The Holocaust
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  • 1. THE HOLOCAUST: 1933-1945 Civitella
  • 2. Introduction
    • Holocaust
      • Greek for sacrifice by fire
      • systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the Nazi regime
    • 1933 European Jewish population = roughly 9 million
    • By 1945 2/3 Jews had been killed & 1.5 million children had died
  • 3. Introduction continued…
    • Why Jews? (According to Nazi’s)
      • Goal = world domination (resulting in direct threat to the Aryan idea)
      • Belief in Social Darwinism
        • survival of the fittest; natural selection
      • Seen as greedy; evil; cowardly; backstabbing
      • Politically responsible for German failures post-WWI
      • Seen as slayers of Christ; witches
      • Overall anti-Semitism
        • Hatred of Jewish people/heritage
    • Hitler believed in eugenics and adopted the idea of genocide resulting in the Final Solution
      • Improving a race by selective breeding
      • Systematic killing of a race or group
      • Total extermination of Jewish people
      • See visual overview of Holocaust here .
  • 4. The Holocaust: A Timeline 1933
    • Hitler becomes German chancellor
    • Der Sturmer
      • Anti-Semitic news publication “Jews are our misfortune”
    • SS sets up concentration camps for political prisoners
      • Dachua
    • Enabling Act passed
      • Separate Jews from Germans
    • Jews in public office are ordered to “retire”
    • Establishment of the Gestapo
      • Secret state police
  • 5. The Holocaust: A Timeline 1934-1939
    • 1934 - Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany
    • 1935 – Nuremburg Laws
      • Jews are no longer German citizens/marry non-Jews
    • 1936 – SS Deathshead Unit put in charge of concentration camps
    • 1938 – Night of Broken Glass
      • Anti-Semitic attacks on Jewish businesses, people, and synagogues
      • 200,000 sent to camps
      • See video regarding the Night here .
    • 1939 - Euthanasia program begins; Jews forced to wear yellow star; mass use of ghettos
      • Mercy killing
      • Urban living areas where Jews would be sent pre-concentration camps
  • 6.  
  • 7. The Holocaust: Ghetto’s
    • Originally created as a provisional measure to control and segregate Jews
    • Creation of Final Solution (1941) made ghetto’s relatively useless & many were destroyed
    • Largest ghetto in Poland = Warsaw
      • Over 400,000 Jews in 1.3 square miles
      • See Warsaw ghetto history here .
  • 8. The Holocaust: Camps
    • Concentration camps & Death camps ( extermination camps )
      • Primarily detention and labor centers, as well as sites for the murder of smaller, targeted groups of individuals
        • Dachau = first
      • Death factories
        • Auschwitz-Berkenau (II) = largest
          • Height of operation 6,000 Jews killed/day
          • See video regarding Auschwitz here .
  • 9. The Holocaust: Camps continued…
    • Transporting prisoners
      • Trains
        • Germany constructed a very sophisticated railway system
          • Reaching into Spain, Italy and Russia
        • Prisoners would be transported from CC to DC in Eastern Europe
        • Trip was a nightmare
          • Jammed into cars like cattle
          • Seldom received food or water during journey
          • Extreme weather conditions
          • No sanitary facilities
          • See video regarding transport here .
  • 10. The Holocaust: Camps continued…
    • Camp life?
      • Mistreatment of prisoners
        • Medical experiments/testing
        • Work detail
          • Building, excavating, production, general labor under harsh conditions
        • Death
          • Hanging, shooting, gassing
            • Zyklon B (Cyanide based pesticide)
        • Psychological abuse
          • Belittling, stripping of human rights, suicide, living in constant fear
        • Physical abuse
          • Beatings, starvation, sickness, over-crowdedness
          • See video regarding hunger in camps here .
          • See video regarding labor in camps here .
          • See video regarding daily life in camps here .
