THE HOLOCAUST: 1933-1945 Civitella
Introduction Greek for sacrifice by fire systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the Nazi regime 1933 European Jewish population = roughly 9 million
By 1945 2/3 Jews had been killed & 1.5 million children had died
Introduction continued… Why Jews? (According to Nazi’s) Goal = world domination (resulting in direct threat to the Aryan idea) Belief in Social Darwinism survival of the fittest; natural selection Seen as greedy; evil; cowardly; backstabbing Politically responsible for German failures post-WWI Seen as slayers of Christ; witches Hatred of Jewish people/heritage Hitler believed in eugenics and adopted the idea of genocide resulting in the Final Solution Improving a race by selective breeding Systematic killing of a race or group Total extermination of Jewish people
See visual overview of Holocaust here .
The Holocaust: A Timeline 1933 Hitler becomes German chancellor Anti-Semitic news publication “Jews are our misfortune” SS sets up concentration camps for political prisoners Separate Jews from Germans Jews in public office are ordered to “retire”
Establishment of the Gestapo
The Holocaust: A Timeline 1934-1939 1934 - Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany Jews are no longer German citizens/marry non-Jews 1936 – SS Deathshead Unit put in charge of concentration camps 1938 – Night of Broken Glass Anti-Semitic attacks on Jewish businesses, people, and synagogues See video regarding the Night here . 1939 - Euthanasia program begins; Jews forced to wear yellow star; mass use of ghettos
Urban living areas where Jews would be sent pre-concentration camps
The Holocaust: Ghetto’s Originally created as a provisional measure to control and segregate Jews Creation of Final Solution (1941) made ghetto’s relatively useless & many were destroyed Largest ghetto in Poland = Warsaw Over 400,000 Jews in 1.3 square miles
See Warsaw ghetto history here .
The Holocaust: Camps Concentration camps & Death camps ( extermination camps ) Primarily detention and labor centers, as well as sites for the murder of smaller, targeted groups of individuals Auschwitz-Berkenau (II) = largest Height of operation 6,000 Jews killed/day
See video regarding Auschwitz here .
The Holocaust: Camps continued… Germany constructed a very sophisticated railway system Reaching into Spain, Italy and Russia Prisoners would be transported from CC to DC in Eastern Europe Jammed into cars like cattle Seldom received food or water during journey Extreme weather conditions
See video regarding transport here .
The Holocaust: Camps continued… Mistreatment of prisoners Medical experiments/testing Building, excavating, production, general labor under harsh conditions Hanging, shooting, gassing Zyklon B (Cyanide based pesticide) Belittling, stripping of human rights, suicide, living in constant fear Beatings, starvation, sickness, over-crowdedness See video regarding hunger in camps here . See video regarding labor in camps here .
See video regarding daily life in camps here .
The Holocaust: Special Stories Nazi; womanizer; war profiteer; saved 1,200 Jews from death during Holocaust by putting them to work in factories; reason for only shipment out of Auschwitz (300 women); died penniless; Schindler’s List List of 1,200 Jewish names Schindler purchased for factory work German Jew; moved to Amsterdam; spent 2 years hiding in father’s office building; died of typhus at age 15 at Bergen-Belsen CC; talented writer ( Diary of a Young Girl ) Book written by Frank detailing her 2 years in hiding
See flash site regarding Anne and her writing here .
The Holocaust: Liberation Russian forces reached Poland July 1944 starting liberation of camps Germans tried to destroy all evidence of camps and began mass evacuation of prisoners to the interior ( death marches ) Destruction of documents, personal belongings and buildings; burning of bodies Only after the liberation of camps was the full scope of Nazi horrors exposed to the world See video regarding liberation here . See video regarding liberation of Auschwitz here .
See pics regarding liberation of Auschwitz here .
The Holocaust: War Crimes By 1942 the allied powers announce their determination to punish war criminals Allies officially note the mass murder of European Jews Moscow Declaration (1943) War criminals would be punished by joint decisions of the Allied governments – the International Military Tribunal US, GB, R and FR supplied a judge and a prosecution team Defined crimes against humanity as "murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation...or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds.”
Declared that “following orders” was not a legitimate defense
The Holocaust: War Crimes continued… Held in Nuremberg, Germany 1945-1946 21 defendants (13 sentenced to death; 6 prison terms; 3 acquitted) Commander of Luftwaffe; un-sympathetic during trials; committed suicide in his cell night before execution Architect; minister of armaments and war production; very cooperative during trials; sentenced to 20 years Deputy head of Nazi party; claimed amnesia during trials; sentenced to life in prison
See video regarding trials here .
The Holocaust: War Crimes continued… first time a nation's leaders were prosecuted by the international community for crimes committed by the state The rules created during the trial formed the future of principles for war Organization to help former SS members avoid capture/trial People who track down/gather information on former Nazi/SS who were involved in the Holocaust Found Adolf Eichmann; tried and executed in 1962 Gestapo head for Jewish affairs Holocaust survivor; Nazi hunter
“ When history looks back I want people to know the Nazis weren't able to kill millions of people and get away with it.”
The Holocaust: Denial? What is Holocaust Denial ? Claims that the genocides that took place during WWII never occurred against the law in Israel, France, Germany, Austria and now Hungary to deny the Holocaust Punished with stiff fines and prison sentences Why single out the Jews (i.e. why not the Russians or thousands of others who died?)?
See video regarding the denial here .
The Holocaust: Denial? continued… “ The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews, including two million children. Holocaust denial is a second murder of those same six million. First their lives were extinguished; then their deaths. A person who denies the Holocaust becomes part of the crime of the Holocaust itself.”
David Matas, Senior Counsel for the “League for Human Rights”
The Holocaust: Aftermath Creation of state of Israel 1948 Psychological effect on survivors Resurgence of anti-Semitism War criminals brought to justice
See flash video regarding aftermath here .