INTRODUCTION• Definition: Solid or semisolid, amorphous products derived fromliving natural sources and most are plants products, with theexception of shellac, an insect secretion.• CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:1. On heating, they soften and finally melt.1. On heating, they soften and finally melt.2. Insoluble in water and usually insoluble in petroleum spirit3. But dissolve more or less completely in alcohol, chloroform andether.4. Chemically, resins are complex mixtures of resin acids, resinalcohols (resinol), resin phenols (resinotannols), esters andchemically inert compounds known as resenes.
OCCURENCE• entirely resin e.g. benzoin• oleo-resin e.g. turpentine oil• gum-resin e.g. copaiba resin• oleo-gum-resin e.g. myrrh• oleo-gum-resin e.g. myrrh• balsam (benzoic+cinnamic acid): benzoin, tolubalsam, peru balsam, storax• gluco-resin e.g. Convolvulaceae family drugs
FORMATION• formed in special passages or tubes called resin ducts.• Ducts-anastomose-so- a single incision can drain the resin fromconsiderable area of the plant.• turpentine are naturally produced but some are produced only whencambium is injured.cambium is injured.• Such resins formed by the injury of cambium and the formation ofsecondary wood are called pathologically produced resin.• While resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities, that may befound in other positions-for example, in the resin cells of bloodroot, inthe elements of the heartwood of guaiacum, in the external glands ofIndian hemp, in the internal glands of male fern or in the glands on thesurface of the lac insect.
CLASSIFICATION• Resin acid: carboxylic acid group containing resinous substances e.g. abietic acid(colophony) & commiphoric acid (myrrh)• Resin ester: esters of resin acids or the other aromatic acids like benzoic, cinnamic,salicylic acid etc. e.g. dragon’ blood and benzoin• Resin alcohol (resinol): alcoholic compound with high mol.wt. e.g. benzoresinol inbenzoin & storesinol in storax.• Resin phenol (resino tannols): contains phenol group e.g. peru-resinotannol in perubalsam & tolu-resinotannol in tolu balsam & siaresinotannol in benzoin• Gluco resins: resins when get combined with sugars by glycosylation e.g. Convolvulaceafamily drugs• Resene: stable, neutral, unaffected by most chemical reagents or by exposure tomoisture produced a hard film. e.g. asafetida• Oleo resin: resin+volatile oil e.g. turpentine, ginger, copaiba, Canada• Gum resin:resin+gum e.g. ammoniacum• Oleogum resin: resin+volatile oil+gum e.g. myrrh, asafetida, gamboges• Balsam: contains aromatic acids like benzoin & cinnamic e.g. Tolu balsam, peru balsam,storax
CHEMICAL COMPOSTION AND ISOLATION• complex mixture of acids, alcohols, phenols, esters, glycosides orhydrocarbons.• When associated with volatile oils, contains monoterpenoids,sesequiterpenoid and diterpenoids.• gums when associated with resin: acacia gum: oxidase enzymes.• gums when associated with resin: acacia gum: oxidase enzymes.ISOLATION:• difficult task due to presence of various combinations.• Extraction with alcoholic solvents and then the subsequentprecipitation by adding concentrated alcoholic extract to a largeproportion of water.• Hydro distillation or distillation can be used for separation of volatileoils from resins. (separation of resin from turpentine)
1. MYRRH• Syn: Arabian or Somalian Myrrh• Source: Oleo gum resin obtained from thestem of Commiphora molmol, C.abyssinica,stem of Commiphora molmol, C.abyssinica,C.schimperi, C.myrrha and other species ofCommiphora• Family: Burseraceae• GS: North east Africa, Arabia, Somaliland,Ethiopia & Abyssinia
COLLECTION• All Burseraceae family plant possess Phloemoleo resin canal• secretion obtained by spontaneous• secretion obtained by spontaneousexudation from the cracks and the fissures ofbark• Sometimes by incision• yellowish white viscous fluids hardens in heatand become reddish brown mass
CHARACTERS• Taste: bitter-acrid• Shape: irregular mass + tears• Color : reddish brown yellow• Color : reddish brown yellow• Odor: aromatic
CHEMICAL TEST & USES1. Powder + Water after triturating yellowemulsion2. Ethereal extract evaporate to drynessexposed to bromine vapor violet colorexposed to bromine vapor violet colorUSES:-incense, perfumes, local stimulant,antiseptic, mouthwash or gargle, astringent
2. ASAFOETIDA• Syn: Hing, Devil’s dung, Asant, Asafoda• Source: Oleogum resin obtained from theincision of rhizome and root of Ferula foetida,incision of rhizome and root of Ferula foetida,F.rubricaulis, F.asafoetida & other species ofFerula• Family: Umbelliferae• GS: Iran,Pakistan, Afghanistan,India (Kashmir)
COLLECTION• large schizogenous ducts and lysigenous cavatiescontaining milky liquid.• removal of the stem and the cutting of successive slicesin March-Aprilin March-April• exposed surface is covered by a dome shaped structuremade of twigs and earth.• after each slice is removed, oleo-gum-resin exudes andwhen sufficiently hardened, is collected• The product is packed in tine lined cases for export.
