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  • 1. Framework conditions for exporting to the German market Marcus Schwenke Director Import Department Federation of German Wholesale, Foreign Trade and Services Berlin, 19 November 2013
  • 2. I. BGA – Who we are About the Federation of German Wholesale and Foreign Trade (BGA) • Membership • Mission and priorities
  • 3. I. BGA – Who we are • The BGA was originally founded in 1916, and refounded after the Second World War (1949). • Since 2000 in Berlin • Around 30 employees BGA – the umbrella organisation for international trade and wholesale
  • 4. I. BGA – Who we are • BGA represents the interests of some 70 business associations • 26 regional employers’ associations • 43 sector associations (incl. food and agricultural sector) • Member associations represent some 120.000 companies • 1,6 million employees • € 1.8 billion turnover
  • 5. I. BGA – Food and Agricultural Sector • BGA represents the following wholesale and foreign trade associations in the food and agricultural sector:           Fruits and vegetables Eggs, Poultry and Game Coffee Meat Flowers Cereals Processed Food Beverages Hides and Skins Cash and Carry (Self Service Wholesale sector)
  • 6. I. BGA – What we do • Political representation of the members in Berlin and Brussels • Regular information about relevant topics (e.g. taxes, infrastructure, trade policy, collective bargaining, environmental policies) • Platform for the exchange of information • Public relations • Contacts with companies and relevant organisations
  • 7. I. BGA – What we stand for • Trade and international competition lead to global growth, prosperity and employment. • Governance in form of a „Social Market Economy“ with strong ordoliberal elements. • Trade barriers reduction - benefits growth and employment especially in the medium and long term • Globalisation requires flexibility, speed, innovative distribution channels, modern marketing ideas ans sophisticated logistics.
  • 8. I. BGA – What we do regarding import • Reduction of barriers to trade with developing or emerging countries • Advocacy for the promotion of import issues with regard to negotiations of free trade agreements • Modernisation / liberalisation of EU trade defense measures (antidumping) • Matchmaking of projects of the official German development assistance and the import interests • Import Promotion Desk
  • 9. I. BGA – What we do regarding import Import Promotion Desk (IPD) – Successful export to Germany and Europe THE PLATFORM + for the promotion of the import activities of the Federal Republic of Germany THE OBJECTIVE + the sustainable and well-structured import promotion for specific products from selected developing and emerging countries – under compliance with high quality, social and environmental standards IMPLEMENTED BY FUNDED BY + the gobally active development organisation sequa gGmbH and the Federation of German Wholesale, Foreign Trade and Services (BGA) + the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
  • 10. I. BGA – What we do regarding import IPD - Connecting the German import community with intern. trade players CONSOLIDATING INTERESTS of German importers with those of exporters from selected developing and emerging markets in a targeted manner OFFERING CUSTOMISED SERVICES exactly suited to the individual requirements of exporters and German importers FACILITATING ACCESS + to the German and European market for suppliers from selected developing countries + to enable the partner countries to enhance their economic structures ARRANGING BUSINESS CONTACTS + between German buyers and reliable suppliers in the emerging growth markets of the partner countries + to give German importers access to new, profitable supply chains in selected developing countries
  • 11. I. BGA – What we do regarding import IPD – Tapping new markets Current partner countries ● Egypt ● Indonesia ● Peru Sectors ● Fresh and (semi-) processed fruit and vegetables, nuts ● Natural ingredients for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic sector ● Technical wood
  • 12. - Overview of presentation - I. About the Federation of German Wholesale and Foreign Trade (BGA) II. Trade relations between Argentina and the EU/Germany III. Importing to Germany - general requirements IV. The German market for imported products – Example: foodstuff V. Traceability in the food supply chain VI. Product labeling in the area of food VII. Food quality certifications VIII. Conclusion
  • 13. II. Trade relations Germany - Argentina Important partners in world trade • Argentina is Germany’s third most important trading partner in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. • More than 5 per cent of Argentina’s total imports come from Germany, making Germany the country’s fourth most important supplier, after Brazil, China and the USA. • Among buyers of Argentine exports, Germany ranks ninth.
