The Nature of People Individual Difference “Law of Individual Difference” Perception A Whole Person Desire for involvement Value of the Person Motivated Behavior
Remember “… organizational excellence begins with the performance of people…” “…it is what people do or do not do that ultimately determines what the organization can or cannot become…” “…it is our job as an I.E. to develop and promote behavioral patterns that are consistent with the achievement of goals…”
The issue is how to motivate your people! … Motivate people towards excellent performance! It is our primary task as managers… The question is WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
It refers to the WHY and CAUSE of behavior.
Motivation is the strength of the drive towards an action.
Basic Motivation Model Ability Goal Needs and Drives Rewards Performance Tension Effort Needs Satisfaction
Influence of Culture Self esteem or Amor-propio -sensitive to words or actions of others Embarrassment or Hiya -behaving in what is deemed to be an acceptable way Obligation or UtangnaLoob -repaying favors Getting Along Together or Pakikisama -SIR (smooth Interpersonal Relations) that may lead to innefficiencies
Three Patterns of Motivation Achievement Motivation Affiliation Motivation Power Motive
Needs Satisfaction Why do we have to satisfy their needs? They behave in order to satisfy their needs!
Physiological Needs Safety and Security Needs Love and Social Needs Esteem and Status Needs Self-actualization or Self-fulfillment Needs “…a satisfied need is no longer a motivator!...” “…as one need is satisfied, another need emerges…”
Behavior Modification Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Extinction Reinforcement Guidelines Specify behavior to be reinforced. Reinforce specified behavior at once. Reward small achievements as well. Provide material as well as nonmaterial incentives. Offer small rewards Reinforce at intermittent intervals
Activities Expectancy theory Expectancy probability Instrumentality probability Valence Case studies
Importance of Groups in Work Organizations “…social needs are among the most compelling, potent and powerful on-the-job motivators…” “…changing group opinion is more effective than changing opinions of individuals…”
Limitations of Group and Group Work …do you agree that most innovation and creativity are done not by groups but by individuals alone?… Deindividuating Effects Majority Rule Groupthink Free Riding
What is the main justification of a group’s existence? Goals!
Management and Culture Describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization."
Corporate Culture “…is the total sum of the values, customs, traditions and meanings that make a company unique. Corporate culture is often called "the character of an organization" since it embodies the vision of the company’s founders…” “… The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation, as well as managerial behavior…”
Men That Classified Organizational Culture GeertHofstede Deal and Kennedy Charles Handy Edgar Schein Arthur F Carmazzi
Gerard HendrikHofstede October 3,1928 an influential Dutch writer on the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures, and is an author of several books including Culture's Consequences. Hofstede's study demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour of societies and organizations, and that are very persistent across time. Hofstede looked for national differences between over 100,000 of IBM's employees in different parts of the world, in an attempt to find aspects of culture that might influence business behavior.
Hofstede identified five dimensions of culture in his study of national influences: Low vs. High Power Distance- the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Individualism vs. collectivism- refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves and to choose their own affiliations, or alternatively act predominantly as a member of a life-long group or organization. Masculinity vs. femininity- 'masculine' cultures value competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life. Uncertainty avoidance- reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. Long vs. short term orientation- describes a society's "time horizon," or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present.
Deal and Kennedy “…defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here…” Feedback - quick feedback means an instant response. This could be in monetary terms, but could also be seen in other ways, such as the impact of a great save in a soccer match. Risk - represents the degree of uncertainty in the organization’s activities.
Four Classifications of Organizational Culture: The Tough-Guy Macho Culture. Feedback is quick and the rewards are high. This often applies to fast moving financial activities such as brokerage, but could also apply to a police force, or athletes competing in team sports. This can be a very stressful culture in which to operate. The Work Hard/Play Hard Culture is characterized by few risks being taken, all with rapid feedback. This is typical in large organizations, which strive for high quality customer service. It is often characterized by team meetings, jargon and buzzwords. The Bet your Company Culture, where big stakes decisions are taken, but it may be years before the results are known. Typically, these might involve development or exploration projects, which take years to come to fruition, such as oil prospecting or military aviation. The Process Culture occurs in organizations where there is little or no feedback. People become bogged down with how things are done not with what is to be achieved. This is often associated with bureaucracies. While it is easy to criticize these cultures for being overly cautious or bogged down in red tape, they do produce consistent results, which is ideal in, for example, public services.
