Contents• Definition• Characteristics of effective intervention• Design• Intervention overview• HR interventions – Sensitivity training – Grid training – Process Consultation – Team Building – MBO – Coaching – Training and Development – Organizational Confrontation Meeting• Summary
Definition of Interventions• An intervention is a set of sequenced and planned actions or events intended to help the organization increase its effectiveness.• Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo.
Characteristics of Effective Interventions• Is it relevant to the needs of the organization? – Valid information – Free and Informed Choice – Internal Commitment• Does it transfer competence to manage change to organization members?
The Design of Effective Interventions• Contingencies of Change Situation – Readiness for Change – Capability to Change – Cultural Context – Capabilities of the Change Agent• Contingencies Related to the Target of Change – Strategic Issues – Technology and structure issues – Human resources issues – Human process issues
Intervention Overview• Human Process Interventions• Techno structural Interventions• Human Resources Management Interventions• Strategic Interventions
Human Process Interventions• Sensitivity training• Grid training• Process Consultation• Team Building• MBO• Coaching• Training and Development• Organizational Confrontation Meeting
Human Resources Management Interventions• Goal Setting• Performance Appraisal• Reward Systems• Career Planning and Development• Managing Work Force Diversity• Employee Stress and Wellness
Strategic Interventions• Integrated Strategic Change• Mergers and Acquisitions• Alliances and Networks• Culture Change• Self-designing Organizations• Organization Learning and Knowledge Management
Sensitivity Training – T groups• Kurt Lewin & friends – 1946• Development of “T group”• Stranger lab – people from different organization.• Cousin lab- same, but various departments• Family lab – “Back home” people in situations and problem
T group trainingStranger lab: Cousin lab:• Intentional lack of • Trainer becomes open directive leadership, non – defensive, formal agenda and empathetic and power / status. minimally evaluative• It creates behavioural way. vaccum. • Feed back received• It facilitates rich about impact of other projections from group members behaviour.
Grid Organization Development• Activities developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, which constitute a six-phase change model involving the total organization. Internal resources are developed to conduct most of the programs, which may take from three to five years to complete.1. Managerial grid: The model starts with upgrading individual managers skills and leadership abilities,2. Team work development: moves to team improvement activities,3. Intergroup development: then to intergroup relations activities.4. Developing ideal strategic corporate model: Later phases include corporate planning for improvement,5. Implementing ideal strategic corporate model: developing implementation tactics, and6. Systematic critique: finally, an evaluation phase assessing .change in the organization culture and looking toward future directions.
Survey Feedback• Activities that rely on questionnaire surveys to generate information that is then used to identify problems and opportunities. Groups analyze the data regarding; their performance and design action plans to correct problems. 1. Data collection 2. Feedback of information 3. Follow up action
Process Consultation• Activities that "help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon process events which occur in the clients environment." .• These activities perhaps more accurately describe an approach, a consulting mode in which the client gains insight into the human processes in organizations and learn skills in diagnosing and managing them.• Primary emphasis is on processes such as communications, leader and member roles in groups, problem solving and decision making, group norms and group growth, leadership and authority, and intergroup cooperation and competition.
Process consultation -Contd…1. Initiate contact2. Define relationship3. Select the setting & method4. Gather data & make diagnosis5. Intervene6. Reduce involvement & terminate ( look for future approach / development)
Team-Building Activities• Activities designed to enhance the effective operation of system teams.• These activities focus on task issues such as the way things are done, the skills and resources needed to accomplish tasks, the quality of relationship among the team members or between members and the leader, and how well the team gets its job done.• In addition, one must consider different kinds of teams, such as formal work teams, temporary tasks force teams, newly constituted teams, and cross-functional teams.
Life cycle of team• Forming• Storming• Norming• Performing• Adjourning
Effective teams• Skills & Roll clarity• Supportive environment• Super – ordinate goals• Team rewards
Team building process• Problem sensing• Examining differences• Giving & receiving feedback• Developing interactive skills – Constructive behaviour – Negative behaviour• Follow up action
MBO• Peter Drucker coined in 1964.• It is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many managerial activities in a systematic manner, consciously towards effective and efficient achivement of organizational objectives”.
Education and Training Activities.• Activities designed to improve individuals skills, abilities, and knowledge. Several activities are available and several approaches possible.• For example, the individual can be educated in isolation from his or her own work group (say, in a T-group consisting of strangers), or one can be educated in relation to the work group (say, when a work team learns how better to manage interpersonal conflict). The activities may be directed toward technical skills required for performing tasks or may be directed toward improving interpersonal competence.• The activities may be directed toward leadership issues, responsibilities and functions of group members, decision-making, problem solving, goal setting and planning, and so forth.
Coaching and Counseling• Activities that entail the consultant or other organization members working with individuals to help• (a) define learning goals,• (b) learn how others see their behavior, and• (c) learn new behaviors to help them better achieve their goals. A central feature of this activity is non evaluative feedback others give to an individual.• A second feature is the second exploration of alternative behaviors.