110118 presentation_uwc_trieste__eu_and_peace-buiding


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The European Union’s Foreign Policy under the Lisbon Treaty: a priority on
Conflict Prevention, Crisis Management and Peace-Building

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110118 presentation_uwc_trieste__eu_and_peace-buiding

  1. 1. Presentation at the United World College in Trieste<br />21 January 2011<br />The European Union’s Foreign Policy under the Lisbon Treaty: a priority on <br />Conflict Prevention, Crisis Management and Peace-Building <br />Marc Van Bellinghen<br />Deputy Head of Unit, EEAS<br />Conflict Prevention , Peace Building & Mediation<br />European Commission<br />EXTERNAL RELATIONS<br />
  2. 2. OUTLINE <br />1.Lisbon Treaty : EU key foreign policy objectives (i.e. a truly rule-based international order <br />with the UN at its core) and a simplified EU command. <br />2. Three layers of partnerships : accession countries (Europe) , <br />Neighbourhood countries (beyond Europe/East and Mediterranean), <br />the wider world (development , trade,) and the global/strategic partners. <br />The comprehensiveapproach to conflict prevention, crisis management <br />and peace-building: crisis management missions & Instrument for Stability<br />4. Case-studies: Tsunami & Aceh 2005, the Georgia crisis in 2008, piracy & poverty <br />in the Horn of Africa 2009, man-made and natural disasters & the challenges <br />of fragile States (DRC, Haiti and Pakistan). <br />
  3. 3. Lisbon Treaty : EU in the World <br />EU key objective : a truly rule based international order with UN at its core <br />Article 21- The Union shall define and pursue common policies and actions in order to:<br />(a) safeguard its values, fundamental interests, security, independence and integrity;<br />(b) consolidate democracy, the rule of law, human rights and the principles of international law;<br />(c) preserve peace, prevent conflicts and strengthen international security, in accordance with the UN Charter, <br />(d) foster sustainable development of developing countries, primary aim of eradicating poverty;<br />
  4. 4. Lisbon Treaty : EU in the World<br />(e) help integration of all countries into the world economy, progressive abolition of restrictions on international trade;<br />(f) preserve and improve the quality of the environment and the sustainable management of global natural resources; <br />(g) assist populations, countries and regions confronting natural or man-made disasters; <br />(h) promote an international system based on stronger multilateral cooperation and good global governance.<br />
  5. 5. Lisbon Treaty : EU in the World<br />EU in the world operates with 2 distinct methods & co-existing sets of policies : “External Action” /EA and the “Common Foreign & Security Policy”/CFSP .<br />(1) EA operates under the supranational method (development policies and assistance, humanitarian assistance, trade, environment..) . European Commission is in the lead (sole right of initiative, budget management). Decisions are based on majority voting. European Parliament (elected MEPs) and Council (EU Member States governments) have generally an equal right to decide on Commission’s proposals. <br />
  6. 6. Lisbon Treaty : EU in the World <br />(2) CFSP remains an inter-governmental policy ,with Member States in the lead gathered around the High Representative (HR) for CFSP in the EU Council (previously Mr Solana now Mrs Ashton) and unanimity/consensus generally required for decisions to be taken . <br />European Parliament does NOT have a formal right to decide/amend, even if European Parliament increasingly holds debates on CFSP policies. Rationale being that Member States (MS) officials (soldiers, policemen..) and MS equipment and budgets are involved here and that national parliaments are in many cases called on to co-decide. <br />Examples of CFSP decisions : EU “common positions” on sanctions against Zimbabwe, Iran or North Korea ; and EU “joint actions “such as civilian and military peace missions in Bosnia, DR Congo or Georgia , involving EU Member States policemen and military .<br />
  7. 7. Lisbon Treaty : EU in the World<br />This has led to serious problems of EU coherence and effectiveness <br />on the world stage which are addressed in the Lisbon Treaty (November 2009) through the establishment of common actors/bodies to manage both methods. <br />In essence , the boss of CFSP becomes also Commission boss , i.e. Baroness C. Ashton is HR CFSP and now chairs the monthly meetings in the Council of Member States Foreign Ministers and is as well the Vice-President of the Commission co-ordinating external relations (EU in the world). To get this done implies a huge merger of Commission, Council and Member States Departments and officials within in the new European External Action Service (EEAS), established on 1 January 2011. This EEAS will gather , in a first stage , 1600 officials in Brussels and about 2000 in EU Delegations (= Embassies) outside the EU. <br />