CHARACTERS• Forms: 2 Types: Tears & Masses• Color: golden yellowish brown• Odor: strong• Odor: strong• Taste: bitter & acridSpecification:• NMT 15% ash• NMT 50% matter which is insoluble in 90%alcohol
CT & USE1. Powder + water trituration milky white emulsion2. Combined umbelliferone Test: Powder+ HCl boil filterfiltrate + NH3 blue fluorescence3. Fractured surface+H2SO4 red color production, which3. Fractured surface+H2SO4 red color production, whichchanges to violet on washing with water4. Fractured surface+HNO3 green colorUSECarminative, expectorant, flavoring curry, sauce and pickles,nerve stimulant, intestinal flatulence, enema, sedative inhysteria
3. COLOPHONY• Syn: Rosin, Amber resin, Coloponium, Abieticanhydride• Source: Solid residue obtained after distillation of• Source: Solid residue obtained after distillation ofvolatile oil (turpentine) from the oleo-gum-resin ofvarious species of Pinus like P.palustris, P.pinaster,P.halepnsis, P.carribacea• Family: Pinacea• GS: America, France, Italy, Spain, India (Himalaya)
COLLECTION•normal physiological process for pinus species to secrete resin but amount inincreased by injuring the plant•tree remains dormant in winter and during this period a sloping cavity is madeon the base of the trunk.•the sloping cavity is also known as box, which is made in such a manner that•the sloping cavity is also known as box, which is made in such a manner thatthey are going inward and downward.•after each slice is removed, oleo-gum-resin exudes and when sufficientlyhardened, is collected.•the oleo-resin flows into the box and after a week time, more barks are hackedaway•To prevent incision on the plant trunk now Copper & Tin plates are inserted•this process is continued till autumn or till the flow of oleoresin decreases.•heated with water on furnace.•impurities like wood float on water and they are skimmed off.
CHARACTERISTICS• Occur: Translucent mass• Color: Yellow or amber colorSpecification:Specification:1. Burn at 100 °C2. Produce smoky flame at Temp. above 100°3. NMT 0.1% ash4. Soluble in alcohol, ether, CS2, benzene &Insoluble in water
Chemical Constituents• 90% Resin acid,• esters of fatty acid,• Resene• Resene• α,β, γ-abietic acids, pimaricacid, sipinic acid,hydrocarbon.
Chemical Test1. Powder + Acetic anhydride dissolve in a drytest tube conc. HCl purple color2. Alcoholic solution is acidic to litmus paper.2. Alcoholic solution is acidic to litmus paper.3. Powder + light petroleum dissolve filteredfiltrate dilute copper acetatepetroleum layer shows emerald green color(due to formation of the copper salt of abieticacid)
USE• preparation of Zinc oxide, adhesive plaster,ointment• much rosin is artificially modified by• much rosin is artificially modified byhydrogenation or polymerization-productsinvolving printing inks, rubber, linoleum,thermoplastic floor tiles and surface coating.• the abietic acids shows antimicrobial, antiulcerand CVS activity.