  • 11. The Holocaust: Special Stories
    • Oscar Schindler
      • Nazi; womanizer; war profiteer; saved 1,200 Jews from death during Holocaust by putting them to work in factories; reason for only shipment out of Auschwitz (300 women); died penniless; Schindler’s List
        • List of 1,200 Jewish names Schindler purchased for factory work
    • Anne Frank
      • German Jew; moved to Amsterdam; spent 2 years hiding in father’s office building; died of typhus at age 15 at Bergen-Belsen CC; talented writer ( Diary of a Young Girl )
        • Book written by Frank detailing her 2 years in hiding
      • See flash site regarding Anne and her writing here .
  • 12.  
  • 13. The Holocaust: Liberation
    • Russian forces reached Poland July 1944 starting liberation of camps
      • Setting free
    • Germans tried to destroy all evidence of camps and began mass evacuation of prisoners to the interior ( death marches )
      • Destruction of documents, personal belongings and buildings; burning of bodies
    • Only after the liberation of camps was the full scope of Nazi horrors exposed to the world
    • See video regarding liberation here .
    • See video regarding liberation of Auschwitz here .
    • See pics regarding liberation of Auschwitz here .
  • 14. The Holocaust: War Crimes
    • By 1942 the allied powers announce their determination to punish war criminals
      • Allies officially note the mass murder of European Jews
    • Moscow Declaration (1943)
      • War criminals would be punished by joint decisions of the Allied governments – the International Military Tribunal
        • US, GB, R and FR supplied a judge and a prosecution team
        • Defined crimes against humanity as "murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation...or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds.”
        • Declared that “following orders” was not a legitimate defense
  • 15. The Holocaust: War Crimes continued…
    • Nuremberg Trials
      • Held in Nuremberg, Germany 1945-1946
      • 21 defendants (13 sentenced to death; 6 prison terms; 3 acquitted)
        • Hermann Goering
          • Commander of Luftwaffe; un-sympathetic during trials; committed suicide in his cell night before execution
        • Albert Speer
          • Architect; minister of armaments and war production; very cooperative during trials; sentenced to 20 years
        • Rudolf Hess
          • Deputy head of Nazi party; claimed amnesia during trials; sentenced to life in prison
          • See video regarding trials here .
  • 16. The Holocaust: War Crimes continued…
      • Legacy?
        • first time a nation's leaders were prosecuted by the international community for crimes committed by the state
        • The rules created during the trial formed the future of principles for war
    • ODESSA
      • Organization to help former SS members avoid capture/trial
    • Nazi Hunters
      • People who track down/gather information on former Nazi/SS who were involved in the Holocaust
        • Found Adolf Eichmann; tried and executed in 1962
          • Gestapo head for Jewish affairs
        • Simon Wiesenthal
          • Holocaust survivor; Nazi hunter
            • “ When history looks back I want people to know the Nazis weren't able to kill millions of people and get away with it.”
  • 17. The Holocaust: Denial?
    • What is Holocaust Denial ?
      • Claims that the genocides that took place during WWII never occurred
      • against the law in Israel, France, Germany, Austria and now Hungary to deny the Holocaust
        • Punished with stiff fines and prison sentences
    • Types of denial?
      • Incorrect number
      • Issues with gassing
      • Doctored photos
      • Why single out the Jews (i.e. why not the Russians or thousands of others who died?)?
      • See video regarding the denial here .
  • 18. The Holocaust: Denial? continued…
    • “ The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews, including two million children. Holocaust denial is a second murder of those same six million. First their lives were extinguished; then their deaths. A person who denies the Holocaust becomes part of the crime of the Holocaust itself.”
      • David Matas, Senior Counsel for the “League for Human Rights”
  • 19. The Holocaust: Aftermath
    • What was the aftermath?
      • Migration
      • Creation of state of Israel 1948
      • International war laws
      • Psychological effect on survivors
      • Resurgence of anti-Semitism
      • War criminals brought to justice
      • Remembrance
        • memorials
      • See flash video regarding aftermath here .