  8. 8. Lisbon Treaty : EU in the World<br />The long term, strategic decisions in the EU , also regarding EU in the world , are impulsed by the European Council (gathering of Heads of Governments and the President of European Commission JM Barroso). The European Council meets at least 4 times a year (every 3 Months) and is chaired by a permanent Chair ,H Van Rompuy (former Belgian Prime Minister) who represents the EU in the World together with Mr Barroso at the level of heads of State/Governments. Hence, at G8/G20 Summit meetings or EU summit meetings with US President Obama, Mr Van Rompuy and Barroso will be on the TV screens. <br />
  9. 9. EU partnerships on the World’s stage <br />3 main types of EU partnerships <br />Europe (« accession countries ») , i.e. Balkan countries, Turkey and Iceland - Instrument for pre-accession - specific cases of EU stabilisation missions (military, police and Justice) in Bosnia and Kosovo - adoption of full EU body of legislation (”acquis”) <br />Neighbourhood -adoption of large parts of EU “acquis” with support ENPI - subdivided in (1) Eastern Partnership (Eastern Europe , Caucasus, specific case of Georgia) – very specific case of EU /Russia partnership and (2) Mediterranean partnership (Mediterranean Union) with Near Eastern/North African Mediterranean neighbours- main ENPI beneficiary occupied Palestinian Territories (oPT)<br />Partnership with ACP countries (former colonies late 50’s/early 60’s- Cotonou agreement) through EDF and with developing countries in Asia and Latin America through DCI. Aims: sustainable development, fight against poverty, peace ,democracy & rule of law. <br />
  10. 10. EU External Financial Instruments2007 - 2013<br />
  11. 11. EU global partnerships on the World’s stage <br />The EU has established strategic partnerships (ie including regular Summit meetings at Head of Government level) with the US, Canada , Japan , Russia,China, India, Brasil, South Africa . This entails in fact bilateral partnertships with the emerging G20 group of countries , whilst the EU operates alongside its 4 largest MS as a full participant of the G8 and G20 groups. But equally , EU has built strategic partnership with the UN, and with key Regional organisations such as African Union (EU /Africa Summits) , with Latin America /Carribean and with Asia (EU Asia Summits) . This web of strategic partnerships enables the EU to « promote an international system based on stronger multilateral cooperation and good global governance” (Lisbon Treaty, Article 21). <br />
  12. 12. Conflict prevention, crisis management and peace-building <br />The Union’s external action (Art 21 TEU)<br />The Union shall define and pursue common policies and actions in order to:<br />(c) preserve peace, prevent conflicts and strengthen international security, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter, with the principles of the Helsinki Final Act and with the aims of the Charter of Paris, including those relating to external borders;<br />assist populations, countries and regions confronting natural or man-made disasters; and<br />European External Action Service (Art 27 TEU)<br />“conflict prevention, peace-building and human rights issues constitute 'a silver thread' running through all external actions” HRVP Ashton on EEAS at the EP's AFET Committee in July 2010<br />
  13. 13. Comprehensive approach to conflict<br />The EU intervenes along the entire conflict and crisis cycle (early warning, conflict prevention, crisis response and management, post conflict peace-building, rehabilitation, capacity building and reconstruction).<br />Comprehensive approaches to conflict (diplomatic, developmental, civilian & military crisis mgt, ... ) in context of security and development nexus (i.e. no SEC without DEV and no DEV without SEC) as set out in the European Security Strategy.<br />Actions in conflict countries (60 to 80) in the world, linking both short-term and long-term interventions, pre-requisite for sustainability.<br />
  14. 14. Council Conclusions<br />2001 Gothenburg Council Conclusions - EU Programme for Prevention of Violent Conflicts<br />2003 European Security Strategy (revisited 2008) refers to threats such as organised crime, terrorism, proliferation of WMD, failed (fragile) States, regional conflicts but also cyber crime, energy security, climate change, bio terrorism ..<br />2007 Council conclusions on security and development nexus, and on situations of fragility<br />2009 Lisbon Treaty<br />