  • 14. II. Trade relations Germany - Argentina Foreign trade balance (Billion Euro) 2010 % 2011 % 2012 % Import from Argentinia 1,8 20,0 2,3 27,8 1,9 - 17,4 Export to Argentinia 2,4 71,4 2,7 12,5 2,7 0 -0,6 -0,4 Argentinia‘s rank in trade with Germany (2012):  For exports –No. 46  For imports –No. 46 -0,8
  • 15. II. Trade relations Germany - Argentina
  • 16. II. German Foreign Trade with Agricultural Goods (2012) Imports: 73,1 Billion € Exports: 60,3 Billion € Trade Deficit: 12,8 Billion € Germany is the world’s 3rd biggest import nation. Germany in international agricultural trade: No. 2 for imports No. 3 for exports
  • 17. II. German Foreign Trade with Agricultural Goods Unit: billion Euros
  • 18. II. Origin of Food and Agricultural Imports to Germany (2012) Others: 8,3%
  • 19. II. Main food and agricultural products imported to Germany (2012) • Oilseeds • Meat and meat products • Milk and milk products • Preserved/ tinned fruit and vegetables • Coffee • Fresh/ tropical fruits • Fish and seafood
  • 20. II. Main food and agricultural products exported from Argentina to Germany (2012) • 15 % of all exports are meat and meat products. Germany is the biggest buyer of Argentine beef in the EU. • Oilcake: 11 % of exports. • Vehicles and vehicle parts: 14 % of exports • 30 % of the honey imported by Germany comes from Argentina
  • 21. III. Importing to Germany - general requirements Overview: • • • • • • Custom procedures Food and feed safety Plant safety Animal health Some restrictions General liability for products  German product liability law (ProdHaftG)  Liability for producers in the German civil law code (BGB)  Product safety law GPSG (technical products)
  • 22. III. Importing to Germany – customs and quotas Custom - procedures • Registering as an economic operator (EORI number) • Entry Summary Declaration (ENS) • Customs approved treatments  Release for free circulation  Transit procedure  Customs warehousing  Inward processing  Temporary importation  Entry into a free zone or warehouse • Customs declaration - Single Administrative Document (SAD) • Value for Customs purposes
  • 23. III. Importing to Germany – customs and quotas Oilseeds and protein crops • The EU no longer has any specific support measures for oilseeds. About two-thirds of the oilseeds consumed in the EU each year are produced in the EU but the EU imports about half the oilseed meals used annually in animal feed. • As of 2012, the EU no longer has any specific support measures for protein crops. Import tariffs for the main protein crops are set at zero. • Tariffs on oilseeds and on oilseed meals are zero, whereas duties on vegetable oils (except olive oil) range from 0 to 12.8%, as set out in the table below. CN code Description Duty 1201 – 12 07 Oilseeds Free 1507,1508,1511,1512,1513, 1514, 1515 Vegetable oils,other than olive oil Free to 12.8% 2304 – 2306 Oilseed meals Free
  • 24. III. Importing to Germany – food and feed safety Imports of foodstuffs must comply with general conditions: General principles and requirements of food law: • Traceability - importers of food and feed products must identify and register the supplier in the country of origin • General rules on hygiene of foodstuffs and hygiene specifications for food of animal origin • Rules on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs • Rules on residues, pesticides, veterinary medicines and contaminants • Special rules on genetically modified food and feed, bio proteins and novel foods • Special rules on certain groups of food products (e.g. mineral waters, cocoa, quick-frozen food) • Specific marketing and labeling requirements for feed materials • General rules on materials intended to come into contact with foodstuffs
  • 25. III. Importing to Germany – plant health EU-Phytosanitary requirements Exports of plants and plant products to the EU must: • be accompanied by a plant-health certificate issued by the relevant competent authorities of the exporting country • undergo customs and phytosanitary inspections at the point of entry into the EU (border) • be imported into the EU by an importer registered in the official register of an EU country • be announced before arrival to the customs office at the point of entry. Specific conditions apply for: • oil and fibre plants; cereals; vegetables; seed potatoes; beet (sugar and fodder); vines; fruit plants; fodder plants; ornamental plants; forests
  • 26. III. Importing to Germany – animal health Imports of animals and animal products must meet the applicable health standards and international obligations General rules: • the exporting country must be on a list of countries authorized to export the category of products concerned to the EU • products of animal origin may be imported into the EU only if they come from approved processing establishments in the exporting country • all imports of animals and animal products must be accompanied by a health certificate signed by an official veterinarian of the competent authority in the exporting country • every consignment is subject to health checks at the border inspection post (BIP) in the EU country of arrival.
  • 27. III. Importing to Germany – animal health Example: Import conditions for meat or meat products • Competent veterinary authority which is responsible throughout the food chain • Country or region of origin must fulfill the relevant animal health standards • The national authorities must also guarantee that the relevant hygiene and public health requirements are met. • A monitoring system must be in place to verify compliance with EU requirements on residues of veterinary medicines, pesticides and contaminants • Imports only authorized from approved establishments • Exporting countries have to apply for determination of their BSE status. • An inspection by the Commission’s Food and Veterinary Office is necessary to confirm compliance with the above requirements.