Charles Handy (born 1932) is an Irish author/philosopher specializing in organizational behavior and management. popularized the 1972 work of Roger Harrison of looking at culture which some scholars have used to link organizational structure to organizational culture.
Power Culture which concentrates power among a few. Control radiates from the center like a web. Power Cultures have few rules and little bureaucracy; swift decisions can ensue. Role Culture, people have clearly delegated authorities within a highly defined structure. Typically, these organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies. Power derives from a person's position and little scope exists for expert power. Task Culture, teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power derives from expertise as long as a team requires expertise. These cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines of a matrix structure. Person Culture exists where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. Survival can become difficult for such organizations, since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue the organizational goals. Some professional partnerships can operate as person cultures, because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm.
What is Conflict? It arises when the interest of people do not coincide. Why is there a high potential of conflict in human interactions? Cite some examples. “…In organizations, large number of people congregate under one roof in a joint pursuit of purpose…”
Is the probability of conflict and the number of people directly proportional in nature? Yes. Because there will be higher number of human interactions!
Conflict when left unattended will lead into _______. Chaos. Yet, conflict can also lead to higher creativity just as muscles grow stronger when exercised against resistance. Because --- and Note: “…two heads are better than one, If both are not empty…”
Why manage conflict? Hence it would be wiser to allow conflict up to some degree, to trigger creativity--- growth. Managers should: recognize the conflict, face the conflict, stimulate it up to a certain level, and ultimately manage it.
The nature of conflict Conflict is a relationship. It occurs at least two persons, groups, orgs, nations. Emotions run high and tension increases. Emotions cloud the judgment of the protagonist.
Four Areas of Disagreements Facts. The present situation or problem Goals. What should be done or accomplished Methods. The best way to accomplish goals. Values. Principles, qualities, and concepts. “…Typically, disagreements over facts are easiest to settle while differences in values are the most difficult to settle…”
Take note: “…conflict requires energy…” “…It takes human EFFORT to escalate or de- escalate it…” “…it takes emotional energy to suppress or deny a conflict; and, IT TAKES EVEN MORE TO CONFRONT IT…”
“…without some stability, any organization cannot function… yet, without adaptation it cannot survive…” Management of Change
What are your reactions when you hear the word “change?” Negative perceptions…. Positive perceptions….
Change is the law of nature . It is necessary way of life in most organizations for their survival and growth. Man has to mould himself continuously to meet new demand and face new situations. Then the question arise what is the organizational change ? “…the essence of adaptation and innovation…”
Note: “…change in the organization is a must whether brought about deliberately or unwillingly….”
Why Change?! The reason for change are categorized as follows, change in: business conditions, change in managerial personnel, deficiency in existing organizational patterns, technological and psychological reasons, government
What is the enemy of effectiveness? Complacency!
Types of Organizational Change Anticipatory changes: planned changes based on expected situations. Reactive changes: changes made in response to unexpected situations. Incremental changes: subsystem adjustments required to keep the organization on course. Strategic changes: altering the overall shape or direction of the organization.
Forces of Change External Forces Market Place Govt. Laws and Regulations Technology Labor market Economic Change Internal Forces Changes in Organizational Strategies Workforce change New Equipment Employee Attitude
Change Model and the Change Cycle Lewin’s Three Step model The Change Cycle
Lewin’s Three Step model Most theories of organizational change originated from the landmark work of social psychologist Kurt Lewin. Lewin developed a three ‑ stage model of planned change which explained how to initiate, manage, and stabilize the change process. The three stages are unfreezing, changing, and refreezing.
Unfreezing The focus of this stage is to create the motivation to change. In so doing, individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with those desired by management. Managers can begin the unfreezing process by disconfirming the usefulness or appropriateness of employees' present behaviors or attitudes.
Changing Because change involves learning, this stage entails providing employees with new information, new behavioral models, or new ways of looking at things. The purpose is to help employees learn new concepts or points of view. Role models, mentors, experts, benchmarking the company against world‑class organizations, and training are useful mechanisms to facilitate change
Freezing Change is stabilized during refreezing by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things. This is accomplished by first giving employees the chance to exhibit the new behaviors or attitudes. Once exhibited, positive reinforcement is used to reinforce the desired.
Lewin’s Three Step model Unfreezing Change Freezing
The change cycle gives us a journey through change! How does an individual feel, and behave whenever there change is present? There are 6 stages.
Stage 1 – Loss to SafetyIn Stage 1 you admit to yourself that regardless of whether or not you perceive the change to be good or 'bad" there will be a sense of loss of what "was." Stage 2 – Doubt to RealityIn this stage, you doubt the facts, doubt your doubts and struggle to find information about the change that you believe is valid. Resentment, skepticism and blame cloud your thinking. Stage 3 – Discomfort to MotivationYou will recognize Stage 3 by the discomfort it brings. The change and all it means has now become clear and starts to settle in. Frustration and lethargy rule until possibility takes over. The Danger ZoneThe Danger Zone represents the pivotal place where you make the choice either to move on to Stage 4 and discover the possibilities the change has presented or to choose fear and return to Stage 1. Stage 4 – Discovery to PerspectiveStage 4 represents the "light at the end of the tunnel." Perspective, anticipation, and a willingness to make decisions give a new sense of control and hope. You are optimistic about a good outcome because you have choices. Stage 5 - UnderstandingIn Stage 5, you understand the change and are more confident, think pragmatically, and your behavior is much more productive. Good thing. Stage 6 - IntegrationBy this time, you have regained your ability and willingness to be flexible. You have insight into the ramifications, consequences and rewards of the change -- past, present, and future.
After the change…… “…how will they respond?...” People will respond to the changes they like! Accept changes People will respond to the changes the do not like! Resist changes
How People Respond to Changes They Like? Three-stage process Unrealistic optimism Reality shock Constructive direction
How People Respond to Changes They Fear and Dislike? Stages Getting off on the wrong track Laughing it off Growing self-doubt Destructive direction
Origin of Resistance to Change Rational Emotional Social Political
Why Do Employees Resist Change? Surprise Unannounced significant changes threaten employees’ sense of balance in the workplace. Inertia Employees have a desire to maintain a safe, secure, and predictable status quo. Misunderstanding and lack of skills Without introductory or remedial training, change may be perceived negatively. Poor Timing Other events can conspire to create resentment about a particular change.
Why Do Employees Resist Change? Emotional Side Effects Forced acceptance of change can create a sense of powerlessness, anger, and passive resistance to change. Lack of Trust Promises of improvement mean nothing if employees do not trust management. Fear of Failure Employees are intimidated by change and doubt their abilities to meet new challenges. Personality Conflicts Managers who are disliked by their managers are poor conduits for change.
Why Do Employees Resist Change? Threat to Job Status/Security Employees worry that any change may threaten their job or security. Breakup of Work Group Changes can tear apart established on-the-job social relationships. Competing Commitments Change can disrupt employees in their pursuit of other goals.
Whatever the kinds of change that people encounter, there are certain patterns of response that occur and re-occur. Understanding patterns of change allows leaders to avoid over-reacting to the behaviors of people who, at times, seem to be reacting in mysterious, non-adaptive ways.
People will feel awkward, ill-at-ease and self-conscious Whenever you ask people to do things differently, you disrupt their habitual ways of doing things. This tends to make people feel awkward or uncomfortable as they struggle to eliminate the old responses and learn the new.
People initially focus on what they have to give up As a change leader you need to acknowledge the loss of the old ways, and not get frustrated at what may seem to be an irrational or tentative response to change.
People will feel alone even if everyone else is going through the same change Everyone feels that their situation is unique and special. Unfortunately, this tends to increase the sense of isolation for people undergoing change. It is important for the change leader to be proactive and gentle in showing that the employee's situation is understood. If you are emotionally and practically supportive during the tough times the change will be easier.
