ever attended a conferenceReferences like this one before. Edcamp is, a “R(E)volution” in teacherFerris, D. R. (1999). The case for grammar correction in L2 professional development. writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996). Journal of Edcamp is an “unconference”. It is free, informal, Second Language Writing, 8, 1–10. democratic, active professional development by teachers,Ferris, D. R. (2004). The “grammar correction” debate in for teachers. It makes PD relevant. L2 writing: where are we, and where do we go from here? Firstly, Edcamp Santiago was absolutely free. Nobody who (and what do we do in the meantime . . .?). Journal of attended had to pay for anything. Everything was provided Second Language Writing, 13, 49-62. by a diverse group of sponsors.Shakespeare, W. (1602). Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Act III, Second, there were no keynote speakers. There was scene I no preplanned schedule of speakers. There were noSwain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: some roles publishers’ stands and no vendors. Further, when you went of comprehensible input and comprehensive output to a session, you didn’t have to wait to ask questions. Since in its development. In Gass, S. and Madden, C., Input in everything was informal, you could enter a conversational Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury mode that would have been frowned upon at a traditional House, 235–253 conference. You could even get up and walk out if a session did not meet your needs (The Law of Two Feet).Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46, 327–369 Needless to say, the morning went by lightning fast. After registration, everyone participated in a “Meet and Greet”Truscott, J. (1999). The case for ‘‘the case for grammar activity aptly named, “Getting to Know You”. Next, Damian correction in L2 writing classes’’:A response to Ferris. Rivlin made a 5 minute, “Welcome Speech” on behalf of our Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 111–122 generous host: Universidad Mayor.Chris works for the British Council as an elearning Then, using an “Open Grid”, the sessions for the day wereconsultant in teacher development and is currently based proposed and decided on. Within 30 minutes, we registeredin Hong Kong. He has written several magazine articles on and met other teachers. After a warm welcome from ourthe field of CALL and is particularly interested in the use of host, we were off to our first session of the day!wikis. He has an MSc in TESOL from Aston University, UK.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 17
  • 18. ELTmag 2012After lunch came the highlight for everyone. Using state- Weblinksof-the-art videoconferencing technology provided byMicrosoft, we had a live session with educators from www.eltknowledge.comEdcamp Delta, in Canada. Their collaboration made the daynot only an unforgettable one, but also a truly remarkable In this issue we feature a brand new website set up byexample of international collaboration that will live on in the well-known teaching journals, English Teachingeveryone’s minds and hearts... Professional and Modern English Teacher. It features articles from over 20 years of publishing,Thomas Baker is an author who has written and self- containing both immediately useable classroom activitiespublished over 40 books available on Amazon. He is the and discussions and debates on various aspects ofPast-President of TESOL Chile (2010-2011). He is the Head language teaching written by well-known ELT authors ,of the English Department at Colegio Internacional SEK in together with blogs and interviews from ELT professionals.Santiago, Chile. He is the Co-Founder and Co-Organiser ofEdCamp Santiago, which was held at Universidad Mayor The editors say :in Santiago. Thomas is also a member of the Advisory ‘eltknowledge brings you more than 20 years of contentBoard for the International Higher Education Teaching and from two of English language training’s most respectedLearning Association (HETL), where he serves as a reviewer journals – English Teaching Professional and Modernand as the HETL Ambassador for Chile. English Teacher. Along with the wealth of archived content, eltknowledge provides users with plenty of exclusive special reports,Bookcase blogs, videos and user generated material.’Short and Sweet Book Reviews The subscription for this website is modest, considering theJill Hadfield wealth of high quality material, and free for three months to subscribers to either of the journals.Thinking in the EFL ClassTessa Woodward, Helbling Languages 2012This innovative book provides an overview of the field of Submit an Articleteaching thinking skills and over 80 practical classroom Our aimsactivities. The introduction poses the questions what arethinking skills and what types of thinking are important for This is a new webzine for language teachers worldwide. Itlanguage learning. It then summarizes various taxonomies has an emphasis on practical teaching ideas with a global/of thinking skills such as Bloom’s or Costa and Kallick’s and universal appeal. The aim is to provide an counterbalance todiscusses how we as language teachers can incorporate the largely Eurocentric cultural bias of many the materialswork on thinking skills into our teaching. The practical available today.activities are divided into eight sections, each covering a Regular featuresdifferent skill, such as looking for patterns, using thinkingframeworks or creative thinking. The activities are » Editorialimaginative and appealing and will provide a fresh new introduction to the issue’s contentslant on English language teaching. » Lessons for all practical instantly useable teaching ideas with a non Jill Hadfield has worked as a teacher and teacher trainer Eurocentric focus – eg either generally global/universal/ in Britain, France, China, Tibet, Madagascar and run short international or specifically Australasian. These can courses and seminars for teachers in many other parts of focus on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, any of the the world. She now teaches on the Certificate in Language fours skills, or integrated skills and be complete lessons Teaching at Unitec. She is the author of thirty books, which or shorter single activities .have been translated into a total of fourteen languages Her » Hi-tech/lo-technew book on motivation , co authored with Zoltan Dornyei is Ideas for a hi tech activity and one that uses minimalforthcoming this year. resources » TT Time ideas for teacher training and development– eg ways of giving feedback, ideas for language awareness sessions, methodology sessions etcTel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 18
  • 19. » Webwise If contributing a lesson idea please lay out as follows: useful websites with some ideas for exploiting them. Teachers’ Notes A regular feature contributed by Nicky Hockly Aim: » Bookcase a book review feature – with a difference. Reviews must Level: be short and sweet: written within 100 words! Time: » Try This! Materials: a report on a new technique or technology tried in class Preparation: » Conferenceshare short reports on insights and ideas gained from Language practice conferences. These do not have to be long, Functions comprehensive or formal – just a brief account of something you found interesting inspiring or useful. Skills » Lit Kit Language practical ideas for teaching literacy. A regular feature contributed by Jenni Percy. Functions» Into the Classroom An account of a piece of research with practical Skills implications. The account of the research should be short and readable, the emphasis of the article is Language on the implications for teachers in the classrooms with suggestions for implementing these Procedure» Weblinks Send in links to any websites for language teachers 1. that you found paarticularly useful, together with a brief 2. description of the site and why you like it 3.Submit an article etcPlease submit articles for any of the categories above Please remember to put your biodata at the end of theexcept for our regular features Webwise and Lit Kit article.following the guidelines below . Articles can besubmitted by clicking on the Contact button or sent to I look forward to reading your ideas! JillGuidelines for submitting articlesPlease follow these gudielines for layout:Top Left-hand Corner: Name of feature ( eg Bookcase:)Arial 18 bold blueCentred: Title Author: Arial 16 Blue boldSubheadings: Arial 14 blue boldText: Arial 12 blackSpacing: 1.5 lines , justified margins.Department of Language Studies Tel +64 9 815 2945 Freephone 0800 10 95 10 19
  • 20. Tel +64 9 849 4321Fax +64 9 815 2907139 Carrington RdMt Albert, Auckland 1025,New