  • 28. III. Importing to Germany – animal health Example: Approved establishments for exporting meat to the EU Approval number Name City Regions Activities Remark 13 JBS Argentina S.A. Rosario Santa Fe PP 22, 23, 24, B PP Processing Plant 22 Meat products 23 Meat extracts and any powdered products derived from meat 24 Treated stomachs, bladders and intestines (other than casings) Date of request
  • 29. III. Importing to Germany – bans and restrictions Import licenses for agricultural products Imports of following agricultural products must be accompanied by an import license: • Cereals and rice • Olive oil • Sugar • Milk products • Beef and veal • Sheep meat and goat meet • Wine: • Alcohol • Garlic
  • 30. III. Importing to Germany – general liability for products • German Product Liability Act (Produkthaftungsgesetz) • EU-Regulation (EG) Nr. 178/2002 • German Food and Feed Act (Lebensmittel und Futtermittelgesetz) • Tortious liability according to § 823 German Civil Law Code
  • 31. IV. The German market for imported products (food) Overview: • The German consumer – some characteristics • Crisis management in Germany  Example: Sprout scandal/EHEC  Example: Horse meat scandal • Legislative trends and developments:  Origin labeling of processed meat & fresh meat  Origin labeling of meat as an ingredient  Ban or labeling of meat from slaughter without stunning  Animal welfare initiative (QS)  Traceability – food and non-food
  • 32. IV. The German market for imported products (food) The German consumer – some characteristics • • • • Quality is important Price is more important Only few prefer to buy locally, but rising German consumers are skeptical - want independent evidence that a product works / is of high quality. • Organic food and vegan food is a fast growing niche • Convenient/ functional food (ready-to-eat, cut and mixed, preripened fruits) • “Super fruits” with big health benefits (Acai, pomegranate, blueberry, goji berry, yumberry, etc).
  • 33. IV. The German market for imported products (food)
  • 34. IV. The German market for imported products (food)
  • 35. IV. The German market for imported products (food)
  • 36. IV. The German market for imported products (food) Growing importance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) CSR is used as a risk- and reputation management tool by retailers ● ● ● ● Germany’s food markets are oversaturated Quality and food safety level is high in Germany Retailers are the gatekeepers in the food market There is strong competition among Germany’s food retailers ● Retailers mainly compete on prices ● BUT: Retailers do not want to be blamed of not acting responsible
  • 37. IV. The German market for imported products (food) Retailers make their company more sustainable and adopting the assortment ● Increasing energy efficiency ● Making the assortment more sustainable ● Telling stories about sustainability activities As focal enterprises in the value chain retailers can set and enforce private standards ● Retailers define and set relevant private standards ● Retailers are not prevented by the WTO framework to set standards above the Codex Alimentarius standard ● Retailers can enforce the standards
  • 38. IV. The German market for imported products (food) Crisis management in Germany Example: Sprout scandal/E.coli • A novel strain of Escherichia coli O104:H4 bacteria caused a serious outbreak of foodborne illness in northern Germany in May through June 2011. • 3,950 people were affected and 53 died, 51 of which were in Germany • German officials made incorrect statements on the likely origin and strain of Escherichia coli. The German health authorities incorrectly linked the O104 serotype to cucumbers imported from Spain • Authorities also identified an organic farm in Lower Saxony, Germany, which produces a variety of sprouted foods, as the likely source of the E. coli outbreak. The farm has since been shut down • Later, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, announced that seeds of fenugreek (heno griego) imported from Egypt were likely the source of the outbreak.  Spain expressed anger about having its produce linked with the outbreak, which cost Spanish exporters 200M US$ per week.
  • 39. IV. The German market for imported products (food) Crisis management in Germany Example: Horse meat scandal • Packages of beef lasagna found in Great Britain, that contained between 60 % and 100% horse meat • Also found horsemeat in frozen beef burgers. • Beef products also found in Germany, Belgium, Denmark and other countries that contained different levels of horse meat. • The origin of the horse meat was Romania. It was sold as horse meat to a company in France which had knowingly sold the horse meat as beef. • Horsemeat was much cheaper than other meats such as beef in Romania
  • 40. IV. The German market for imported products (food) Legislative trends and developments: • Origin labeling of processed food & fresh meat (swine, sheep, goats and poultry) The origin of the meat must be indicated as follows: • • Member state or third country of slaughter indicated as “Slaughtered in…” • • • • • the last member state or third country of rearing (at least 2 months for pigs, sheep and goats and 1 month for poultry) indicated as “Reared in:..” Reference code for the link between the meat and the animal or group of animals. Origin labeling of meat as an ingredient Ban or labeling of meat from slaughter without stunning Animal welfare initiative (QS) Traceability – food and non-food
  • 41. V. Traceability in the food supply chain Overview: • Traceability as a legal requirement in the EU • Special systems for eggs, beef, fish, fruits and vegetables • Perspective: fTrace as a global supply chain solution • Rapid alert system RASFF
  • 42. V. Traceability in the food supply chain • Legal requirement for the whole EU [Reg. (EU) Nr. 178/2002] • Means the ability to trace and follow a food, at all stages of production • Traceability facilitates the identity, history and source of a product • It does not make food safe, it is a management tool • It enables the assurance of food safety and allows action to be taken if food is found not to be safe, e.g. withdrawal or recall • “One up” / “One down” - Each stage in the food chain must • Identify what is received (raw materials from the previous stage in the chain) • Identify where product is sent (to the next stage in the chain) • Make information available on demand • Each stage in the food chain is responsible for the operations under their control • No requirement for whole chain traceability