4. PERU BALSAM• Syn: China Oil, Black balsam, Peruvian balsam• Source: Obtained from trunk of the Myroxylumbalsamum var. pereirae (trunk is beaten andbalsamum var. pereirae (trunk is beaten andscorched)• Family: Leguminosae• GS: Central America (San Salvador, Honduras,Guatemala)
COLLECTION & PREPARATION• The balsam is collected from trees that are around 10 years old in the monthof November or December i.e. by the end of rainy season• The trunk is beaten at an area of 30x15 cm using the handle of the axe or astone or a stick.• As peru balsam is a pathological resin, which is present only in the youngtwigs, a secretion of the balsam takes place after 5 daystwigs, a secretion of the balsam takes place after 5 days• A rag is placed under the bark so that it can absorb the resin• Once the bark is exhausted the bark is removed and the young wood is alsotreated in similar manner• The resin flow for about 5-6 weeks and the fresh area on the bark are beatenand scorched.• The rags, which are collected, are put into strong rope bags, which are twistedat the ends and pressed, so that balsam falls into boiling water• Balsam sinks at the bottom of water, the water is decanted, balsamcollected, packed in tins and exported
CHARACTERS• Color: dark brown• Odor: aromatic vanilla like• soluble in chloroform, chloral hydrate, in equal• soluble in chloroform, chloral hydrate, in equalproportion with 90% alcohol• sparingly soluble in petroleum ether, glacialacetic acid and insoluble in water• Specific gravity: 1.14 to 1.17• NLT 45% and NMT 70% of esters.
CONSTITUENTS & USES• benzyl cinnamate (cinnamein) C6H5CH=CHCOOCH2C6H5,• benzyl benzoate and cinnamyl cinnamate (styracin).• 28% of resin: peruresinotannol combined with cinnamicacid, benzoic acids, alcohols (nerolidol, farnesol and benzylacid, benzoic acids, alcohols (nerolidol, farnesol and benzylalcohol) and small quantities of vanillin and free cinnamicacid.• antiseptic dressing for wounds• parasiticide for scabies• internally to treat catarrh and diarrhea.
5. TOLU BALSAM• Syn: Tolu resin, Thomas balsam, Opobalsam• Source: Obtained by incision from the trunk of Myroxylonbalsamum var. balsamum• Family: Leguminosae• Family: Leguminosae• GS: West indies, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia• Collection:• V-shaped incisions in the bark• Many such receivers are fixed on each tree, the yield per treebeing 8-10kg.• Periodically, the balsam is transferred to large containers.
CHARACTERS & CT• Color: yellow on standing brown• Odor & Taste: aromaticTestTest1. Alcoholic solution is acidic to Litmus2. Powder + FeCl3 green (resinotannol)3. Powder + Water decoction oxidationKMnO4 odor of benzaldehyde (due tooxidation of cinnamic acid)
CONSTITUENTS & USES• 80% of resin alcohols combined with cinnamic and benzoic acids.• 12-15% of free cinnamic and 8% of free benzoic acid.• Benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamte & vanillin• Styrene,eugenol, vanillin, ferulic acid, 1,2-diphenylethane, mono andsesqui-terpene hydrocarbon and alcohols.sesqui-terpene hydrocarbon and alcohols.• triterpenoids• 35-50% of total balsamic acid• USEGenuine tolu balsam is difficult to obtain• now uses tolu flavor solution containing 5 aromatics for preparationof tolu syrup.• antiseptic, common ingredient of cough mixture
6. SUMATRA (INDONESIA) BENZOIN• Syn: Gum benjamin• Source: balsamic resin obtained from theincised stem of Styrax benzoin, Styraxincised stem of Styrax benzoin, Styraxparallloneurus• Family: Styracaceae• GS: Sumatra (western Indonesia), Java, Borneo
COLLECTIONCultivation in rice plants-Tapping-Grading• Seeds are sown in rice fields, rice shading the young trees during 1st year. After harvesting ofrice the tress are allowed to grow until they are about 7 years old• Triangular wounds are made in a vertical row about 40 cm apart, bark between woundsbeing scraped• 1st secretion is very sticky and is rejected..• After making further cuts, each about 4 cm above the preceding ones, harder Secretion isobtainedobtained• Further incision, after 3 months and secretion becomes amorphous instead of crystalline• About 6 weeks of fresh tapping, the product is scrapped off, outer layer (finest quality)being kept separate from the next layer (intermediate quality)• About 2 weeks later the strip is scrapped again, giving a lower quality darker in color andcontaining fragments of bark• Grading done mixing 3 quality: best contains most almonds and worst contains a fewalmonds but abundant resin mixture• Bleding done by: breaking up the drug; mixing difffernt proportion of 3 qualities, softening insun• Stamping in to Tins & commercial drug arrives in plaited container with plastic wrapping
ALLIED DRUGS & USES• Internally: expectorant,antisepctic• Ingredient: Friar’s balsam• Externally: cosmeticPalembang, inferior quality Externally: cosmeticlotion, food, drink,perfumary & toiletindustries• Component: IncensePalembang, inferior qualitybenzoin: lighter in weight &breaking with an irregularporous fracture & as asource of natural benzoicacid
6.1 SIAM (Thailand) BENZOIN• Source: obtained by incision of the trunk ofStyrax tonkinesis• Family: Styracaceae• Family: Styracaceae• GS: Thai province of Luang prabang, NorthenLaos, Northen Vietnam at altitude of 600-2500m• It seems that this height is necessary for resinproduction; not all trees are productive
METHOD OF PREPARATION• Similar to Sumatra benzoin• Resin, being produced at the interface of thebark and wood layers only after injury.bark and wood layers only after injury.• Grading of tears: size, color, largest, palest• Size: few mm to 3cm• Color: yellowish white to reddish changes tobrown due to oxidation• Odor: agreeable & vanilla like
CHEMICAL TEST• Siam benzoin is expensive & liable to adulteration wth the sumatrabenzoin, which can be detected by BP/EP/TLC1. Powdered benzoin + KMnO4 warm faint odor ofbenzaldehyde (with sumatra benzoin due to oxidation of cinnamicacid) (NOT OBSERVED WITH SIAM)acid) (NOT OBSERVED WITH SIAM)2. Alc Ext + Alcoholic FeCl3 green color produced (with SIAMbenzoin due to coniferyl benzoate-tannins) (NOT WITH SUMATRA)3. When Sumatra benzoin is gradually heated evolves fumes ofbenzoic and cinnamic acid readily condensed on cool surface asa crystal sublimate4. Petroleum ether solution of benzoin + 2-3 drops of H2SO4 in achina dish reddish brown color with SUMATRA BENZOIN andpurple-red color with SIAM BENZOIN
7. CANNABIS• Syn: Indian Hemp, Cannabis,Hashish, Bhang, Ganja, Charas,Marihuana• Source: dried flowering tops ofCannabis sativaCannabis sativa• Family: Cannabinaceae• GS: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan,Iran, Central america, US, Eastafrica, South africa, Asia
Cannabis productsGanja• Seeds sown in rows about 1.3 m apart and male plants arediscarded• Resinonous tops of the unfertilized plants are cut about 5months after sowing and pressed in to cakes.• Yield is nearly 120 kg per acre• Up to 10% of fruit, large foliage leaves and stems over 3 cm• Known as flat or bombay ganja when 30 cm long pieces of theherb are made into bundles and pressed• Round or bengal ganja is prepared by rolling the wilted topsbetween the hands• Ganja is legally produced only by a few licensed growners inBengal & southern India.
