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The Holocaust
 

The Holocaust

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    The Holocaust The Holocaust Presentation Transcript

    • THE HOLOCAUST: 1933-1945 Civitella
    • Introduction
      • Holocaust
        • Greek for sacrifice by fire
        • systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the Nazi regime
      • 1933 European Jewish population = roughly 9 million
      • By 1945 2/3 Jews had been killed & 1.5 million children had died
    • Introduction continued…
      • Why Jews? (According to Nazi’s)
        • Goal = world domination (resulting in direct threat to the Aryan idea)
        • Belief in Social Darwinism
          • survival of the fittest; natural selection
        • Seen as greedy; evil; cowardly; backstabbing
        • Politically responsible for German failures post-WWI
        • Seen as slayers of Christ; witches
        • Overall anti-Semitism
          • Hatred of Jewish people/heritage
      • Hitler believed in eugenics and adopted the idea of genocide resulting in the Final Solution
        • Improving a race by selective breeding
        • Systematic killing of a race or group
        • Total extermination of Jewish people
        • See visual overview of Holocaust here .
    • The Holocaust: A Timeline 1933
      • Hitler becomes German chancellor
      • Der Sturmer
        • Anti-Semitic news publication “Jews are our misfortune”
      • SS sets up concentration camps for political prisoners
        • Dachua
      • Enabling Act passed
        • Separate Jews from Germans
      • Jews in public office are ordered to “retire”
      • Establishment of the Gestapo
        • Secret state police
    • The Holocaust: A Timeline 1934-1939
      • 1934 - Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany
      • 1935 – Nuremburg Laws
        • Jews are no longer German citizens/marry non-Jews
      • 1936 – SS Deathshead Unit put in charge of concentration camps
      • 1938 – Night of Broken Glass
        • Anti-Semitic attacks on Jewish businesses, people, and synagogues
        • 200,000 sent to camps
        • See video regarding the Night here .
      • 1939 - Euthanasia program begins; Jews forced to wear yellow star; mass use of ghettos
        • Mercy killing
        • Urban living areas where Jews would be sent pre-concentration camps
    •  
    • The Holocaust: Ghetto’s
      • Originally created as a provisional measure to control and segregate Jews
      • Creation of Final Solution (1941) made ghetto’s relatively useless & many were destroyed
      • Largest ghetto in Poland = Warsaw
        • Over 400,000 Jews in 1.3 square miles
        • See Warsaw ghetto history here .
    • The Holocaust: Camps
      • Concentration camps & Death camps ( extermination camps )
        • Primarily detention and labor centers, as well as sites for the murder of smaller, targeted groups of individuals
          • Dachau = first
        • Death factories
          • Auschwitz-Berkenau (II) = largest
            • Height of operation 6,000 Jews killed/day
            • See video regarding Auschwitz here .
    • The Holocaust: Camps continued…
      • Transporting prisoners
        • Trains
          • Germany constructed a very sophisticated railway system
            • Reaching into Spain, Italy and Russia
          • Prisoners would be transported from CC to DC in Eastern Europe
          • Trip was a nightmare
            • Jammed into cars like cattle
            • Seldom received food or water during journey
            • Extreme weather conditions
            • No sanitary facilities
            • See video regarding transport here .
    • The Holocaust: Camps continued…
      • Camp life?
        • Mistreatment of prisoners
          • Medical experiments/testing
          • Work detail
            • Building, excavating, production, general labor under harsh conditions
          • Death
            • Hanging, shooting, gassing
              • Zyklon B (Cyanide based pesticide)
          • Psychological abuse
            • Belittling, stripping of human rights, suicide, living in constant fear
          • Physical abuse
            • Beatings, starvation, sickness, over-crowdedness
            • See video regarding hunger in camps here .
            • See video regarding labor in camps here .
            • See video regarding daily life in camps here .
    • The Holocaust: Special Stories
      • Oscar Schindler