  • 43. V. Traceability in the food supply chain A stage in the food chain Raw materials or products from supplier Operation • One step down Products to customer • Storage • Transport • Wholesale • Manufacture Make information available on demand • One step up
  • 44. V. Traceability in the food supply chain Special traceability requirements for unprocessed or processed food of animal origin • Since 1st July 2012, the provisions set out in Regulation 931/2011 regarding the traceability requirements for unprocessed or processed food of animal origin will be applicable. • Sets the piece of information the Food Business Operator should provide to the competent authority upon request  an accurate description of the food  the volume or quantity of the food  the name and address of the food business operator from which the food has been dispatched  a reference identifying the lot, batch or consignment, as appropriate
  • 45. V. Traceability in the food supply chain Existing systems Eggs:
  • 46. V. Traceability in the food supply chain Existing systems Beef: „Origin…“ „Born in…“ „Fattened in…“ „Slaughtered in…“ „Cut in…“ Beef from outside the EU: • “Non-EU” • And minimum: “Slaughtered in…”
  • 47. V. Traceability in the food supply chain EU-Traceability and imports Only intra-territorial effect, i.e. • applies only from importer up to retail level in EU • the importer in EU must be able to identify only the exporter in the 3. country • the importer do not need to require tracebility beyond the exporter in the 3. country
  • 48. V. Traceability in the food supply chain More tracebalitity - more data RE R1 E1 P1 E2 C1 R2 D1 M1 RE E3 R3 P2 C2 M2 R4 P3 C3 E4 D2 P3 RE E5 R5 Producer -> Processor -> Exporter -> Wholesaler -> Distributer -> Consumer
  • 49. V. Traceability in the food supply chain Future of traceability in the supply chain– Decentralized Solution Data Base Central Search Engine
  • 50. V. Traceability in the food supply chain EU-Rapid alert system RASFF • Established in 2002. • Operated by the European Commission. • When information about a serious health risk deriving from food or feed, RASFF member must immediately notify. • If withdrawing or recalling food or feed products from the market is deemed necessary. • Most alerts with regard to various microorganisms, pesticide residues, heavy metals, illegal food additives.
  • 51. V. Traceability in the food supply chain In 2011, a total of 3812 original notifications were transmitted • 635 were classified as alert • 1860 as border rejection notification.
  • 52. VI. Product labeling in the area of foodstuff Overview: • Obligatory labeling  Requirements according to the new EU Food Information Regulation  Specific labeling for GMOs • Optional labeling  Managed by independent or non-independent bodies  Examples  Own brands and registered trademarks  Quality marks and testing labels  Geographical designations of origin  Labeling with regard to ecological or social standards
  • 53. VI. Product labeling in the area of foodstuff Obligatory labeling • Minimum durability date/ Use-by date • Indication of the name under which the products in question are to be sold • Filling quantity • List of ingredients • Product-specific information (e.g. for milk, cheese, fruit jams) • Nutrition labeling (starting 2016) • Company name and address • Identification mark (animal origin)
  • 54. VI. Product labeling in the area of foodstuff Obligatory labeling – Important new requirements • • • • the quantity of certain ingredients or categories of ingredients; the net quantity of the food; any special storage conditions and/or conditions of use; the country of origin or place of provenance for certain types of meat, milk or where failure to indicate this might mislead the consumer; • instructions for use where it would be difficult to make appropriate use of the food in the absence of such instructions; • Origin labeling for other fresh meat then beef (pigs, sheep, goats and poultry) • the substances causing allergies or intolerances (nuts, milk, mustard, fish, grains containing gluten, etc.).
  • 55. VI. Product labeling in the area of foodstuff – Allergy information The 14 substances are: • mustard; • celery; • nuts (such as almonds, hazelnuts, • cereals containing gluten (such walnuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, pecans, as wheat, barley, rye and oats); pistachios and macadamia nuts); • crustaceans (such as lobster • peanuts; and crab); • sesame seeds; • eggs; • soybeans; • fish; • sulphur dioxide and sulphites • lupins; (preservatives used in some foods and • cow’s milk; drinks) at levels above 10mg per kg or per • molluscs (such as mussels litre. and oysters);
  • 56. VI. Product labeling in the area of foodstuff Obligatory labeling • Easy to understand and visible, clearly legible and, where appropriate, indelible. • The height of «x» the characters must be at least 1.2mm (except for small-sized packaging or containers). Additional voluntary information • shall not mislead the consumer; • shall not be ambiguous or misleading; • shall, where appropriate, be based on the relevant scientific data.
  • 57. VI. Product labeling in the area of foodstuff Obligatory labeling for GMOs • Labeling of GM food mandatory for:  products that consist of GMO or contain GMO;  products derived from GMO but no longer containing GMO if there is still DNA or protein resulting from the genetic modification present • This means products such as flour, oils and glucose syrups have to be labeled as GM if they are from a GM source. • Products produced with GM technology (cheese produced with GM enzymes, for example) do not have to be labeled. • Products such as meat, milk and eggs from animals fed on GM animal feed also do not need to be labeled. • The words ‘genetically modified’ or ‘produced from genetically modified (name of the organism)’ must be clearly visible. • Food and feed products which contain a proportion of GMOs of less than 0.9 % of each ingredient are not labeled as GMO on the condition that the presence of the genetically modified organism is technically unavoidable.
