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(New)introduction to biotechnology


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  • 1. Introduction to Biotechnology
  • 2. Biotechnology Biotechnology helps to meet our basic needs. Food, clothing, shelter, health and safety
  • 3. Biotechnology Improvements by using science Science helps in production plants, animals and other organisms
  • 4. Biotechnology Also used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being
  • 5. Biotechnology Using scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms.
  • 6. Biotechnology Large area Includes many approaches and methods in science and technology
  • 7. Office of Tech Assessment Definition Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals….
  • 8. Cont. Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
  • 9. Agricultural View All of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and related products
  • 10. Agricultural View Milk production New horticultural and ornamental plants Wildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management
  • 11. Multidisciplinary Involves many disciplines or branches of learning Includes all areas of Life Sciences
  • 12. Organismic Biotech Working with complete, intact organisms or their cells Organisms are not genetically changed with artificial means
  • 13. Organismic Biotech Help the organism live better or be more productive Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow
  • 14. Organismic Biotech Study and use natural genetic variations Cloning is an example of organismic biotech
  • 15. Cloning Process of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism. 1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in Edinburgh Scotland
  • 16. Molecular Biotech Changing the genetic make-up of an organism Altering the structure and parts of cells Complex!
  • 17. Molecular Biotech Uses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
  • 18. Genetic Engineering Changing the genetic information in a cell Specific trait of one organism may be isolated,cut, and moved into the cell of another organism
  • 19. Transgenic Results of Gen. Eng. Are said to be “transgenic” Genetic material in an organism has been altered
  • 20. Biotech examples  Medicine  Agriculture  Environment  Forestry  Food and beverage processing
  • 21. Medicine  Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy
  • 22. Medicine  Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease  Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology  Called designer drugs
  • 23. Medicine  Biopharming – production of pharmaceuticals in cultured organisms  Combination of the agriculture and pharmaceutical industries
  • 24. Medicine  Certain blood – derived products needed in human medicine can be produced in the milk of goats
  • 25. Environment  Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment  Organisms developed during the gulf war to “eat” oil  Organism used in gold mining to “eat” contaminants
  • 26. Environmental  Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful
  • 27. Ag and Forestry  Plant biotech  Animal biotech
  • 28. Plant biotech  Improve plants and the products produced from them  Insect and disease resistance  Engineered to have desired characteristics
  • 29. Plant biotech  Corn plant produced with high levels of the amino acid Lysine
  • 30. Animal Biotech  Improve animals or the products they produce  Animals may be used to produce products that promote human health
  • 31. Animal Biotech  Increase productivity  Pigs engineered to produce human hemoglobin
  • 32. Food and Beverages  Use of technology in producing and processing  Some biotech principles have been employed for hundreds of years  Yeast in baking bread
  • 33. Food and Bev.  Genetically altered crops  rBGH milk
  • 34. Biotechnology  Helps meet human needs  Food, clothing and shelter  Plants and animals are used in manufacturing food, clothing and materials for shelter
  • 35. Biotechnology  Used to make products more useful or desirable  Ex: conversion of milk into cheese or yogurt
  • 36. Efficiency  Must keep the cost of improving products as low as possible  Biotech results in greater efficiency
  • 37. Efficiency  Inoculating legume seeds with bacteria that allow the plant to pull nitrogen out of the air and put it into the soil  Saves the producer the cost of applying N fertilizer
  • 38. Efficiency  Results in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable
  • 39. Greater Production  Increases yields  bST use in cows to produce more milk  Higher crop yields from drought, disease & insect resistant crops
  • 40. Health Promoting Foods  Food with unique traits  Some contain therapeutants  Some designed with nutrient enrichment
  • 41. Safety  Consumers want foods to provide needed nutrients and in some cases, enhanced foods  Do not want side effects from those enhanced foods
  • 42. Easy preparation  Flavr-Savr Tomato  Reached the market in early 1990’s  Engineered to have a longer shelf life
  • 43. Flavr-Savr  No soft spots  No rotten spots  Tomato resists spoilage
  • 44. Synthetic biology  Creating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicals  Based on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms
  • 45. Synthetic Biology  Need for synthetic cells lead to the development of the vesicle  Vesicle – tiny rounded structure with cell like traits
  • 46. Vesicle  Tiny structures similar to soap bubbles were created to serve as the cell membrane  Visible only with powerful microscope
  • 47. Vesicle  Once the cell membrane has been successfully developed, development of the materials with the cell is initiated.
  • 48. Synthetic biology  Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab  Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease