0
Introduction to
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology helps to
meet our basic needs.
Food, clothing, shelter,
health and safety
Biotechnology
Improvements by using
science
Science helps in
production plants, animals
and other organisms
Biotechnology
Also used in
maintaining a good
environment that
promotes our well
being
Biotechnology
Using scientific processes
to get new organisms or
new products from
organisms.
Biotechnology
Large area
Includes many
approaches and methods
in science and technology
Office of Tech
Assessment Definition
Any technique that uses
living organisms or
substances from those
organisms to make ...
Cont.
Or to develop
microorganisms for
specific uses.
Agricultural View
All of the applied science
based operations in
producing food, fiber,
shelter, and related
products
Agricultural View
Milk production
New horticultural and
ornamental plants
Wildlife, aquaculture, natural
resources and ...
Multidisciplinary
Involves many disciplines
or branches of learning
Includes all areas of Life
Sciences
Organismic Biotech
Working with complete,
intact organisms or their cells
Organisms are not
genetically changed with
art...
Organismic Biotech
Help the organism live better
or be more productive
Goal – improve organisms
and the conditions in wh...
Organismic Biotech
Study and use natural
genetic variations
Cloning is an example of
organismic biotech
Cloning
Process of producing a new
organism from cells or
tissues of existing organism.
1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly”
in E...
Molecular Biotech
Changing the genetic
make-up of an organism
Altering the structure and
parts of cells
Complex!
Molecular Biotech
Uses genetic engineering,
molecular mapping and
similar processes
Genetic
Engineering
Changing the genetic
information in a cell
Specific trait of one organism
may be isolated,cut, and
m...
Transgenic
Results of Gen. Eng. Are
said to be “transgenic”
Genetic material in an
organism has been altered
Biotech examples
 Medicine
 Agriculture
 Environment
 Forestry
 Food and beverage
processing
Medicine
 Some new developments
delve into the hereditary
material of humans known
as gene therapy
Medicine
 Therapeutant - product used to
maintain health or prevent
disease
 Biopharmaceuticals – drug or
vaccine develo...
Medicine
 Biopharming – production of
pharmaceuticals in cultured
organisms
 Combination of the
agriculture and
pharmace...
Medicine
 Certain blood – derived
products needed in human
medicine can be produced
in the milk of goats
Environment
 Any biotechnological process
that may promote a good
environment
 Organisms developed during
the gulf war t...
Environmental
 Problems naturally solved
by microorganisms such
as bacteria, fungi break
down contaminant into a
form les...
Ag and Forestry
 Plant biotech
 Animal biotech
Plant biotech
 Improve plants and the
products produced from them
 Insect and disease resistance
 Engineered to have de...
Plant biotech
 Corn plant produced with
high levels of the amino
acid Lysine
Animal Biotech
 Improve animals or the
products they produce
 Animals may be used to
produce products that
promote human...
Animal Biotech
 Increase productivity
 Pigs engineered to
produce human
hemoglobin
Food and
Beverages
 Use of technology in
producing and processing
 Some biotech principles
have been employed for
hundre...
Food and Bev.
 Genetically altered crops
 rBGH milk
Biotechnology
 Helps meet human needs
 Food, clothing and shelter
 Plants and animals are used
in manufacturing food,
c...
Biotechnology
 Used to make products
more useful or desirable
 Ex: conversion of milk into
cheese or yogurt
Efficiency
 Must keep the cost of
improving products as low
as possible
 Biotech results in greater
efficiency
Efficiency
 Inoculating legume seeds
with bacteria that allow the
plant to pull nitrogen out of
the air and put it into t...
Efficiency
 Results in trees that grow
faster and produce wood
that is more desirable
Greater Production
 Increases yields
 bST use in cows to produce
more milk
 Higher crop yields from
drought, disease & ...
Health Promoting
Foods
 Food with unique traits
 Some contain
therapeutants
 Some designed with
nutrient enrichment
Safety
 Consumers want foods to
provide needed nutrients and
in some cases, enhanced
foods
 Do not want side effects fro...
Easy preparation
 Flavr-Savr Tomato
 Reached the market in
early 1990’s
 Engineered to have a
longer shelf life
Flavr-Savr
 No soft spots
 No rotten spots
 Tomato resists spoilage
Synthetic biology
 Creating lifelike
characteristics through the
use of chemicals
 Based on creating structures
similar ...
Synthetic Biology
 Need for synthetic cells lead
to the development of the
vesicle
 Vesicle – tiny rounded
structure wit...
Vesicle
 Tiny structures similar to
soap bubbles were created
to serve as the cell
membrane
 Visible only with powerful
...
Vesicle
 Once the cell membrane
has been successfully
developed, development
of the materials with the
cell is initiated.
Synthetic biology
 Is important because it
brings science closer to
creating life in the lab
 Cells and tissues may be
d...
(New)introduction to biotechnology
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Transcript of "(New)introduction to biotechnology"

  1. 1. Introduction to Biotechnology
  2. 2. Biotechnology Biotechnology helps to meet our basic needs. Food, clothing, shelter, health and safety
  3. 3. Biotechnology Improvements by using science Science helps in production plants, animals and other organisms
  4. 4. Biotechnology Also used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being
  5. 5. Biotechnology Using scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms.
  6. 6. Biotechnology Large area Includes many approaches and methods in science and technology
  7. 7. Office of Tech Assessment Definition Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals….
  8. 8. Cont. Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
  9. 9. Agricultural View All of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and related products
  10. 10. Agricultural View Milk production New horticultural and ornamental plants Wildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management
  11. 11. Multidisciplinary Involves many disciplines or branches of learning Includes all areas of Life Sciences
  12. 12. Organismic Biotech Working with complete, intact organisms or their cells Organisms are not genetically changed with artificial means
  13. 13. Organismic Biotech Help the organism live better or be more productive Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow
  14. 14. Organismic Biotech Study and use natural genetic variations Cloning is an example of organismic biotech
  15. 15. Cloning Process of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism. 1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in Edinburgh Scotland
  16. 16. Molecular Biotech Changing the genetic make-up of an organism Altering the structure and parts of cells Complex!
  17. 17. Molecular Biotech Uses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
  18. 18. Genetic Engineering Changing the genetic information in a cell Specific trait of one organism may be isolated,cut, and moved into the cell of another organism
  19. 19. Transgenic Results of Gen. Eng. Are said to be “transgenic” Genetic material in an organism has been altered
  20. 20. Biotech examples  Medicine  Agriculture  Environment  Forestry  Food and beverage processing
  21. 21. Medicine  Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy
  22. 22. Medicine  Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease  Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology  Called designer drugs
  23. 23. Medicine  Biopharming – production of pharmaceuticals in cultured organisms  Combination of the agriculture and pharmaceutical industries
  24. 24. Medicine  Certain blood – derived products needed in human medicine can be produced in the milk of goats
  25. 25. Environment  Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment  Organisms developed during the gulf war to “eat” oil  Organism used in gold mining to “eat” contaminants
  26. 26. Environmental  Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful
  27. 27. Ag and Forestry  Plant biotech  Animal biotech
  28. 28. Plant biotech  Improve plants and the products produced from them  Insect and disease resistance  Engineered to have desired characteristics
  29. 29. Plant biotech  Corn plant produced with high levels of the amino acid Lysine
  30. 30. Animal Biotech  Improve animals or the products they produce  Animals may be used to produce products that promote human health
  31. 31. Animal Biotech  Increase productivity  Pigs engineered to produce human hemoglobin
  32. 32. Food and Beverages  Use of technology in producing and processing  Some biotech principles have been employed for hundreds of years  Yeast in baking bread
  33. 33. Food and Bev.  Genetically altered crops  rBGH milk
  34. 34. Biotechnology  Helps meet human needs  Food, clothing and shelter  Plants and animals are used in manufacturing food, clothing and materials for shelter
  35. 35. Biotechnology  Used to make products more useful or desirable  Ex: conversion of milk into cheese or yogurt
  36. 36. Efficiency  Must keep the cost of improving products as low as possible  Biotech results in greater efficiency
  37. 37. Efficiency  Inoculating legume seeds with bacteria that allow the plant to pull nitrogen out of the air and put it into the soil  Saves the producer the cost of applying N fertilizer
  38. 38. Efficiency  Results in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable
  39. 39. Greater Production  Increases yields  bST use in cows to produce more milk  Higher crop yields from drought, disease & insect resistant crops
  40. 40. Health Promoting Foods  Food with unique traits  Some contain therapeutants  Some designed with nutrient enrichment
  41. 41. Safety  Consumers want foods to provide needed nutrients and in some cases, enhanced foods  Do not want side effects from those enhanced foods
  42. 42. Easy preparation  Flavr-Savr Tomato  Reached the market in early 1990’s  Engineered to have a longer shelf life
  43. 43. Flavr-Savr  No soft spots  No rotten spots  Tomato resists spoilage
  44. 44. Synthetic biology  Creating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicals  Based on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms
  45. 45. Synthetic Biology  Need for synthetic cells lead to the development of the vesicle  Vesicle – tiny rounded structure with cell like traits
  46. 46. Vesicle  Tiny structures similar to soap bubbles were created to serve as the cell membrane  Visible only with powerful microscope
  47. 47. Vesicle  Once the cell membrane has been successfully developed, development of the materials with the cell is initiated.
  48. 48. Synthetic biology  Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab  Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease
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