  • 58. VI. Optional product labeling
  • 59. VI. Optional product labeling –Own brands
  • 60. VI. Optional product labeling – Quality marks and testing labels
  • 61. VI. Geographical indications and traditional specialties Three EU schemes known promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. • Protected Designation of Origin - PDO: covers agricultural products and foodstuffs which are produced, processed and prepared in a given geographical area using recognised know-how. • Protected Geographical Indication - PGI: covers agricultural products and foodstuffs closely linked to the geographical area. At least one of the stages of production, processing or preparation takes place in the area. • Traditional Speciality Guaranteed - TSG: highlights traditional character, either in the composition or means of production
  • 62. VI. Geographical indications and traditional specialties Number of Geographical Indications by scheme in 2010
  • 63. VI. Geographical indications and traditional specialties Process for registering a Geographical Indication or Traditional Specialty
  • 64. VI. Labels for organic products EU organic label German organic label German free-of-GMO label
  • 65. VI. Other labels for organic products
  • 66. VI. Sustainability/ Fair Trade Labels
  • 67. VII. Food quality standards / certifications Overview: • Objectives of certification schemes  B2B  B2C • Different standards  Basis: HACCP-Concept, Codex Alimentarius; ISO 9001; ISO 22000:2005;  Most commonly used:  IFS Food (International Featured Standard);  BRC Global Standard for Food Safety  GlobalG.A.P  QS  EcoStep
  • 68. VII. Food quality standards / certifications Objectives of certification schemes • B2B  Differentiate and add value to the food product.  Define clear rules for contracting parties  Assist food chain operators in complying with legal requirements (feed hygiene legislation, HAACP guidelines, QAS) and so fulfill liability requirements and protect the reputation of the vendor  Ensure brand or private label specific production requirements • B2C  Inform consumers on specific or additional quality traits or other specific characteristics.  May be linked to environmental protection, animal welfare, organoleptic characteristics, worker welfare, fair trade, climate change concerns, ethical, religious or cultural considerations, geographical production environment and origin.
  • 69. VII. Food quality standards – Basis: HACCP H azard A nalysis C ritical C ontrol P oint • WHAT hazards can enter the product? • Where do these hazards occur? • How can we control or eliminate these hazards?
  • 70. VII. Food quality standards – Basis: HACCP EU Regulation 852/2004 & HACCP requirements • All food business operators (production, processing and distribution of food) must put in place, implement and maintain a permanent procedure or procedures based on the HACCP principles. • Food business operators must:  provide the competent authority with evidence of their compliance with the requirement to have procedures based on the HACCP principles taking account of the nature and size of the food business  ensure that any documents describing the procedures developed in accordance with this are up-to-date at all times  retain any other documents and records for an appropriate period
  • 71. VII. Food quality standards – Basis: Codex A. • Collection of internationally recognized  standards,  codes of practice,  guidelines and  other recommendations …relating to foods, food production and food safety • A single international reference point • Main goals: Protecting the health of consumers and ensuring fair practices in the international food trade • Not a legal requirement – EU has sometimes stricter specifications
  • 72. VII. Food quality standards – Basis: Codex A. General texts • Food labelling (general standard, guidelines on nutrition labelling, guidelines on labelling claims) • Food additives (general standard including authorized uses, specifications for food grade chemicals) • Contaminants in foods (general standard, tolerances for specific contaminants including radionuclides, aflatoxins and other mycotoxins) • Pesticide and veterinary chemical residues in foods (maximum residue limits) • Risk assessment procedures for determining the safety of foods derived from biotechnology (DNA-modified plants, DNA-modified micro-organisms, allergens) • Food hygiene (general principles, codes of hygienic practice in specific industries or food handling establishments, guidelines for the use of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point or “HACCP” system) • Methods of analysis and sampling
  • 73. VII. Food quality certifications – Basis: Codex A. Specific standards: • Meat products (fresh, frozen, processed meats and poultry) • Fish and fishery products (marine, fresh water and aquaculture) • Milk and milk products • Foods for special dietary uses (including infant formula and baby foods) • Fresh and processed vegetables, fruits, and fruit juices • Cereals and derived products, dried legumes • Fats, oils and derived products such as margarine • Miscellaneous food products (chocolate, sugar, honey, mineral water)
  • 74. VII. Food quality standards – ISO 22000 What is ISO 9001? • ISO 9001 is for quality management. • Quality refers to all those features of a product (or service) which are required by the customer. • Quality management means • what the organization does to ensure that its products or services satisfy the customer's quality requirements • comply with any regulations applicable to those products or services. • Certification is not a requirement of ISO 9001 • The organization can implement and benefit from an ISO 9001 system without having it certified.
