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Slides chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 5 Practice: A Generic View Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6th edition by Roger S. Pressman
  • 2. What is “Practice”?
    • Practice consists of the
      • concepts
      • principles
      • methods
      • tools
    • that must be considered as software is planned and developed.
    • It represents the details —the how-to’s—of the software process.
  • 3. The Essence of Practice
    • George Polya, in a book written in 1945 (!), describes the essence of software engineering practice …
        • Understand the problem (communication and analysis).
        • Plan a solution (modeling and software design).
        • Carry out the plan (code generation).
        • Examine the result for accuracy (testing and quality assurance).
    • At its core, good practice is common-sense problem solving
  • 4. Core Software Engineering Principles
    • Provide Value to Your Users
    • KIS (Keep It Simple)
    • Maintain the Vision
    • What You Produce, Others Will Consume
    • Be Open to the Future
    • Plan Ahead for Reuse
    • Think before You Do
  • 5. Software Engineering Practices
    • Consider the generic process framework
      • Communication
      • Planning
      • Modeling
        • Analysis Modeling
        • Design Modeling
      • Construction
        • Coding
        • Testing
      • Deployment
  • 6. Communication Practices
    • Principles
      • Listen effectively
      • Prepare before you communicate
      • Someone should facilitate the activity
      • Face-to-face communication is best
      • Take notes and document decisions
      • Strive for collaboration
      • Stay focused, modularize your discussion
      • If something is unclear, draw a picture
      • Know when to move on
      • Negotiation works best when both parties win.
  • 7. Planning Practices
    • Principles
      • Understand the project scope
      • Involve the customer in planning
      • Recognize that planning is iterative
      • Estimate based on what you know
      • Consider risk as you define the plan
      • Be realistic
      • Adjust granularity as you define the plan
      • Define how you intend to ensure quality
      • Describe how you intend to accommodate changes
      • Track the plan frequently and make necessary adjustments
  • 8. Planning Practices
    • Bohem’s W5HH Organizing Principle. Answers to the following questions lead to the project plan:
      • Why is the system begin developed?
      • What will be done?
      • When will it be accomplished?
      • Who is responsible?
      • Where are they located (organizationally)?
      • How will the job be done technically and managerially?
      • How much of each resource is needed?
  • 9. Modeling Practices
    • Analysis modeling principles
      • Represent the information domain
      • Represent software functions
      • Represent software behavior
      • Partition these representations
      • Move from essence toward implementation
  • 10. Modeling Practices
    • Design Modeling Principles
      • Design must be traceable to the analysis model
      • Always consider architecture
      • Focus on the design of data
      • Interfaces (both user and internal) must be designed
      • User interface should consider the user first
      • Components should exhibit functional independence
      • Components should be loosely coupled
      • Design representations should be easily understood
      • The design model should be developed iteratively
  • 11. Modeling Practices
    • Agile Modeling Principles [Ambler 2002]
      • The primary goal is to create software, not build models
      • Don’t create more models than you need
      • Produce the simplest model that will describe the problem
      • Build models that are easy to change
      • Be able to state an explicit purpose for each model
      • Adapt the models you develop to the system at hand
      • Build useful models, not perfect ones
      • Focus on the what the model communicates, not its syntax
      • If you are uncomfortable with a model, something’s probably wrong
      • Get feedback as soon as you can
  • 12. Construction Practices
    • Coding Principles
      • Preparation. Before you write one line of code, be sure you:
        • Understand of the problem you’re trying to solve
        • Understand basic design principles and concepts.
        • Pick an appropriate programming language.
        • Select an appropriate programming environment and tools.
        • Create unit tests for each component you plan to create.
  • 13. Construction Practices
    • Coding Principles
      • Coding. As you begin writing code, be sure you:
        • Follow structured programming [BOH00] practice.
        • Select data structures that will meet the needs of the design.
        • Create interfaces consistent with the software architecture.
        • Keep conditional logic as simple as possible.
        • Create nested loops in a way that makes them easily testable.
        • Select meaningful variable names and follow other local coding standards.
        • Write code that is self-documenting.
        • Create a visual layout that aids understanding.
  • 14. Construction Practices
    • Coding Principles
      • Validation. After you’ve completed the first pass, be sure you:
        • Conduct a code walkthrough when appropriate.
        • Perform unit tests and correct errors you’ve uncovered.
        • Refactor the code.
  • 15. Construction Practices
    • Testing Principles
      • All tests should be traceable to requirements
      • Tests should be planned
      • The Pareto Principle applies to testing
      • Testing begins “in the small” and moves toward “in the large”
      • Exhaustive testing is not possible
    • Note: A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet-undiscovered error.
  • 16. Deployment Practices
    • Principles
      • Manage customer expectations for each increment
      • A complete delivery package should be assembled and tested
      • A support regime should be established
      • Instructional materials must be provided to end-users
      • Buggy software should be fixed first, delivered later