People can handle only so much change On a personal level, people who undergo too much change within too short a time will become physically sick. While some changes are beyond our control, it is important not to pile change upon change upon change.
People are at different levels of readiness for change Some people thrive and change. It's exciting to them. Others don't. It's threatening to them. Understand that any change will have supporters and people who have difficulty adapting. In time many people who resist initially will come onside.
People will be concerned that they don't have enough resources People perceive that change takes time and effort, even if it has the long term effect of reducing workload. They are correct that there is a learning time for most change, and that this may affect their work.
If you take the pressure off, people will revert to their old behaviour If people perceive that you are not serious about doing things the new way, they will go back to the old way. Sometimes this will be in the open, and sometimes this will be covert.
Conclusion When planning for change, include a detailed reaction analysis. Try to identify the kinds of reactions and questions that employees will have, and prepare your responses. Remember that the success of any change rests with the ability of the leaders to address both the emotional and practical issues, in that order.
“…As Industrial Engineers we must be aware how to overcome resistance to changes!...”
Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Change
LEADER ACTION: Stability Learning, Acceptance & Commitment Comfort and control 1 4 Stabilize and Sustain the change Create a felt need of change Looking Forward Looking Back 2 3 Introduce the change Revise and finalize the change plan Fear,Anger and Resistance Enquiry, Experimentation and Discovery Chaos
Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis is a general tool for systematically analyzing the factors found in complex problems. It frames problems in terms of factors or pressures that support the status quo (restraining forces) and those pressures that support change in the desired direction (driving forces). A factor can be people, resources, attitudes, traditions, régulations, values, needs, desires, etc. As a tool for managing change, Force Field Analysis helps identify those factors that must be addressed and monitored if change is to be successful.
General Awareness What is Stress ? Types of Stresses Individuals Stress origins & body systems Adaptation Syndrome Symptoms
WHAT IS STRESS & ITS TYPES Stress is the “wear and tear” our minds and bodies experience as we attempt to cope with our continually changing environment TYPES OF STRESS External Internal I HATE YOU
10/14/2009 102 FOUND YOURSELF IN SIMILAR SITUATIONS?
KINDS OF STRESSNEGATIVE STRESS It is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems, skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers. Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can have a harmful effect on mental, physical and spiritual health.
POSITIVE STRESS Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation to cope with challenging situations. Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival when confronting threatening situations.
THE INDIVIDUAL Everyone is different, with unique perceptions of, and reactions to, events. There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people. Some are more sensitive owing to experiences in childhood, the influence of teachers, parents and religion etc.
PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS Sleep pattern changes Fatigue Digestion changes Loss of sexual drive Headaches Aches and pains Infections Indigestion Dizziness Fainting Sweating & trembling Tingling hands & feet Breathlessness Palpitations Missed heartbeats
MENTAL SYMPTOMS Lack of concentration Memory lapses Difficulty in making decisions Confusion Disorientation Panic attacks
BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS Appetite changes - too much or too little Eating disorders - anorexia, bulimia Increased intake of alcohol & other drugs Increased smoking Restlessness Fidgeting Nail biting Hypochondria
EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS Bouts of depression Impatience Fits of rage Tearfulness Deterioration of personal hygiene and appearance
STRESS RELATED ILLNESSES Stress is not the same as ill-health, but has been related to such illnesses as; Cardiovascular disease Immune system disease Asthma Diabetes
EFFECT OF STRESS ON HEALTH Digestive disorders Ulcers Skin complaints - psoriasis Headaches and migraines Pre-menstrual syndrome Depression
FACTORS INFLUENCING WORK STRESS The drive for success Changing work patterns Working conditions Overwork Under-work Uncertainty Conflict Responsibility Relationships at work Change at work
CHANGING WORK PATTERNS Many people feel lucky to have a job. Unemployment, redundancy, shorter working weeks, new technology affect emotional and physical security. No more jobs for life, more short - term contracts. Financial and emotional burnout is increasing among all levels.