Cannabis productsBhang or Hashish• Larger leaves and twigs of both male andfemale plants.• Smoked with or without tobacco• Smoked with or without tobacco• Unfit for medicinal use owing to deficiency ofresin• Taken in form of an electuary made bydigestion with melted butter
Cannabis productsCharas• Obtained by rubbing the tops between the hands andbeating them on a piece of cloth.• Collected by beating the flowering tops in coarse cottoncloths spread on the ground.cloths spread on the ground.• Greenish brown soft mass adheres, and may be purified bypressing it through the clothes• The resin is scrapped off• Mixed with many smoking mixtures• Also used with butter• An inferior product
Constituents & Use• Cannabinoids : C11, C12• Cannabinols, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC),cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabidiol-carboxylic acid,Cannabigerol, Cannabichromene• Tonic, sedative, analgesic, intoxicant, stomachic,antispasmodic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-tussive, narcotic• Only psychic dependence and act up on nervoussystem
8. HOPS• Syn: Kanphuti, Kanphuta• Source: dried strobiles of Humuluslupulus• (Strobile: A conelike structure, such as a pine cone, the fruit of the• (Strobile: A conelike structure, such as a pine cone, the fruit of thehop, or a cone of a club moss, that consists of overlappingsporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis)• Family: Cannaninaceae• GS: England, Germany, Belgium,France, Russia, California
Preparation• Strobiles are collected• Dried in klins (thermally insulated chamber oroven)• Pressed into bales known as pockets• Exposed to the fumes of burning sulphur whichmodifies the sulphur components already in thehops but which is said to stabilize the aromaand color
9. SHELLACresemble cochineal insect in structure and life history• Source: resinous substance prepared from asecretion that encrusts the bodies of a scaleinsect Karria Lacca (Lucifer lacca), orderHemiptera• GS: India, Thailand, China (5% of world’s• GS: India, Thailand, China (5% of world’sproduction)• India: Leguminosae (Acacia spp., Buteafrondosa), Euphorbiaceae (Aleuritis laccifera),Moraceae (Ficus spp.), Dipterocarpaceae(Cajanus indivus, Shorea talura), Rhamnaceae(Ziziphus jujuba)• China: species of Ficus and Dalbergia(Leguminosae)
Preparation• Lac is found on smaller branches & twigs• Broken off and constitute stick lac• Scraped from twigs by means of curved knives• Scraped from twigs by means of curved knives• Usually ground in India & coloring matter isextracted with water or dilute soda solution.• Solution evaporates to dryness constitute lac dyeand exhausted lac when dried seed lac
Characters, Constituents & Uses• Orange shellac: brownish yellow flake• Garnet shellac: reddish brown• 6% wax, 6.5% red water soluble coloring matter,laccaic acid,• 6% wax, 6.5% red water soluble coloring matter,laccaic acid,70-85% resin, few insect remains, vegetable debris• Resin: Hard & Soft (hydroxy fatty acid + sesqui terpene)• Hard Resin: aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid)• Soft resin: cedrene type sesquiterpene acid, water insolubleyellow pigment –erythrolaccin (tetrahydroxy-4-methylanthraquinone• Pharmaceutical aid, In varnishes, polish, sealing wax
10. TURMERIC• Syn: Haldi, Haridra, Indian saffron,Curcuma• Source: dried rhizome of Curcumalonga, C.domesticalonga, C.domestica• Family: Zingiberaceae• GS: Temperate regions: southernasia: India, China, East indies,Pakistan, Malaya
Cultivation & Preparation• Perennial herb, 60-90cm high, short stem and tufted leaves• Hot-moist climate• Liberal water supply and well-drained soil• Soil should be loose & friable• Field prepared: well ploughing, 30cm depth, manured with farmyard• Field prepared: well ploughing, 30cm depth, manured with farmyardand green manures• Buds are planted 7 cm deep, 30-37 cm apart and in April-August• Harvesting: after 9 months when lower leaves turn yellow• Rhizome: carefully dug up with hard picks, washed & dried• Curing: cooking with few leaves in leaves in water until they becomesoft• Cooked rhizome: cooled, dried in open air with intermittent turningover and rubbed on rough surface
Characteristics• Shape: ovate, pear shaped, oblong, pyriform orcylindrical• 4-7 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, called as finger• 4-7 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, called as finger• Color: deep yellow to orange• Taste: aromatic, pungent, bitter• Odor: indistinct