  • 75. VII. Food quality standards – ISO 22000 What is ISO 22000? • A management system standard (based on ISO 9001) • Specific to food safety management • Based on Codex HACCP approach with some innovations • Designed for all segments of food chain & all types of food business (micro to global) • Enables a food business to plan, implement, operate, maintain and update a system to provide safe end products and demonstrate conformity with applicable regulatory requirements
  • 76. VII. Food quality standards – ISO 22000 Seeking international coherence among many Good Manufacuring Practices GFSI Guide DS 3027 M&S system Aldi system Kraft food system ISO 14001 Waiterose Eurepgap FAMI-QS ISO 9001 system GMP standard for Corrugated & Solid Board BRC-IoP Friesland Coberco FSS BRC-Food Nestlé NQS Dutch HACCP SQF GMO EFSIS IFS AG 9000 GMP GTP McDonalds system Irish HACCP
  • 77. VII. Food quality standards - DIN How does ISO 9001 or ISO 22000 benefit emerging countries? ● By defining the characteristics that products and services will be expected to meet on export markets; ● Businesses using these standards are increasingly free to compete on many more markets around the world; ● For developing countries, it represents an international consensus and constitute an important source of technological know-how; ● International Standards give emerging countries a basis for making the right decisions when investing their scarce resources
  • 78. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS What is IFS? A Family of Food Supply Chain Safety & Quality Standards ● Flagship IFS Food developed in 2002 in Germany ● Now family of 6 standards implemented globally in 97 countries ● One of largest food safety / quality organizations worldwide ● More than 14,000 certifications ● Celebrating 10-years in 2013 ● Standards developed by the INDUSTRY they serve In the late 1990‘s, retailers in Germany were looking for a way to cut cost and improve safety and quality through their supply chain. From that concept, IFS was born.
  • 79. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS Safety & Quality with a Purpose Match safety and quality with: - Customer satisfaction assessment - Research and development - Good manufacturing practices - Hygiene aspects - Traceability - Allergens - Packaging material Describe a specific level to be fulfilled Implement food-legislation Designed to fit the customer’s demands Auditor examination and calibration training Database & Software Integrity Program
  • 80. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS IFS Cash & Carry / Wholesale  Packaging / Commission / Delivering / Trading C&C/GH IFS Broker  Selecting manufactures / Organising delivery Broker IFS Logistics  Storage / Distribution Logistic IFS Food  Food-Production Packaging Production
  • 81. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS IFS Scheme Structure All IFS Standards follow same flow Senior Management Responsibility Food Defense Safety & Quality Management System Safety & Quality in One Resource Management Measures, Analysis, Improvement Production or Service Process
  • 82. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS IFS – Domestic and Global Acceptance … and many more food services, manufacturers, retailers and wholesalers around the world.
  • 83. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS Berlin Germany Toronto Canada Paris France St. Louis USA Warsaw Poland Milan Italy Hefei China Dourados Brasil Santiago Chile
  • 84. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS 67 certification bodies 850+ auditors active in over 20 languages 14,000+ certified manufacturers 850 registered retailers & food services
  • 85. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS IFS Food 6.0 - Basic requirements: • Functioning management of documents and sound accounting practices • Processes are regulated by procedural rules • Working instructions describe every single production step • Procedural rules and working instructions have to be up to date • HACCP concept was established • Responsibilities are clearly defined by an organisational chart (organigram) • Corporate guidelines are established with regard to customerorientation, environment, staff and the quality of products
  • 86. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS „Knock Out“ (KO)-Criteria for IFS Food 6.0  For food safety, all employees have clearly defined responsibilities and have to follow a corresponding code of conduct.  Critical control points of HACCP need to be mastered  Rules for personal hygiene are not limited to employees but also apply to craftsmen and visitors  Specifications for food additives and packaging material are available  It is necassary to stick to arrangements with customers  Management for avoiding foreign objects in the products  System for traceability  Internal audits regarding the functioning of the quality management  Process instructions for product recalls must be in place  System for corrective actions with clearly defined responsibilities and deadlines
  • 87. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS IFS Food 6.0 - Benefits • Production:  Improvement of communication between management and staff on good practices, standards and procedures  Monitoring of compliance with food regulations  More effective use of resources  Reducing the need for audits by customers  Greater flexibility since the risk based approach allows for individual solutions • Marketing/reputation:  Safeguarding the reputation of a company as producer of safe food of high quality;  Opens opportunities to establish business relations with customers that require independent audits;  Use of the IFS logo as proof for keeping hight standards
  • 88. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS Efficiencies related to IFS Food v5
  • 89. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS Focus on Sustainability
  • 90. VII. Food quality certifications - IFS Results  In general, companies are satisfied with IFS. In particular, SMEs appreciate the standard.  Implementation and maintenance costs for IFS may be higher due to the required investments.  The introduction of the IFS has improved competitiveness.  Customer relations have improved as well. Costs for defects have been minimized because the QM systems gained a stronger position with the introduction of IFS.