WORKING CONDITIONS Physical and mental health is adversely affected by unpleasant working conditions, such as high noise levels, lighting, temperature and unsocial or excessive hours.
OVERWORK Stress may occur through an inability to cope with the technical or intellectual demands of a particular task. Circumstances such as long hours, unrealistic deadlines and frequent interruptions will compound this.
UNDERWORK This may arise from boredom because there is not enough to do, or because a job is dull and repetitive.
About the individuals work role - objectives, responsibilities, and expectations, and a lack of communication and feedback can result in confusion, helplessness, and stress. UNCERTAINTY
CONFLICT Stress can arise from work the individual does not want to do or that conflicts with their personal, social and family values.
RESPONSIBILITY The greater the level of responsibility the greater the potential level of stress.
RELATIONSHIPS AT WORK Good relationships with colleagues are crucial. Open discussion is essential to encourage positive relationships.
CHANGES AT WORK Changes that alter psychological, physiological and behavioural routines such as promotion, retirement and redundancy are particularly stressful.
External Stresses - Organisational Company take over Reductions / layoffs Major reorganisation Company sale / relocation Employee benefit cuts Mandatory overtime required Little input into decisions Mistake consequences severe Workloads vary Fast paced work React to changes Advancement difficult Red tape delays jobs Insufficient resources Pay below going rate Technology changes Employee benefits poor Workplace conditions Consistent poor performance
RECOGNISE THE PROBLEM The most important point is to recognise the source of the negative stress. This is not an admission of weakness or inability to cope! It is a way to identify the problem and plan measures to overcome it.
Change your Thinking Re-framing Re-framing is a technique to change the way you look at things in order to feel better about them. There are many ways to interpret the same situation so pick the one you like. Re-framing does not change the external reality, but helps you view things in a different light and less stressfully.
Change your Thinking Positive Thinking Forget powerlessness, dejection, despair, failure. Stress leaves us vulnerable to negative suggestion so focus on positives; Focus on your strengths Learn from the stress you are under Look for opportunities Seek out the positive - make a change.
Change your Behaviour Be assertive Get organised Ventilation Humour Diversion and distraction
Be Assertive Assertiveness helps to manage stressful situations, and will , in time, help to reduce their frequency. Lack of assertiveness often shows low self - esteem and low self - confidence. The key to assertiveness is verbal and non - verbal communication. Extending our range of communication skills will improve our assertiveness.
1) The right to express my feelings 2) The right to express opinions / beliefs 3) The right to say ‘Yes/No’ for yourself 4) Right to change your mind 5) Right to say ‘I don’t understand’ 6) Right to be yourself, not acting for the benefit of others Equality and Basic Rights
Being Assertive Being assertive involves standing up for your personal rights and expressing your thoughts, feelings and beliefs directly, honestly and spontaneously in ways that don’t infringe the rights of others.
Respect themselves and others Take responsibility for actions and choices Ask openly for what they want Disappointed if ‘want’ denied Self - confidence remains intact Not reliant on the approval of others Assertive People
Assertive Skills Establish good eye contact / don’t stare Stand or sit comfortably - don’t fidget Talk in a firm, steady voice Use body language ‘I think’ / ‘I feel’ ‘What do you think?’ ‘How do you feel ?’ Concise and to the point
Benefits Higher self-esteem Less self-conscious Less anxious Manage stress more successfully Appreciate yourself and others more easily Feeling of self-control
Get Organised Poor organisation is one of the most common causes of stress. Structured approaches offer security against ‘out of the blue’ problems. Prioritising objectives, duties and activities makes them manageable and achievable. Don’t overload your mind. Organisation will help avoid personal and professional chaos.
Time Management Make a list What MUST be done What SHOULD be done What would you LIKE to do Cut out time wasting Learn to drop unimportant activities Say no or delegate PROPER VENTILATION FACILITY
Humour Good stress - reducer Applies at home and work Relieves muscular tension Improves breathing Pumps endorphins into the bloodstream - the body’s natural painkillers
Diversion and Distraction Take time out Get away from things that bother you Doesn’t solve the problem Reduce stress level Calm down Think logically