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Possible evolution for RE mining projectsaccording to Gartner Hype cycle2Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 3Metallurgy Advantage :Debating competitive elements oftonnage, grade, mineralogy, …
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto Downstream RE Separations and Finishings 4BeneficiationHeavy SandsMinesIlmenite, Rutile,…Zircon,… Cassiterite,…MONAZITE XENOTIMEGrinding +BeneficiationHard rocksMinesFe concNb,Ta concAlkalinecrackingCrude REHydroxideHCl, HNO3dissolutionBASTNASITEAcidbakingCrude RESulfateWaterdissolutionNaOH H2SO4Non RE + Rad* Purification of Mix RE solutions by Chemistry and/or SXGrinding +BeneficiationBASTNASITERoastingAciddissolutionHClL/SseparationAustralia,India, SthA,…Brazil, USA,MolycorpSichuanBayanOboTSPResidu Ce4conc RE3Cl solSummarize of "classical " upstream RE processesUSA,China,Residu
5Metallurgy Advantage :Debating competitive elements of tonnage, grade, mineralogy, …"Classical" RE processes are using high grade concentrates usually >50%REOmeaning RE bearer minerals are easily liberated and accessible.- Bastnasite, Monazite as Light RE sources- Xenotime for Heavy RE ones- Russian Loparite as RE,NbTa,Ti bearer is a special case for LRE…!- Chinese Ionic ores since late 80’s are also an other one for HRE…!First new industrial RE concentrate is Lynas Mt Weld project presentlystarting with an intermediate concentrate ~40%REO grade.Futur potential RE sources now under development are generally conducting tosome "RE concentrates" of which %REO grade is even more stronglydepending of the mineralogy of the RE bearers…Here after is a sketch for a rough comparison of that present evolution of REresources…Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto
Gangue GangueCoarse pure RE mineralBN, MZ, XN,…Mix RE mineralRE included into lattice6Simplified 2 types forRE mineralisationBeneficiationEasy HopelessJean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 7Back to summarize of RE IndustryRich , coarse, concentratedRE MineralsPoor , fine, disseminatedRE MineralsPure & easy liberatedPlacers, Veins,… depositsM.Mixed & liberatedF.Carbonate : BNPhosphate : MZ, XNOxides : LP,…Silicates : ED ,…Phosphates : AP, CH,…F.Carbonates : PA,SY,…Weathered, AdsorbedAl.Phosphates : FL,..Ionic ores : ClaysREOcontentBeneficiationrangeHydro, PyroMetallurgy rangeCrackingLeachingRESeparationFinishingsforMarketsExo,Rad*PuficationPure &MixedSalts,Oxides,MetalsIX, SXinCl or NO3solutionsBN Bastnasite, MZ monazite, XN xenotime, LP loparite, ED eudialyte, AP apatite, CH churchite, PA parisite, SY synchisite, FL florencite,…PhysicalConc.ChemicalConc.
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 8 REO Grade / MineralogyWhere is the Optimum between physical beneficiation and chemical cracking ?!• Although the target is to recover the maximum of RE content, Mining andChemistry are two worlds that need to very well know and understand eachother to reach this optimum…• Mineral Liberation Analysis (MLA) is of crucial importance… whileMetallurgical Behavior (Beneficiation and Cracking) are both tested fordetermination of a potential flowsheet, then future economical process. Tonnage REO / REO DistributionEvolution of RE market to be estimated for Light/Heavy RE ores development.• RE are coming all together, but will not be paid at best market price…• Global " RE equilibrium " has also to be taken into account for tonnage…particularly for large RE tonnage projects…Upcoming new RE sources
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 9TMR Advanced Rare-Earth projects IndexGood and usefull,then what about REactual accessibility ?
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 10 REO Grade / MineralogyWhere is the Optimum between physical beneficiation and chemical cracking ?!• Although the target is to recover the maximum of RE content, Mining andChemistry are two worlds that need to very well know and understand eachother to reach this optimum…• Mineral Liberation Analysis (MLA) is of crucial importance… whileMetallurgical Behavior (Beneficiation and Cracking) are both tested fordetermination of a potential flowsheet, then future economical process. Tonnage REO / REO DistributionEvolution of RE market to be estimated for Light/Heavy RE ores development.• RE are coming all together, but will not be paid at best market price…• Global " RE equilibrium " has also to be taken into account for tonnage…Upcoming new RE sources
La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Y Er Tm Yb LuMix.REProcessesEquilibrium : the most important Rare EarthRE multi-usagesdemand… … …REAvailabilityLightMediumHeavyPresently 5 Critical REJean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 11
Equilibrium researchSimplified RE breakdownShowing the "Big 5" of both average mineral families18.811.617.42.437.49.40% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Light AvHeavy AvMix AvPr.Nd Eu Tb Dy Y La Ce OthersGlobal result for a potential Mix 80% Light + 20% Heavy distributionJean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 12
0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000Pr.Nd10 TbYCeLight av Heavy av Demand 2014 IMCOAEquilibrium researchJean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 13Global result for a potential Mix80% Light + 20% Heavy distributioncompared to forecasted demand
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 14Thank you for your attentionMerci pour votre attention
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 15Summary• Since beginning of 2000 the number of RE projects has increased drastically inconnection to the fact of a better knowledge of RE wide usages and thediscovering that China was quite the only RE producer ! with a quota systemwhich became more and more restrictive for many reasons….• Numerous world wide old RE occurrences have been reevaluated by manycompanies that have taken into account the RE value content or now calledbasket price, sometimes without considering the accessibility of those REelements…!• Target of present presentation is to emphasize the fact that all different stepsfor getting RE finished products are all important and may be today the criticalone is not the so called RE separations…. So, which one is corresponding to that“new RE frontier” ?• In addition of present potential natural deposits, it appears that the RE contentof previous tailings, industrial residues, scraps has to be considered forenvironmental and economical reasons… Their reprocessing follows the samesteps of those of any new RE deposit development.