  15. 15. Crisis Management Missions <br />In addition to the provision of immediate humanitarian relief in cases of natural disasters and conflicts, two types of EU actions and instruments (one EA, one CFSP) to address conflict and crises have steadily grown over the last years: <br />1. EU « crisis management » missions (conflict prevention, peace-keeping or peace-buildingmissions) are either civilian or military missions. Since the establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy in 1999 (under CFSP), over 20 mission has been deployed in 3 continents. As of mid-2010, there are 14 active EU CSDP missions (out of which 2 military and 2 civil-military) : Bosnia, Kosovo, oPT, Georgia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Horn of Africa , Uganda, DR Congo . The EU supports directly or indirectly 16 UN peacekeeping operations –working together on the ground in 8 major crisis theatres – in Europe, Africa, Middle East and Asia. Member States officials, MS assets ,equipment, EU funding for civilian missions but exclusively MS funding for military missions. <br /> The EU reports to the UN. The EU is the largest donor of the UN: we pay 39% of the regular budget and 41% of the peacekeeping budget. NSC on four operations.<br />.<br />
  16. 16. Instrument for Stability (IfS) <br />With the launch of the IfS in 2007, EU has now a second , substantive tool designed for conflict prevention, crisis response and peace-building . Essentially, swiftly designed and deployed short term programmes (18 Months) to help stabilize situations or to prevent conflict spreading, or kick-start post conflict peace-building and recovery/reconstruction. Some 140 actions in over 50 conflictcountrieswhich range from mediation, to Security sector reforms (SSR), DDR , support to electoral processes and reforms , State building, Justice reform and transitional justice, post crisis recovery and reconstruction. Under responsibilities of EU delegations on the spot, implemented through UN, regional organisations, MS development agencies and NGO’s. Non humanitarian and non military tool , and only when mainstream, LT instruments (EDF, DCI..) can not intervene in time . <br />
  17. 17. Scenario I<br />Major new political crisis or naturaldisaster<br />Tsunami 2005, Lebanon 2006, Georgia 2008, <br />Gaza 2009, <br />Haiti , Pakistan 2010<br />
  18. 18. Scenario II<br />Window of opportunity… <br />…to prevent conflict, resolve an existing conflict or consolidate a peace or stabilisation process- through mediation, electoral processes, security sector reforms, .. <br />
  19. 19. Scenario III<br />An urgent need to secure the conditions for the delivery of EC aid - eg Afghanistan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Moldova etc<br />
  20. 20. Scenario IV<br />Laying the groundwork for securing stability, or facilitating an EU CFSP operation<br />Aceh<br />DRC<br />Chad <br />Georgia<br />Kosovo<br />Horn of Africa<br />
  21. 21. Instrument for Stability (IfS)2007-2009 Distribution<br />
  22. 22. Instrument for Stability (IfS)Crisis Response measures <br />and CSDP missions<br />
  23. 23. Instrument for Stability (IfS)Implementing partners (2007-2009)<br />UN 48% - INGO 22% - IO 17%<br />
  24. 24. Three guiding principles:<br />Eligibility (crisis situation, subsidiarity)<br />Feasibility (efficiency, sufficient time, suitable operator, critical mass)<br />Appropriateness (political interest and impact, re-establishment of usual assistance, CSDP missions)<br />Triangular cooperation (EU Delegation/ Geographic service at HQ/ Relex A2)<br />IfS project sub-delegated ( intensive care!)<br />Instrument for Stability (IfS)Tips for Heads of Delegation <br />
  25. 25. EU Delegations andRCRPOs <br />● EU Delegations to International Organisations<br />● ECHO Regional Offices (RSOs)<br />● RCRPOs (coincide with RSOs)<br />●IfS Programme Managers<br />
  26. 26. Tsunami , an opportunity as well ? The Aceh peace process in 2005<br />The roles of a businessman & of an elder statesman, Aceh diaspora and NGOs <br />Peace talks – from Feb till August 2005<br />A role for the EU and ASEAN as guarantors of the peace agreement<br />A comprehensive web of partners in reconstruction and peace building <br />
  27. 27. EU comprehensive response to the Georgia crisis 2008 <br />2008 – Swift, determined and multi-dimensional EU initiative (FR PRES) : diplomatic (mediation), operational (civilian CSDP monitoring mission along administrative/conflict border lines), humanitarian response (ECHO) and early recovery, solid housing for IDPs (IfS) and an international donor conference. <br />2009/10 – Sole remaining international presence on the border lines (monitoring mission , lead mediator (with UN and OSCE) in the Geneva talks between Russia and Georgia , confidence and peace building measures developed under IfS with UNDP, with strong input from EU Monitoring mission and OSCE experts (international community working as one here). Types of actions : local NGO support in border regions (both sides) , mediation capacity build-up in Reintegration Ministry to facilitate reintegration in break-away republics) people to people projects (Students in Brussels). <br />
