The purpose of this paper will be to
determine the best pedestrian traffic
control device to install on the 27
crosswalks on Fort Myers Beach, in
order to increase pedestrian safety by
encouraging drivers to yield to
pedestrians in the crosswalk.
T Town of Fort Myers Beach
The town was created in 1995.
The town is run by a town council consisting of a
mayor, a vice mayor, and 3 council member.
The town employs a town manager, an
administrative assistant, a town clerk, a contracts
manager, and a receptionist.
The town has an annual budget of 28,656, 308
2.9 square miles of land
Area of water extending
1000 feet from the
Population in 2,000 was
Median age for residents is
Three Main Business Clusters
Downtown area known as
time square and the pier.
A mid island cluster which
includes Town Hall, Bay
Oaks, and the Library.
The south end of the island
includes Santini Plaza, the
Holiday Inn, CVS
Pharmacy, and many high
From November through
April the population
30,000 visitors descend on
This triples the amount of
traffic that travels on the
islands main road known as
In the past year, four
pedestrians have been
killed while crossing Estero
Blvd at crosswalks.
According to former
Mayor Larry Kiker, there
were 24 pedestrian
accidents on the island last
Estero is a very busy road
with major traffic
during the tourist season.
There has been a 20
percent increase in the
number of pedestrian
accidents this year (Kiker,
The main cause of this problem is congestion.
Visitors are on vacation and do not pay attention when they
cross the road.
They walk out in front of traffic assuming the drivers will
stop because they are in a crosswalk.
Likewise, the drivers are also on vacation and are paying
attention to their surroundings, rather than the people in the
Residents of Fort Myers
Visitors to Fort Myers
Town Council of Fort
Lee County Sheriffs
Lee County Commission
Miami Case Study
Miami has one of the highest pedestrian fatality
rates in the state.
In order to solve this problem, the city set up
research teams to explore different
countermeasures that could be used in the city to
help make it a safer place for pedestrians.
These included “intelligent video pedestrian
detection devices” and rapid flash beacons
The results showed that some of the
countermeasures worked very well, while others had
no significant effect on the behavior of the drivers or
In Miami the use of the RRFBs increased the
percentage of drivers who yielded to the pedestrians
quite a bit.
At site #1 the yielding rate went from 0 percent to
65 percent. At site #2, the rate went from 1
percent to 92 percent.
Seattle Case Study
City leaders were not
happy with the fact that
398 pedestrians were killed
The city began installing
overhead crosswalk signs at
their busiest crosswalks.
Before the signs were installed, the driver yielding rate was
After the signs were installed, the driver yielding rate went
up to 52 percent.
The crosswalk signs were also effective in improving the
behavior of the pedestrians in the crosswalk.
Before the signs were installed 58 percent of the pedestrians
“ran, aborted, or hesitated” in crossing the road.
After the signs were installed, this rate went down to 43%.
Lakeland Case Study
Lakeland, Florida is located in Polk County where there
were 13 pedestrians killed last year (Parody, 2013).
The city has tried to improve the safety of the pedestrians in
crosswalks by installing “flashing crosswalks.”
This device embeds lights into the roadway on both sides of a
When a pedestrian approaches the crosswalk, he or she will
see a button to push that will turn on the flashing lights.
The flashing lights are designed to warn approaching drivers
that someone is waiting to cross the road.
The flashers were effective
in increasing the number of
drivers who yielded to
Before the flashers were
put in, the percentage of
drivers who yielded to
pedestrians was 15.8
After the flashers were
installed, the rate went up
to 41.0 percent.
Lit Review One
Huang, Zegeer, and Nassi (2000)
Studied three different traffic control
systems that have been employed in various
locations to make it safer for pedestrians to
cross the road.
Safety Cones in New York
Pedestrian Activated Flashing Amber
Stop for Pedestrians in Crosswalks signs.
Results Huang, et al (2000)
The device that
produced the most
consistent results was the
pedestrian safety cones.
Before the cones were
put up, 69.8 percent of
the drivers yielded to the
After the treatment, this
rate went up to 82.1
Lit Review Two:
Federal Highway Administration (2001)
Purpose was to find out if
marked crosswalks were
effective traffic control
Second objective was to
come up with
improve pedestrian safety.
Lit Review Three:
Federal Highway Administration (2007)
video detection of
In street pedestrian
Median refuge islands
Lasted 6 years
Results FWA (2007)
Most effective were
Next was in street
came in third
Yield here signs came
Lit Review Four: Do, et al (2011)
The purpose of this study was to identify some
countermeasures that could make crosswalks safer for
The countermeasure study included RRFB, HAWK,
Shared Lanes, and Crosswalk Markings.
