Universal History Colegio Inter Canadiense de Puebla Teacher: Roberto Sánchez
<ul><li>History is the science that collects, relates and interprets the most important knowledge ever lived since man appeared on the earth’s surface until nowadays. </li></ul><ul><li>It searches for causes and consequences so that, it can explain past events, understand our present and speculate our future. </li></ul>
Historians Antropologists/Archaeologists Study and write about the people and events of history. Study the origins and developments of people and their societies during prehistory; study physical and cultural traits of people. Primarily analyze written records; also analyze artifacts. Primarily analyze artififacts and material remains; also analyze written records. Evaluate the eveidence using reasonable judments and the work of other scholars Evaluate the evidence using reasonable judgments, moderns innovations, the work of other scholars Interpret and explain the evidence Interpret and explain the evidence Sort out disagreement over the evidence and change theories in light of new evidence. Sort out disagreement over the evidence and change theories in light of new evidence.
7 million B.C . By this time the earliest human ancestors may live in Africa. 2 million B.C Early human ancestors have begun making and using simple stone tools. 100,000 B.C The earliest modern humans, called homo sapiens, begin to spread throughout the world 40,000 B.C. By this time, people have traveled across the ocean by boat from southeast Asia to Australia. 30,000 B.C. Early people begin painting animals on the walls of caves 9000 B.C. People learned to grow their own crops and begin settling in permanent farming villages. 3200 B.C. The world’s first civilizations begin to develop in river valleys Prehistory
Hominid Groups Over Time Hominid Group Earliest Known Evidence Australopithecines 7 million years ago Homo Habilis 2 million years ago Homo erectus 2 million years ago Homo sapiens +Neanderthal +Early modern humans 250,000-100,000 years ago
Old Stone Age Paleolithic Period <ul><li>Creation of stone, bone, and wood tools and weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Use of fire </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to travel across water in boats </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in spiritual world </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of cave paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Burial of the dead </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in animism. </li></ul>
New Stone Age Neolithic Period The neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Farming and domestication of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Settling of permanent villages </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance of family, economic and political life by men </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining of prestige by warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance of differences in wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of first calendars </li></ul><ul><li>More elaborate tools and new technology </li></ul>
Comprehension and Critical thinking <ul><li>How do you think the development of spoken language influenced people’s development of skills and religious beliefs? </li></ul><ul><li>How are our lives today affected by the Neolithic Revolution about 11,000 years ago? </li></ul><ul><li>How was settled village life different from nomadic life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider population size, social status and technology in your answer. </li></ul></ul>
Summarize your Ideas <ul><li>Which science collects, relates and interprets the knowledge about man? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the scholars who study the past? </li></ul><ul><li>When and where were the first human remains found? </li></ul><ul><li>Which have been the hominid groups over the time? </li></ul><ul><li>Which hominid was able to make and use tools and weapons? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s prehistory? </li></ul><ul><li>Which period does prehistory comprehend? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the ages in which prehistory is divided? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some features of the Old Stone Age or Paleolithic? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the Neolithic Revolution? When did it take place? </li></ul>
Cause and Effect Neolithic people learn to farm . Hunters and gatherers settle into Farming communities. Some farmers settle in river valleys, where the soil is very fertile. New Technologies improved farming. Food surpluses support growing populations. The first cities are built in fertile valleys.
Basic Features of Civilizations Feature Description Cities Population centers that are notably larger and more organized that towns and villages and that support the other features of civilizations. Organized Governments Structure goverments that coodinate large-scale projects such as food production or construction, establish laws and organize defense systems. Complex Religions Systems of religious beliefs that usually include rituals and worship of one or more gods or godnesses . Job Specialization System in which there are different types of jobs and each worker focouses on one particular type. Social Classes Ranked groups whithin society that are determined by job or economic standing. Arts & Architecture Various types of artwork and buildings that city and its people. Writing Structured writing systems used iniatially by governments or religious leaders to record important information.
