101 - Bolton - Text Analysis/Evaluation Assignment

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101 - Bolton - Text Analysis/Evaluation Assignment

  1. 1. Text Analysis/Evaluation Essay Assignment This PowerPoint goes over the assignment by breaking it down into each paragraph/requirement—this also covers the recurring errors present in the essay drafts.
  2. 2. Assignment Overview  Select two of the ―paired essay‖ options on the assignment sheet.  Determine which one makes a more effective argument using criteria of argument (logos, ethos, pathos, counterargument, etc.)  Write an essay defending your choice.  Point out at least one fallacy in the ―weaker‖ essay.
  3. 3. Introduction Paragraph Your introduction paragraph needs to  use an approved ―strategy‖ (see Ch. 30) ◦ explain the larger context (―arguing‖) ◦ define key terms or concepts ◦ ask a question Remember that the topic of your essay is ―arguing‖ and what makes an argument effective – you are not addressing your opinions on the topics discussed in the essays! ◦ summarize both texts (see Ch. 46 or They Say, Ch. 2) ◦ include your thesis statement as last sentence (discussed on next slide)
  4. 4. Thesis Statement Your thesis statement needs to  be the last sentence of the introduction paragraph  state which of the two texts makes a better argument  list criteria for discussion (see assignment sheet for list) ◦ You must use two to three of these criteria for discussion, and you can use the terms (logos, etc.) Sample thesis statement (from sample essay): “Both Zinczenko and Leonard provide interesting claims and adequate reasoning, but Zinczenko’s essay is a more effective argument because of its use of logos and a counterargument.” Claim (Zinczenko is better) criterion #1 (from list) criterion #2 (from list)
  5. 5. Body Paragraphs Your body paragraphs need to…  provide support and examples for your thesis statement (why is logos in one essay better than the other, etc.)  Compare and/or contrast the texts in demonstrating why one is more effective  include topic sentences that reflect each paragraph and follow an appropriate comparison/contrast structure (example on next two slides)  include quotes from each text – in MLA format – to support discussion
  6. 6. Comparing/Contrasting Two options for organizing: 1. block method – discuss each text separately ◦ Example (using thesis above): Topic Sentence 1 (for first body paragraph): Zinczenko uses both logos and a counterargument effectively in his essay. This paragraph will discuss logos and counterargument (both criteria) in Zinczenko’s essay but will NOT mention Leonard’s (because topic sentence doesn’t mention Leonard). Topic Sentence 2 (for second body paragraph): Leonard also uses logos and a counterargument in his essay, but it isn’t as effective as Zinczenko’s. This paragraph will discuss logos and counterargument (both criteria) in Leonard’s essay AND can refer back to Zinczenko’s text as well (since it has already been discussed; plus, it is mentioned again in the topic sentence, which makes the connection clearer). Sample thesis statement (from sample essay): “Both Zinczenko and Leonard provide interesting claims and adequate reasoning, but Zinczenko’s essay is a more effective argument because of its use of logos and a counterargument.”
  7. 7. Comparing/Contrasting Two options for organizing: 2. point-by-point method – discuss each criterion separately ◦ Example (using thesis above): Topic Sentence 1 (for first body paragraph): Zinczenko and Leonard both use logos, but Zinczenko’s is much more effective. This paragraph will discuss the criterion – logos – in both essays (since both are mentioned in the topic sentence, but only one criterion is listed). Topic Sentence 2 (for second body paragraph): Furthermore, Zinczenko and Leonard both include a counterargument, but Zinczenko weakens his opponent’s view better than Leonard does. This paragraph will discuss the criterion – counterargument – in both essays (since both are mentioned and only one criterion is mentioned) Sample thesis statement (from sample essay): “Both Zinczenko and Leonard provide interesting claims and adequate reasoning, but Zinczenko’s essay is a more effective argument because of its use of logos and a counterargument.”
  8. 8. Comparing/Contrasting and Topic Sentences  When organizing, there is some flexibility, such as using point-by-point but a separate paragraph for each text (see sample essay).  Bottom line, though: The topic sentence has to summarize the entire paragraph (and must connect to the thesis as well by listing one or more criteria). ◦ If you are going to discuss both texts, they must BOTH be mentioned in the topic sentence or else the topic sentence is inaccurate!
