Conflict in ireland


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Conflict in ireland

  1. 1. Conflict in Ireland: 16th Century to Present Civitella Civitella
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>What’s the problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should Northern Ireland stay a part of the United Kingdom or reunite with the Republic of Ireland creating a united Ireland? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whose involved? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unionists/Loyalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of UK/Protestant; Northern Ireland/Ulster county </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalists/Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of united Ireland/Catholic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Back Story… <ul><li>Interference from Britain since mid-16 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland = historically Catholic; Britain = historically Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Britain viewed Ireland as valuable resource to expanding kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>17 th century Britain starts confiscating land from Irish and giving to Protestant British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drives Irish Catholics to less desirable land (away from industrial North) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes Irish revolt against Protestant settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid-17 th century Oliver Cromwell of Britain invades Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to put down Irish resistance; incorporate Ireland into Kingdom </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Back Story continued: Cromwell & Treatment of The Irish <ul><li>Cromwell was considered ruthless and brutal in treatment of Irish: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In the heat of action, I forbade them to spare any that were in arms in the town, and, I think, that night they put to the sword about 2,000 men. When they submitted, their officers were knocked on the head, and every tenth man of the soldiers killed, and the others shipped [as slaves] to the Barbadoes.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-Cromwell </li></ul>
  5. 6. Back Story continued: Post-Cromwell Invasion <ul><li>Britain suppressed Irish Catholics under the Act of Settlement and Penal Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish aiding resistance/non-loyalists could be executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy was removed from Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Catholic allowed to vote/receive higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned Catholics from public office </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Back Story continued: Post-Cromwell Invasion <ul><li>By late-17 th century Ireland was under British control and majority of land owned by Protestants… changed from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1603: 10% Protestant:90% Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1778: 95% Protestant:5% Catholic </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Back Story of CII continued: Famine Strikes <ul><li>Irish Famines in 18 th /19 th centuries decrease population & increase Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potato, food staple of Ireland, becomes diseased destroying and poisoning crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor weather further affects crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death + mass emigration = drop in population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British rule did little to help suffering Irish, increasing Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible Genocide? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explore article regarding Genocide here . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video explaining famine here . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Back Story continued: Dawn of the 20 th Century <ul><li>Growing sense of Nationalism among Irish Catholics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to break away from Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tensions rise between Unionists and Nationalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporter of the Crown/Protestant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides create organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irish Republican Brotherhood (Nationalists) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orange Order (Unionists) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>County of Ulster in Northern Ireland = largest concentration of Protestant/wealthy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financially benefited from British Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belfast became major industrial hub of empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ulster Protestant’s were fearful that Nationalists would destroy their way of life </li></ul>
  9. 15. 20 th Century Ireland <ul><li>1914 sees tensions grow to a boiling point between Nationalists and Unionists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A movement backed by Nationalists pushing for self governance via independent Irish parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each side start building their own private armies via volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inevitable Civil War? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 16. 20 th Century Ireland continued <ul><li>The Easter Rising Easter April 1916 in Dublin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalists wanted Irish independence and the removal of all aspects of British rule from the island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who led it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patrick Pearse & James Connolly (along with 5 others) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members of IRB & leaders of the Rising </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pearse told children to, &quot;work hard … for their fatherland, and if it should ever be necessary … die for it” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executed for their roles in the Rising </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video regarding the declaration here . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read accounts from Easter Rising here . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>The plan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To overtake and occupy key landmarks in Dublin & declare Ireland an independent republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarters for the rebellion would be the General Post Office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>See video regarding Easter Rising here . </li></ul><ul><li>Aftermath of the Rising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuelled hostility towards Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executions of Nationalists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain instituted Martial Law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military rule in emergencies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrested high profile members of the resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>450 dead; 2,600 injured </li></ul></ul></ul>20 th Century Ireland continued: The Easter Rising