Civilizations changed over the time <ul><li>What urged early civilizations to change? </li></ul>
Civilizations changed over the time <ul><li>How did the environment affect people’s life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They needed ample rain and fertile soil to be able to produce crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drastic catastrophes could devastate entire communities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The overuse of natural resource could produce scarcity. </li></ul></ul>
Civilizations changed over the time <ul><li>How did religion influence government and social classes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers nobles and priests often controlled the land outside the city and forced peasants to give the some crops they grow on it so that they can support the government and temples. </li></ul></ul>
Civilizations changed over the time <ul><li>How was the cultural diffusion given in early civilizations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural diffusion occurred through migration, trade and warfare. </li></ul></ul>
The First Civilizations of the world <ul><li>Production of surpluses of food </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of populations </li></ul><ul><li>Development of cities, civilizations, and governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Government oversight of a large scale projects </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in polytheists religions </li></ul><ul><li>Job specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Development of social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Development of art and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of writing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of some cities into city-states and empires </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diffusion </li></ul>
<ul><li>A number of early civilizations arose in the Fertile Crescent, a region of the Middle East name for its rich soils and golden wheat fields. </li></ul>The Fertile Crescent
3500 B.C . City States flourished in Sumer 2600 B.C Cities are built in the Indus Valley of South Asia 2500 B.C Egypt’s Old Kingdom begins 2300 B.C Sargon the Ruler of Akkad, conquers Sumer 2000 B.C The Kingdom of Nubia develops along the Nile River in East Africa 1790 B.C Hammurabi, the king of Babylon, issues the first written the law code 1766 B.C The Shang Dinasty in Chine emerges. 1150 B.C The Olmecs built the first civilization in the Americas. 1000 B.C The kingdom of Israel is established, and Israelites beliefs envolve into a major religion, Judaism 750 B.C Greek City-States such as Athens begin to develop 522 B.C Darius begins to unify the Persian Empire 509 B.C The Roman Republic is founded
Key Words <ul><li>Ziggurat : a temple made up of a series of stacked rectangular platforms that form a pyramid- shaped structure </li></ul><ul><li>Society: an organized community with established rules and traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism: the worship of many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Scribe: a professional writer </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform: a form of wedge-shaped writing developed by the Sumerians </li></ul><ul><li>Conquer: to defeat and take over </li></ul><ul><li>Empire: a large territory that is controlled by one ruler dynasty a ruling family </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sumer and Akkad </li></ul><ul><li>Early Mesopotamia was made up of the city-states of Sumer and Akkad. Sumer was in the south. Akkad was in the north. The Sumerians and Akkadians had similar customs, businesses, and religions. They spoke different languages. In about 3500 B.C., Sumer became more powerful than Akkad. Sumerian city-states built temple structures called ziggurats. A ziggurat was made up of a series of stacked rectangular platforms that formed a huge pyramid-shaped structure. Mesopotamians believed that ziggurats linked the heavens and Earth. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Religion and Government </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was an important part of Mesopotamian society. People in both Sumer and Akkad practiced polytheism. They worshipped many gods. The Sumerians believed that kings were chosen by the gods to carry out the gods' wishes. They also believed that kings passed the right to rule to their sons. These ideas about kingship would have an effect on later civilizations. Sumerian society was divided into classes. Wealthy people were at the top of the class system. Slaves were at the bottom. This kind of class system also affected later civilizations. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>In about 3200 B.C., the Sumerians invented a system of writing. First they drew simple pictures that stood for objects or actions. Later this picture writing was made even simpler. A professional writer, or scribe, pressed a reed into wet clay to form wedge-shaped markings. These marks stood for objects, activities, or sounds. This new form of writing was called cuneiform. People used writing to keep records, tell stories, write letters, and set down laws. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Rise and Fall of the Akkadian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Sargon was an Akkadian ruler. He and his army conquered, or defeated, Sumer's city-states in about 2334 B.C. All of Mesopotamia came under Sargon's rule. This formed the world's first empire. An empire is a large territory of many different places controlled by one ruler. The Akkadian dynasty, or ruling family, was in power for about 150 years. By 2100 B.C., the Sumerian city-state of Ur rose to power. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sumer's Final Days </li></ul><ul><li>Between 2100 B.C. and 2000 B.C., the city-state of Ur in Sumer controlled Mesopotamia. Farming, business, and culture thrived. The oldest known written law code was created at this time. Many important structures, such as the Ziggurat of Ur, were built during this period. The Ziggurat of Ur is thought to be one of the largest ziggurats ever built. In about 2000 B.C., Sumer lost power. The contributions of the Sumerians helped other civilizations to rise. These contributions include cuneiform, ziggurats, and the wheel. </li></ul>
Questions 2 Review <ul><li>How were Sumerian religion and government connected? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Sumerian writing system develop and change? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe an example of an idea or invention that shaped Mesopotamian civilization and influenced other civilizations? </li></ul>
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