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 16Some more slides !
Some of main RE minerals• Carbonates group Bastnasite : RE Fluo.Carbonate RE.FCO3 Ca substitution : Parisite, Roentgenite, Synchisite• Phosphates group Monazite, Xenotime : RE Phosphates RE.PO4 Ca,Si substitution : Cheralite,… Alteration/Hydratation : Rabdophanite, Churchite,… RE substitution : Apatite,… Florencite : Complex Alumino-phosphates : Crandalite group Mix-Oxides group Loparite : RE,NbTa,Ti.O3 Ca substitution : Perovskite, Colombite, Pyrochlore, Fergusonite,…• Silicates group Eudialyte : Many substitutions NaCa,FeMnRE,ZrSiO4OH Allanite :Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 17
Main RE minerals• Carbonates– Anhydrous FCO3RE : Bastnasite, BayanObo, Mt Pass, MaoNiuPing, DongPao…– Mix FCO3Ca.RE : Parisite,… Synchisite Hastings, Kutessai,…• Phosphates– Anhydrous REPO4: Monazite, Xenotime Indian ocean belt beach sands , Florida, Brazil,…– Hydrated : Rabdophane, Churchite…. Mt Weld,…– Mix : Ca.RE Apatite,… Cheralite Si.Ca Kola, Phalaborwa, Jacupiranga, Nolans,…– Lateritic : Crandalite,….. Florencite Al_ Mrima Hill, Mabounié, Araxa,…• Oxides– Anhydrous : LopariteTi,NbTa,RE, Kola,– Lateritic : Pyrochlore Mrima Hill, …• Silicates– Eudialyte SiZr.Na_RE, Dubbo, Kipawa, Illimaussaq, NorraKarr, …– Allanite SiAlFe.Ca.RE Nolans,..– Gadolinite SiBeFe.RE,.. Strange lake,…– Clays : RE.adsorbed Ionic ores XunWu, LongNan, YenPhu, …All of them "contains" more or less radioactive Th,U elementsto be considered !18Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013Toronto
Main Rare Earths Minerals• Minerals with major RE content :– Carbonates : Bastnasite, Parisite,…– Phosphates : Monazite, Xenotime, Churchite,…– Niobates… : Loparite, Colombite, Fergusonite, Pyrochlore,…• But RE are also beard by many others minerals as minor REcontent, of which main ones for RE are :– Phosphates : Apatites igneous & alterated as complex ores,– Silicates : Eudialyte, Allanite, Britholite, …– China clays, mainly as ultimate step of weather alteration.• In both case they are occurrences for specific Light and Heavyconcentrations conducting to corresponding 2 relative familiesnamed Cerium rich and Yttrium rich.–19Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013Toronto
Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 20ROSKILL Rare Earth
Non RE + Rad* Purification of Mix RE solutions by Chem and/or SXHydro, pyro metallurgy rangeMain different RE MineralsPhysical ConcentrateHigh REO contentCrude oreLow REO contentMix Physical ConcentrateIntermediate REO contentPurified Mix RE solution (Cl, NO3, SO4) ready for individual separationNaOHcrackingCrude REHydroxideMZ, XNBNHCl, HNO3dissolutionBN,CH,SYdirect/alkalRoastingHCldissolutionCe conc. +RE3 Cl solutionH2SO4RoastingWaterdissolutionBN,MZED,CH,SYCrude RESO4 solutionLPCarbochlorinationWaterdissolutionCrude RECl solutionIOSaltleachingSelct.REprecip.HCldissolutionAPAcid HNO3dissolutionCrude REPO4 solutionRE.NO3ExtractionBN Bastnasite, MZ monazite, XN xenotime, LP loparite, ED eudialyte, AP apatite, CH churchite, PA parisite, SY synchisite, FL florencite,…Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 21
Based on Mineralogy :- Crude ore : Low REO- Physical conc. : High REO- Roasted or notSulfuriccrackingBaking or in pulpAtmospheric or PressureCake SlurryRE+M+Gangue SulphatesDilutionPurificationSulfuric acid H2SO4RE Sulphate solutionLow REO conc.RE recovery &concentrationMix.RE Chloride/Nitrate solutionready for SX separationGangue residueComplex silicates RE ores such as Eudialyte, Fergusonite,…proposed metallurgical process…Changing anion by :- Precipitations + Dissolutions- Solvent eXtraction ?!Washing,Precipitation,L/S FiltrationEffluent treatment…Jean-Paul TOGNET – TMS.2013 Toronto 22