        • Nazi; womanizer; war profiteer; saved 1,200 Jews from death during Holocaust by putting them to work in factories; reason for only shipment out of Auschwitz (300 women); died penniless; Schindler’s List
          • List of 1,200 Jewish names Schindler purchased for factory work
      • Anne Frank
        • German Jew; moved to Amsterdam; spent 2 years hiding in father’s office building; died of typhus at age 15 at Bergen-Belsen CC; talented writer ( Diary of a Young Girl )
          • Book written by Frank detailing her 2 years in hiding
        • See flash site regarding Anne and her writing here .
    •  
    • The Holocaust: Liberation
      • Russian forces reached Poland July 1944 starting liberation of camps
        • Setting free
      • Germans tried to destroy all evidence of camps and began mass evacuation of prisoners to the interior ( death marches )
        • Destruction of documents, personal belongings and buildings; burning of bodies
      • Only after the liberation of camps was the full scope of Nazi horrors exposed to the world
      • See video regarding liberation here .
      • See video regarding liberation of Auschwitz here .
      • See pics regarding liberation of Auschwitz here .
    • The Holocaust: War Crimes
      • By 1942 the allied powers announce their determination to punish war criminals
        • Allies officially note the mass murder of European Jews
      • Moscow Declaration (1943)
        • War criminals would be punished by joint decisions of the Allied governments – the International Military Tribunal
          • US, GB, R and FR supplied a judge and a prosecution team
          • Defined crimes against humanity as "murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation...or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds.”
          • Declared that “following orders” was not a legitimate defense
    • The Holocaust: War Crimes continued…
      • Nuremberg Trials
        • Held in Nuremberg, Germany 1945-1946
        • 21 defendants (13 sentenced to death; 6 prison terms; 3 acquitted)
          • Hermann Goering
            • Commander of Luftwaffe; un-sympathetic during trials; committed suicide in his cell night before execution
          • Albert Speer
            • Architect; minister of armaments and war production; very cooperative during trials; sentenced to 20 years
          • Rudolf Hess
            • Deputy head of Nazi party; claimed amnesia during trials; sentenced to life in prison
            • See video regarding trials here .
    • The Holocaust: War Crimes continued…
        • Legacy?
          • first time a nation's leaders were prosecuted by the international community for crimes committed by the state
          • The rules created during the trial formed the future of principles for war
      • ODESSA
        • Organization to help former SS members avoid capture/trial
      • Nazi Hunters
        • People who track down/gather information on former Nazi/SS who were involved in the Holocaust
          • Found Adolf Eichmann; tried and executed in 1962
            • Gestapo head for Jewish affairs
          • Simon Wiesenthal
            • Holocaust survivor; Nazi hunter
              • “ When history looks back I want people to know the Nazis weren't able to kill millions of people and get away with it.”
    • The Holocaust: Denial?
      • What is Holocaust Denial ?
        • Claims that the genocides that took place during WWII never occurred
        • against the law in Israel, France, Germany, Austria and now Hungary to deny the Holocaust
          • Punished with stiff fines and prison sentences
      • Types of denial?
        • Incorrect number
        • Issues with gassing
        • Doctored photos
        • Why single out the Jews (i.e. why not the Russians or thousands of others who died?)?
        • See video regarding the denial here .
    • The Holocaust: Denial? continued…
      • “ The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews, including two million children. Holocaust denial is a second murder of those same six million. First their lives were extinguished; then their deaths. A person who denies the Holocaust becomes part of the crime of the Holocaust itself.”
        • David Matas, Senior Counsel for the “League for Human Rights”
    • The Holocaust: Aftermath
      • What was the aftermath?
        • Migration
        • Creation of state of Israel 1948
        • International war laws
        • Psychological effect on survivors
        • Resurgence of anti-Semitism
        • War criminals brought to justice
        • Remembrance
          • memorials
        • See flash video regarding aftermath here .