  • 91. VII. Food quality certifications - BRC History of British Retail Consortium’s Global Food Safety Standard ● Created in 1998 by several British retailers ● So as to strengthen food safety in companies ● The key element for this creation is the English BSE – crisis (mad cow disease) – loss in confidence in the law ● This standard is compulsory for companies who produce English private products ● The BRC Food Safety Standard can be used by any food processing operation where open food is handled, processed or packed
  • 92. VII. Food quality certifications - BRC The Standard is divided into seven sections: 1.Senior Management Commitment and Continual Improvement 2.The Food Safety Plan (HACCP) 3.Food Safety and Quality Management System 4.Site Standards 5.Product Control 6.Process Control 7.Personnel
  • 93. VII. Food quality certifications - BRC Benefits of the BRC standard • It should reduce the number of food safety audits by each retailer • Single standard and protocol, allowing evaluation to be carried out by certification bodies who are accredited against the European standard • A single verification, commissioned by the supplier in line with an agreed evaluation frequency • Within the evaluation protocol, there is a requirement for ongoing surveillance / follow up of corrective actions on non-conformity. • The standard addresses part of the due diligence requirements of both the supplier and the retailer. • Recognition of accredited certification bodies in countries possible where products are sourced.
  • 94. VII. Food quality certifications - BRC Focus on sustainability
  • 95. VII. Food quality certifications – GlobalG.A.P History of GlobalG.A.P  GLOBALG.A.P.’s roots began in 1997 as EUREPGAP  Their solution: Harmonize their own standards and procedures and develop an independent certification system for Good Agricultural Practice (G.A.P.).  The EUREPGAP standards helped producers comply with Europe-wide accepted criteria for food safety, sustainable production methods, worker and animal welfare, and responsible use of water, compound feed and plant propagation materials.  Driven by the impacts of globalization, a growing number of producers and retailers around the globe joined in.  EurepGAP changed its name to GLOBALG.A.P. in 2007.  GLOBALG.A.P. today is the world's leading farm assurance program, translating consumer requirements into Good Agricultural Practice in a rapidly growing list of countries – currently more than 100 on every continent.
  • 96. VII. Food quality certifications – GlobalG.A.P GLOBALG.A.P. is holistic. Benchmark: Good Agricultural Practice  minimizes the risk of microbiological contamination;  lessens detrimental environmental impacts of farming operations;  ensures a responsible approach to worker health and safety as well as animal welfare. Standards for  vegetables,  fruits,  flower production,  livestock,  fishery
  • 97. VII. Food quality certifications – GlobalG.A.P Holistic approach Compound Feed Manufacturer Total number of control points: 203
  • 98. VII. Food quality certifications – GlobalG.A.P Members (Retail & Food service) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • 99. VII. Food quality certifications – GlobalG.A.P Members (Producer & supplier)
  • 100. VII. Food quality certifications – GlobalG.A.P Countries with GLOBALG.A.P. certified producers
  • 101. VII. Food quality certifications – QS  The QS scheme was established in October 2001.  Founded on the findings from the BSE crisis and with the objective to consequently implement the obligation of self-assessment,  Includes the product scopes beef, veal, pork and poultry as well as fresh fruit and vegetables.  QS assures food safety from farm to shop – right from the start.  Products only carry the QS certification mark if all parties involved in its production commonly comply with the requirements of the QS scheme.  More than 130.000 scheme participants in Germany, in Europe and around the world have already joined the QS scheme
  • 102. VII. Food quality certifications – QS • Products are produced, processed and marketed according to clearly defined criteria. • Criteria defined jointly by all participating stages of the food supply chain. • Comprehensive documentation and self- assessment measures. • Compliance inspected by independent certification bodies. • Integrity of the whole QS scheme is monitored within the scheme integrity system (SIKS). • Targeted to consumer confidence in Germany, QS is open for international partners. • Mutual recognition of different quality assurance schemes (e.g.) GlobalG.A.P serves to prevent double auditing
  • 103. VII. Integrated certification for SMEs ● Developed between 2001 and 2004 by a cooperation between the government of the German Land Hessen and representatives of industry and trade. ● Especially designed for SMEs ● Integrates different demands a company must meet including:  Issues of corporate management,  Occupational health and safety,  Quality,  Environmental impacts. ● Integrated approach within a scheme that is certified and process-oriented. ● A total of 40 companies have been certified so far. ● The program is developed on the basis of the main requirements of management systems such as ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and EMAS
  • 104. VIII. Environmental certifications Overview: ● Basis: ISO 14001:2004; ● TÜV SÜD Carbon Footprint; ● TÜV NORD CERT - ISO 14064
  • 105. VIII. Environmental certifications Why implementing environmental standards? ● Alongside the fulfillment of compulsory measures, organizations are increasingly expected to make a voluntary contribution to climate protection. ● Ever more German consumers wish to purchase from those companies that can demonstrate that they conduct their business sustainably and in a climate-friendly way. ● Increasingly important for foodstuff with long transportation and distribution ways (apples from New Zealand) ● Companies which have lower CO2 emissions than their competitors can use the direct comparison for advertising purposes. ● In addition, monitoring and inspection of emission sources in the company can identify considerable (including financial) savings.
  • 106. VIII. Environmental certifications ISO 14001:2004 ● Environmental Management System (EMS) that uses a continual improvement approach in achieving and demonstrating sound environmental performance. ● The goal is for organizations to control the impacts that their activities, products and services have on the environment. ● The organization must develop an effective system that meets the requirements of the Standard. ● Document, implement and maintain the system. ● The EMS documents need to be controlled. ● Follow a Plan-Do-Check-Act approach.  Plan - Establish the objectives and processes needed to deliver the results (in line with the EMS).  Do - Implement the needed processes of the EMS.  Check - Check the processes against the policy, objectives, targets, regulations, and report on the results. (Auditing)  Act - Take actions that will continually improve the EMS.
  • 107. VIII. Environmental certifications – ISO 14001 PLAN 4.2 Environmental Policy 4.3.1 Environmental Aspects 4.3.2 Legal and Other Requirements 4.3.3 Objectives, Targets and Programs ACT 4.6 Management Review CHECK DO 4.4.1 Resources, Roles, Responsibility and Authority 4.4.2 Competence, Training and Awareness 4.4.3 Communication 4.4.4 Documentation 4.4.5 Control of Documents 4.4.6 Operational Control 4.4.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response 4.5.1 Monitoring and Measurement 4.5.2 Evaluation of Compliance 4.5.3 Nonconformity, Corrective Action and Preventive Action 4.5.4 Control of Records 4.5.5 Internal Audit
  • 108. VIII. Environmental certifications ● TÜV NORD CERT is one of the leading international certifier ● Offers a wide range of services in the energy and carbon sector – from inspection of energy management systems and validation/verification of climate protection projects to checking ecobalances. ● National and international references in the area of climate protection, accredited by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to validate, verify and certify international climate protection projects. ● Around 1,000 projects (Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation, Voluntary Offset). ● Uses standard ISO 14064 for the verification of the carbon foot print ● Life Cycle Assessment
  • 109. VIII. Environmental certifications – Life Cycle Approach Machinery Pesticides Fertiliser Electricity Fuel INPUTS Farm OUTPUTS Food Wastes Pollution Machinery Fuel Transport Pollution Machinery Electricity Storage & processing Pollution Wastes Retail Wastes Pollution Electricity Fuel Consumption Wastes Pollution Electricity Fuel Disposal Wastes Pollution Electricity Packaging
  • 110. VIII. Environmental certifications Typical carbon footprints (kg CO2 equivalents per kg of food/drink)
  • 111. VIII. Environmental certifications Example: Noble’s Coffee (Brazil) ● One of the largest coffee trading companies in Brazil ● Commenced TÜV Nord to assess, validate and offset the carbon footprint of Noble's coffee supply chains in 2010 to develop a new product – Carbon Neutral Coffee from Brazil. ● The project expanded in the subsequent year to create another new product – Carbon Neutral Cocoa from Côte d‘Ivoire. ● Carbon footprint calculation comprises all the upstream emissions at farm level, during processing, transportation, shipping and roasting. ● Mapped the most effective ways to reduce and neutralize our carbon footprint all the way from the farmers to the manufacturers. ● The remaining emissions are offset by carbon credits from renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.
  • 112. VII. Environmental certifications TÜV SÜD Carbon Footprint Corporate Carbon Footprint Certification (CCF): • A company-wide Corporate Carbon Footprint, including all emissions along the supply chain. • Review in accordance with the Green House Gas Protocol or the ISO 14064 standard or a combination of the two. Product Carbon Footprint (PCF): • Covers the whole life of a specific product or service. • Calculation on the basis of the Life Cycle Assessment standard ISO 14040.
  • 113. VIII. Environmental certifications TÜV SÜD Carbon Footprint Case study organic wine 2010 - Viñedos Emiliana (Chile) ● The Chilean company is one of the leading producers of premium organically grown wines. ● Experts analysed not only the grape harvest and the finishing process, but also the complete supply chain from the vineyard to the table. ● Experts verified on site that the vineyard reliably recorded all direct and indirect ● The certification of the Chilean wine was based on the Standard Public Available Specification 2050 (PAS 2050:2008), the world’s first framework methodology for product carbon footprint, developed by the British Standards Institution (BSI). ● To offset all product-related CO2 emissions, the vineyard purchased certificates in a climate-change project based on the “Verified Carbon Standard” (VCS) and Social Carbon standards.
  • 114. IX. Some critical thoughts on certifications Quality Certifications - The easy way out? • De facto privatization of food safety policy • Food safety becoming a competition instrument between retailers • Confusion for producers and traders with negative implications of internal market functioning • Decreasing confidence in regulatory system • Confusion among consumers
  • 115. Thank you for your attention!