  12. 18. 20 th Century Ireland continued: The Easter Rising <ul><ul><li>Unified Nationalist movement under the Sinn Féin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-English/Irish Nationalist political party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fought for Ireland to be an independent nation and to cut all ties with Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created Assembly of Ireland in 1919 in Dublin to declare independent Ireland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irish provisional government… what were their goals ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of Irish Republic with </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal for recognition from other global communities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty, equality, and justice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created Irish Republican Army (IRA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official army of the new republic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 19. 20 th Century Ireland continued: War of Irish Independence <ul><li>2 Key figures… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eamon de Valera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Born in US; main figure in Easter Rising (not executed due to his American heritage); President of Sinn Féin; after breaking out of jail sailed to US to raise funds for war and gain public support; controversial decision to stay out of negotiations with Britain; would eventually lead Civil War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michael Collins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minister of finance & intelligence; involved in Easter Rising; ran government while De Valera was in US; leader of IRA; leader of the 12 Apostles ; Prime Minster of Ireland after the signing of the treaty; killed at age 31 in an ambush </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secret group of assassins with no families </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See video of de Valera here . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 20. 20 th Century Ireland continued: War of Irish Independence <ul><li>Fighting between Irish nationalists and British officials in Dublin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted from 1919-1921 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IRA used guerilla war against British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambushes, raids, mobile military tactics, “sneaky war” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain responded with Black & Tans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-WWI soldiers policing Dublin; ruthless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatching uniforms (khaki & dark green) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fighting ends after signing of Anglo-Irish Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created Irish Free State (not the desired republic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish Free State pledged allegiance to the crown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided Ireland into North and South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes rift/separation between members of the Sinn Féin </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. 20 th Century Ireland continued: Irish Civil War <ul><li>The Problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>de Valera against treaty seeing it as settling/giving in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ It gives away Irish Independence; it acknowledges the head of the British Empire as direct monarch of Ireland.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collins for treaty seeing it as a stepping stone for further independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire and develop, but the freedom to achieve .” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dáil votes in favor of treaty 64-57 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish Assembly/parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War breaks out as a direct result of Irish-Anglo Treaty being passed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Gael versus Fianna Fail ; regulars versus irregulars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Irish Free State </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Against Irish Free State </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 22. 20 th Century Ireland continued: Irish Civil War <ul><li>Fighting lasted from 1922-1923 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,000 deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructures & economy destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Gael = victors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-Civil War 1932 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eamon de Valera elected Prime Minister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called for a united Ireland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restored Catholicism to power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reintroduction of the Gaelic language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would remain in power until 1959 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1949 Republic of Ireland Act passed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripping the King of his role; declared Ireland a free republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland would remain apart of the UK </li></ul></ul>
  17. 23. 20 th Century Ireland continued: Violence Erupts <ul><li>Violence between north and south breaks out in 1950’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRA attacks Northern Ireland border area in an effort to disrupt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growing problem regarding civil rights for Catholics in north </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics start to march and protest but are met with Protestant and British opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant unionist militant organization (Northern Ireland’s version of provisional IRA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IRA splits in 1969 over ideological differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRA and Provisional IRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radical/nationalistic/terrorist(?) militant organization; wanted to unite Ireland, equal rights for Catholics in north, suppress the Protestants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 27. <ul><li>What started it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(October 5th, 1968) Catholic civil rights march was stopped by Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) - rioting ensues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights and freedoms that protect individuals from discrimination or repression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland police </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1969 British army arrived in Northern Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use tear gas and rubber bullets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>See video regarding civil rights in Northern Ireland here . </li></ul>20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1960’s
  19. 31. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1970’s <ul><li>In 1971 Britain starts internment program to try and stop violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detention without trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would stop in 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly 2,000 people detained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guildford Four & Maguire Seven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of internment/false imprisonment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sentenced in ’75 released in ‘89 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Things get worse… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January 30th , 1972, an anti-internment march is met with force by British soldiers ( Bloody Sunday ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14 civilian deaths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British soldiers insist they were fired upon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 1970’s PIRA starts violent bombing campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attacking Northern Ireland and England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blowing up commercial buildings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Car bombs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 33. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1970’s <ul><li>Bombing campaigned examined… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 die in premature explosion (reoccurring theme) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls ages 9 & 4 die when IRA father’s bomb accidentally went off </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>December 1971 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 Catholics die in McGurk's Pub bombing in Belfast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bomb planted by UVF </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1972 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>22 IRA bombs go off in Belfast within 75 minutes killing 9 and injuring 130 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as Bloody Friday </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>February 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IRA plants bomb on coach carrying British soldiers and families in Britain killing 11 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as M62 Coach Bomb </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 34. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1970’s <ul><ul><li>May 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>33 civilians & 258 injured in UVF bombings in Dublin and Monaghan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I am very happy about the bombings in Dublin. There is a war with the Free State and now we are laughing at them.” - Sammy Smyth (press officer) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IRA killed 21 at Mulberry Bush and the Tavern in the city of Birmingham </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the Birmingham Pub Bombing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to the Guildford Four, 6 people were falsely imprisoned and later freed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>February 1978 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 people killed and 23 injured in an IRA bombing at the La Mon Restaurant in Belfast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March 1979 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irish National Liberation Army blows up via car bomb Conservative Party spokesman for NI Airey Neave </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 35. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1980’s <ul><li>Removal of Special Category Status - 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>POW treatment while in prison (i.e. political prisoner = special treatment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Troubles related prisoners were granted special privileges (e.g. exempt from work; normal clothing; food; visits; living quarters; work) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Removal of SCS led to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beatings (i.e. “normal” inmates would harass and beat convicted Troubles inmates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blanket & Dirty protests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing a blanket to cover/instead of inmate clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not showering/covering walls in excrement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger Strike 1980-81 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Series of hunger strikes by Troubles convicted inmates to restore SCS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 36. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1980’s <ul><li>Hunger Strike October – December 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 IRA members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted 52 days (no casualties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not to wear a prison uniform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not to do prison work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free association with other prisoners; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize their own educational and recreational facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One visit, one letter and one parcel per week </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 38. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1980’s <ul><li>Hunger Strike March – October 1981 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRA members had little faith in British government (PM Margaret Thatcher) to enforce changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Bobby Sands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrested for possession of handguns; elected member of parliament while in prison (government would later create rule outlawing any prisoner for becoming MP); died at the age of 27 after 66 days without food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staggered approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid death, members would join sporadically throughout campaign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total of 10 deaths by starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted 217 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ended with plea from Catholic Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of the strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hatred for Margaret Thatcher grew to Cromwellian status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinn Féin gets involved in NI politics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 41. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1980’s <ul><li>Anglo-Irish Agreement 1985 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland and Britain working together in an attempt to end the Troubles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed Ireland to be an advisor in Northern Ireland politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland and Britain politicians would submit proposals to be voted on by parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In an effort to create a more harmonious relationship between Unionists and Republicans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unionists in Northern Ireland were strongly against agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stepping stone for future peace </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 42. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1990’s <ul><li>1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Margaret Thatcher resigns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cease fire/talks start between Unionists and Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cease fire short lived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talks continue throughout 90’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRA attacks Heathrow (unsuccessful) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fired mortars over fence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ban lifted on Northern Ireland media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinn Féin could now broadcast in NI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1995 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Bill Clinton visits Northern Ireland </li></ul></ul>
  27. 43. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1990’s <ul><li>1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Friday Agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revamped running of Northern Ireland to include… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power sharing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to peace and democracy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Republic drops claim to NI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early release of political prisoners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reform of police/withdrawal of British military </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly 70% of NI approved agreement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly 95% of RI approved agreement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am pleased to announce that the two governments and the political parties in Northern Ireland have reached agreement“ – George Mitchell (US Senator, chairman of talks) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 44. 20th Century Ireland continued: The Troubles 1990’s <ul><ul><ul><li>Omagh car bombing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>300 lbs of explosives hidden in car parked on pedestrian street in the town of Omagh </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planted by the Real IRA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faction of Provisional IRA created in 1997 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Killing 29 people (2 unborn twins); injuring 370 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as worst event of the Troubles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 46. <ul><li>Violence still visible after agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But not to the extent/level seen in the 70’s & 80’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real IRA, Provisional IRA and other splinter groups ( Óglaigh na hÉireann - ONH) continue to disrupt Northern Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MI5 taxi car bomb April 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally speaking relations between NI & RI are solid </li></ul>21st Century Ireland: Post-Good Friday Agreement