Results showed signals were effective in reducing
accidents by 69 percent.
The type of marking made a difference.
Bar pairs and continental markings were most effective.
Lit Review Five:
Bartlett, et al (2012)
Bartlett, et al,
studied medians and
Reports showed that
using medians and
walkways can reduce
the number of
Alternative 1: Rectangular Rapid
RRFB contains two LED
Distance between flashers
is 9 inches.
Flashing pattern catches
Uses a stutter flash effect
similar to EMS vehicles.
Alternative 1: RRFB
In St. Petersburg, this was
the most effective
increasing the number of
drivers who yielded to
pedestrians in the
The cost for two units
ranges from 10,000 to
HAWK Crossing System
Uses standard crosswalk signal with two red lights over one
Light is dark until button is pushed and system is activated.
Yellow light changes from flashing to solid.
Alerts drivers to stop.
The two red lights come on and the pedestrians get a walk
Alternative 2: HAWK
Overall reviews were good
but there were two issues
with this system.
The dark beacons are hard
Some people think it is a
broken traffic light and
Cost is 80,000 dollars.
Medians are areas between lanes of traffic.
Raised medians are the most effective but they cost
anywhere from 15,000 to 30,000 dollars per 100 feet.
The road also needs to be wide enough for the raised
Alternative 3-Flashing Crosswalk
Flashing crosswalks are a series of flashing lights installed just
below the pavement surface.
They warn motorists that pedestrians want to cross.
Cost is 15,000 to 18,000 dollars.
They increase the yielding rate from 16 percent to 92
The purpose of the ARP was to provide the best solution
to a problem in a public service organization.
The project was designed to use a quantative
methodology to select the most effective traffic control
device to improve pedestrian safety on Fort Myers
The comparative analysis will determine which of the
four traffic devices studied will be the best choice for the
Town of Fort Myers Beach.
Selection of Best Alternative
The quantative and comparative analysis
concluded that the best alternative for Fort Myers
Beach is the flashing crosswalks.
Alternative 4 scored 172 points.
The rectangular rapid flashing beacon came in
second with 166 points.
The raised medians was third at 146.
HAWK system came in last with 145.
Year One-Set up control crosswalks using only zebra stripes
to determine which 10 crosswalks will get the treatment.
YearTwo-Determine the total cost and work with Lee
County to secure funding and install the treatment on the 10
crosswalks that were chosen.
YearThree-Begin the evaluation process which will compare
the crosswalks with and without treatment to determine if
the system is effective.
Year Four- If the system is effective, install it in the
Observe and record the behaviors of the drivers
and the pedestrians as they interact with the
Observe and record the number of times a driver
or pedestrian is forced to take evasive action to
avoid an accident in the crosswalk.
Study the number of accidents that have
occurred in the crosswalk before and after the
Thank you for taking
the time to listen to
The Town of Fort
Myers Beach should
make every effort to
install the flashing
crosswalk to ensure
the safety of all
residents and visitors.
Bartlett, Jennifer, Brett Graves, Theo Petritsch, and Tamara Redmon.
(2012). Proven countermeasures for pedestrian safety. Public Records.
United States Department of Transportation. FHWA-HRT-12-003.
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Do, Ann, Kay Fitzpatrick, Susan Chrysler, Jim Shurbutt, William
Hunter, and Shawn Turner. (2011) Safety Strategies Study. Public Roads.
United States Department of Transportation. FHWA Number: HRT-
11-004. Retrieved from www.flhwa.dot.gov/publications/public
roads. 20 May 2013
Federal Highway Administration.(2010). Safety beneﬁts of raised medians
and pedestrian refuge areas . United States Department of Transportation.
medians_brochure.pdf1 June 2013.
Godfrey, David. (1999). Kirkland's experience with in-pavement flashing
lights at crosswalks. Institute of Transportation Engineers Annual
Meeting. Retrieved from
PageMode=Print. 29 May 2013.
Hefferan, Jennifer and Peter Laggerwey (2004). The city of Seatle, WA, USA,
crosswalk and inventory improvement plan. ITE Journal. Retrieved from www.
Ite.org/membersonly/itejournal/pdf/2/2004. 24 May 2013.
Huang, Herman, Charles Zeeger, and Richard Nassi (2000). Effects of innovative
pedestrian signs at unsignalized locations: three treatments. In Annual meeting
compendium of technical papers [CD-ROM]. ITE. Washington, DC. Retrieved
from http://www.ite.org/traffic/documents/AB00H5102.pdf. 17 May 2013.