Communication

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  • 1. 15-1Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000CommunicationDr.Priyanka phonde
  • 2. 15-2Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Importance of Good CommunicationGood Communication allows a firm to Learn new skills and technologies. Become more responsive to customers. Improve Quality of their product or service. Foster innovationEffective communication is needed by allManagers.
  • 3. 15-3Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000The Communication Process Communication consists of two phases:1. Transmission phase: information is shared by 2 ormore people.2. Feedback phase: a common understanding is assured. Starts with the Sender who wants to share information. Sender must decide on a message to share Sender also puts the message into symbols or language,a process called encoding.Noise: anything harming the communication process.
  • 4. 15-4Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000The Communication ProcessMessageMessage EncodingEncoding MediumMedium DecodingDecodingDecodingDecoding MediumMedium EncodingEncoding MessageMessageReceiverReceiver(now sender)(now sender)SenderSenderTransmission PhaseFeedback PhaseNOISENOISEFigure 15.1
  • 5. 15-5Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000The Communication Process Messages are transmitted over a medium to a receiver. Medium: pathway the message is transmitted on(phone, letter). Receiver: person getting the message. Receiver next decodes the message. Decoding allows the receiver to understand the message. This is a critical point, can lead to mis-understanding. Feedback is started by receiver and states that themessage is understood or that it must be re-sent.
  • 6. 15-6Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Communication Issues Encoding of messages can be done verbally or non-verbally Verbal: spoken or written communication. Nonverbal: facial gestures, body language, dress. Sender and receiver communicate based on theirperception. Subjective perception can lead to biases and stereotypesthat hurt communication. Effective Managers avoid communicating based on apre-set belief.
  • 7. 15-7Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Dangers of Ineffective Communication Managers spend most of their time communicating soboth they and the subordinates must be effectivecommunicators. To be effective: Select an appropriate medium for each message. There is no one “best” medium. Consider information richness: the amount ofinformation a medium can carry. Medium with high richness can carry much information toaid understanding. Is there a need for a paper/electronic trail to providedocumentation?
  • 8. 15-8Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Information Richness and Media TypeFace-to-faceFace-to-facecommunicationcommunicationFace-to-faceFace-to-facecommunicationcommunicationVerbal communicationVerbal communicationelectronicallyelectronicallytransmittedtransmittedVerbal communicationVerbal communicationelectronicallyelectronicallytransmittedtransmittedPersonally addressed writtenPersonally addressed writtencommunicationcommunicationPersonally addressed writtenPersonally addressed writtencommunicationcommunicationImpersonal writtenImpersonal writtencommun-commun-icationicationHighRichnessLowRichnessFigure 15.2
  • 9. 15-9Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Communication MediaFace-to-Face: highest information richness. Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals. Provides for instant feedback. Management by wandering around takes advantage of thiswith informal talks to workers. Video Conferences: provide much of this richness. Reduce travel costs and meeting times.Verbal Communication electronically transmitted: hasnext highest richness. Phone conversations, but no visual nonverbal cues. Do have tone of voice, sender’s emphasis and quickfeedback.
  • 10. 15-10Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Communication MediaPersonally Addressed Written Communication: lowerrichness than the verbal forms, but still is directed at agiven person. Personal addressing helps ensure receiver reads it. Letters and e-mail are common forms. Cannot provide instant feedback to sender but can getfeedback later. Excellent for complex messages needing follow-up.Impersonal Written Communication: lowest richness. Good for messages to many receivers. Little feedback isexpected. Newsletters, reports are examples.
  • 11. 15-11Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000E-Mail Trends E-mail use is growing rapidly in large firms, and thereare even special e-mail etiquette: Words in all CAPITALS are seen as “screaming” at thereceiver. Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’tramble on. Pay attention to spelling and treat like a written letter. E-mail has allowed telecommuting, where workers canwork from home and be in touch with e-mail.
  • 12. 15-12Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Communication NetworksNetworks show information flows in an organization. Wheel Network: information flow to and from onecentral member. Chain Network: members communicate with peoplenext to them in sequence. Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction. Circle Network: members communicate with othersclose to them in terms of expertise, office location, etc. All-Channel Network: found in teams, with high levelsof communications between each member and allothers.
  • 13. 15-13Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Communication Networks in Groups &TeamsWheel NetworkCircle NetworkChain NetworkAll Channel NetworkFigure 15.3
  • 14. 15-14Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Organization Communication NetworksOrganization chart depicts formal reporting channels. Communication is informal and flows around issues,goals, and projects. Vertical Communication: goes up and down thecorporate hierarchy. Horizontal Communication: between employees of thesame level. Informal communications can span levels anddepartments. Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficialinformation through the firm.
  • 15. 15-15Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Organizational Communications NetworkFigure 15.4FormalCommunicationInformalCommunication
  • 16. 15-16Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Technological AdvancesInternet: global system of computer networksMany firms use it to communicate with suppliers.World Wide Web (WWW): provides multimediaaccess to the Internet.Intranets: use the same information concepts as theInternet, but keep the network inside the firm.Groupware: software designed to let workers shareinformation and improve communication.Best for team oriented support.
  • 17. 15-17Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Communication Skills for Managers asSendersSend clear and complete messages.Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands.Select a medium appropriate for the message ANDmonitored by the receiver.Avoid filtering (holding back information) anddistortion as the message passes through other workers.Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in themessage.Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.
  • 18. 15-18Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Communication Skills for Managers asReceivers Pay Attention to what is sent as a message. Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. Ask questions to clarify your understanding. Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. Understand linguistic styles: different people speakdifferently. Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication. This is particularly true across cultures. Managers should expect and plan for this.