  9. 9. Quoting: Purpose  Quotes should identify whatever criterion you are discussing (logos, etc.) Example (from sample essay): First, the rhetorical appeal of logos is used heavily in Zinczenko’s ―Don’t Blame the Eater.‖ For one, he provides an anecdote that establishes his connection to the topic of fast-food and obesity. He explains,―I grew up as a typical mid-1980s latchkey kid… Lunch and dinner, for me, was a daily choice between McDonald’s,Taco Bell, Kentucky Fried Chicken, or Pizza Hut‖ (Zinczenko 195). Basically, Zinczenko knows about obesity because he has experienced it, and he offers an anecdote to demonstrate this. criterion stated in topic sentence one type of logos used (which will be quoted) The quote provides an example of logos (the criterion being discussed)
  10. 10. Quoting: Format  Include a citation at the end that includes the page number and author’s last name if needed (see Chs. 49 and 50 for details) Example (from sample essay): First, the rhetorical appeal of logos is used heavily in Zinczenko’s ―Don’t Blame the Eater.‖ For one, he provides an anecdote that establishes his connection to the topic of fast-food and obesity. He explains,―I grew up as a typical mid-1980s latchkey kid… Lunch and dinner, for me, was a daily choice between McDonald’s,Taco Bell, Kentucky Fried Chicken, or Pizza Hut‖ (Zinczenko 195). Basically, Zinczenko knows about obesity because he has experienced it, and he offers an anecdote to demonstrate this. parenthetical citation
  11. 11. Quoting: Format Remember that there are different formats and requirements, including  brackets to add/change information  ellipses to leave out information  block quotes for long quotes (4 lines or more)  ―qtd. in‖ if it is someone else’s words in the article (not the author’s) Details on these—and more ―weird‖ situations—are explained in Ch. 50 or the Purdue OWL (online).
  12. 12. Quoting: Format - ICE Every quote needs to be framed – ICE it:  Introduce the quote  Cite the quote  Explain (discuss) the quote Example (from sample essay): Leonard claims,―For the sake of the U.S. economy, I would love to see a robust Christmas shopping season and I plan to do my part‖ (132). Leonard establishes the benefit of Black Friday shopping: it helps the economy. Introduce with a “he claims” and a comma OR with a complete sentence and a colon—see They Say I Say, Chs. 2 and 3 for details and templates you can use. The explanation interprets the quote and should (eventually) explain how it fits the criterion you are claiming it is. It is placed in quotation marks and cited with a page number.
  13. 13. Conclusion Paragraph Your concluding paragraph needs to  use an approved ―strategy‖ (see Ch. 30) ◦ restate your main point ◦ discuss the implications of your argument  NOT bring up new ideas ◦The conclusion is not the place to discuss the fallacy in the weaker essay; the conclusion should merely restate and emphasize what you’ve already said.
  14. 14. Language Use Some reminders:  Use proper terminology ◦ Logos, ethos, pathos, ad hominem, bandwagon, etc. – use these actual terms. Remember that your audience is familiar with the details of arguments! ◦ ―Logos,‖ ―ethos,‖ and ―pathos‖ are not plural terms; they are singular.―Logos is present‖ or ―An example of ethos is‖ … ―logo,‖ ―etho,‖ and ―patho‖ are not words.  Use present tense when discussing essay ◦ He argues, she claims (not ―argued‖ or ―claimed‖)
  15. 15. Language Use Some reminders:  Focus on the texts’ structure—NOT the topic itself ◦ Generally speaking, avoid ―you‖ and ―I‖ or ―me‖ (etc.) in your essay. ◦ ―I think a good example of logos is…‖ should just say ―A good example of logos is…‖ ◦ ―I agree with him‖ or ―I disagree with her‖ are irrelevant – you may certainly indicate a good point is made (for logos or convincing reasons), but you are not adding your opinions to the mix.
  16. 16. Works Cited page The last page of your essay should be your Works Cited, which should contain MLA format citations (entries) for each text you discussed. For format help, consult #7 on pg. 498 of your Norton textbook or see the sample essay (or the Purdue OWL). (And don’t forget the other MLA requirements – heading, page numbers, spacing, etc.)
  17. 17. For additional help… Read the sample essay on D2L. It is annotated to point out the important aspects of the assignment and is formatted correctly. You may use the sample essay as a ―template‖ to help you complete your own essay, just changing the information/ideas with the ones for your texts.

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