  28. 28. EU & Piracy and addressing its root causes in the Horn of Africa (2009) <br />The EU comprehensive response to contribute to restoring the stability and the development of Somalia, through a strategy which builds on the EU's commitment to support the capacities of the Transitional Federal Institutions (EDF)<br />The EU's strategy equally addresses the fight against piracy off the coast of Somalia, Gulf of Aden and in the Western Indian Ocean through the CSDP maritime operation, ATALANTA which provides in particular support for humanitarian aid shipments (escorts for World Food Program (WFP) ships, prevention and deterrence of attacks). <br />The EU is currently developing a regional strategy for the Horn of Africa, which aims inter alia at addressing the scourge of piracy in its wider regional dimension, ranging from its legal aspects (prosecution and incarceration) to maritime surveillance and development and other wider governance aspects through dedicated support programmes under EDF and Ifs long term component. The swift provision of EU support for piracy trials, first to the Kenyan judicial system and then to the Seychelles in partnership with UNODC has proven critical to ensure African countries' buy-in in the fight against piracy in the region whilst EU support for the rule of law in Somalia is being provided through UNODC in country. <br />Longstanding and significant EU support through the EDF (African Peace Facility) remains a key enabling factor for a prolonged and enhanced AU peace-keeping mission in Somalia (AMISOM); whilst a CSDP mission to contribute to the training of Somali security forces (EUTM Somalia) has been established in 2009 in cooperation with the AU (AMISOM), Uganda and the USA. <br />
  29. 29. EU comprehensive approach to DRC <br />DRC huge , poor but potentially rich and yet a fragile State : stabilisation , peace and state-building are endeavours for the very long haul <br />2004-06 Massive support for first democratic elections since independence<br />Since 2005 Security Sector Reform (military, police and Justice) both under crisis management missions (police and military) and development programmes. . Specific military focus on chain of payments of the army and on vetting and training of soldiers. Development programmes focused on justice reform, in particular in Eastern DRC<br />Since 2008 major focus on stability in Eastern DRC in suit of the local peace window (Amani) early 2008 and DRC/Rwandan rapprochement in 2009. Close liaison with UN PK mission in Kivu –for multi-facetted programmes : employment generation programmes (local roads) for youth ex combatants in camps; border guards and nature conversation project across the 3 border parks (Uganda , Rwanda , DRC); conflict prevention expertise (International Alert) with local initiatives (women , natural resources mapping and tracking ); police premises and training . <br />In 2011, elections are again on the agenda as well as an enhanced focus on army reform ( barracks, families , military justice , early warning in the East with role for army? )<br />
  30. 30. Haiti & Pakistan 2010: the challenge of natural and man-made disasters <br />Two very different countries : one big , MIC Country , nuclear power with strong government and public bodies) ; one small, LDC , conflict prone and disaster ridden country with very weak government structures) <br />Both on top of our agenda not only in 2010 after unprecedented earthquake and floods but since a few years as a result as well of mounting challenges : conflicts and State defiance in North Western Provinces affected by Afghan war , lawlessness, radicalism and terrorism in Pakistan ; wide scale poverty, weak government structures, mounting organised crime (trafficking) in Haiti and poor UN PK results. <br />Responses can only some from a united , international community on all fronts (humanitarian, reconstruction, peace building and state building) . Acceptance to invest in UN, identify the right actors/channels to work with and support them , in particular local civil society. Reach out to the populations and empower the legitimate governments (importance of credible and fair elections). <br />Don’t look for « visibility » but make sure you what works and who gets the job done. Never forget the Truman quote : “It is amazing who much one can get things done if he does not want to get credit for it! “ <br />
  31. 31. More information at:<br />http://eeas.europa.eu/ifs/index_en.htm<br />http://eeas.europa.eu/ifs/pbp_en.htm<br />http://www.iss.europa.eu<br />http://www.csdpmap.eu<br />
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention <br /><ul><li>European Commission