Chemical Test1. powder+Conc. H2SO4 red color2. powder+alkali solution red-violet color3. Powder+acetic anhydride+conc. H2SO4 violet color, intensefluorescencefluorescence4. Paper containing turmeric extract green color with boraxsolution, reddish brown color with boric acid addition ofalkali greenish blue5. Filter paper impregnated with an alcohol extract, driedmoistened with boric acid acidified withHCl redried pink or brownish-red color is developeddeep blue on addition of alkali
USES• Aromatic, anti-inflammatory, stomachic, uretic,anodyne for biliary calculus, stimulant, tonic,carminative, blood purifier, antiperiodic,carminative, blood purifier, antiperiodic,alterative, spice, coloring agent for ointmentand common household remedy for cough andcold• Liver diseases• Ar-turmeron antisnake venom activity
11. GUGGULU• Syn: Guggulu, Maishaksha• Source: gum resin obtained from Commiphoramukul, Commiphora wightiimukul, Commiphora wightii• Family: Burseracea• GS: throughout India• Characters:• Viscid brown tears; fragment pieces, balsamicodor & bitter-acrid taste
Collection• Small, thorny tree, 4-6 feet tall, branches slightlyascending• Sometimes planted in hedges• Tree remains without any foliage for most of the year• Tree remains without any foliage for most of the year• Has a ash colored bark and comes off in rough flakes,exposing the underbark which also peels off• The tree exudes yellow resin gum guggulu• Odor: balsamic• Each plant: 1 kg of the product; collected in cold season
12. Ginger• Syn: Adarak• Source: scraped or unscraped rhizomes of Zingiberofficinale• Family: Zingiberaceae• GS: Jamaica, China, India, Africa• Specification:• 7-15 cm long; 1-1.5 cm broad• Color: buff• Odor: agreeable• Taste: pungent
Collection• Grows well at subtropical temperature• Rainfall atleast 1.98m per annum• As the plant is sterile: vegetative means grown by• Selected piece of rhizome: sown during March or April, preferably in well-drained clayey loam• Procedure resemble potato cultivation• Procedure resemble potato cultivation• Mulching or manuring is necessary as plant exhausts the soil nutrients• Stem wither: December-January: rhizome ready for collection• For scrapped drug: after removal of soil, the rhizomes are killed by boilingwater• Carefully peeled, thoroughly washed and then dried in sun on mats• During drying, turned from time to time and protected during damp weather• First drying: 5-6 days• To get whiter product: ginger is again moistened & dried for further 2 days
13. Colocynth• Syn: bitter apple, kadu• in Indravani,bitter cucumber• Source: dried pithy pulp of the ripe fruits ofCitrullus colocynthisCitrullus colocynthis• Family: Curcurbitaceae• GS: asia, africa, south europe; mainly in egypt,cyprus; India (GJ,PB,TN)• 5-8 cm diameter, subspherical berry, almost white
Constituents• Alkaloid• Resin:• Citrullol• Glycoside: alpha-elaterin,• Glycoside: alpha-elaterin,cucurbitacin E, elatericin Bor cucurbitacin,dihydroelatericin B,cucurbitacin L, fixed oiland starch
Collection & Use• Hydrogogue purgative• Stimulates or irritatesthe GIT• Carminative• Perennial prostateherb• Rarely cultivate• Fleshy fruits • Carminative• Insecticidal• Fleshy fruits• Collected in autumnwhen they are ripe• Fruit: yellow• Fruits; peeled using aknife and dried underthe sun or artificially
14. Guaiacum• Syn: Lignum vitae, Pockwood• Source: heartwood of Guaiacum officinale G.sanctumsanctum• Family: Zygophyllaceae• GS: coastal region of tropical america• G.officinale: venezuela, colombia, west indies• G. sanctum: cuba, haiti,florida
Characters & CT• Large block or rounded tears• 2-3 cm in diameter• Color: brown & glassy exposure green• Taste: acrid• Taste: acrid• Odor: when warmed aromatic• Solubility: alcohol, chloroform, alkali• CT:1. Alcoholic solution + FeCl3 oxidation deep bluecolor reduction color reduced2. If adulterated with colophony detected by copper acetate test
Constituents• Lignan: alpha-guaiaconic acid, guaiaretic acid10% of guaiacum resin diaryl butane• Triterpenoid, norterpenoidResin extracted by alcohol most sensitiveAlpha-guaiaconicacidResin extracted by alcohol most sensitive• Alcoholic solution detection of stains,cyanogenetic glycosides, oxidase-peroxidaseenzymeUse• Chronic rheumatic condition• Food additiveacid
15. Capsicum• Syn: chillies, cayenne, pepper, red pepper, mirch• Source: dried, ripe fruits of the Capsicum minimum andC.annum• Family: Solanaceae• GS: native of america, India, Japan, Southern europe, mexico,• GS: native of america, India, Japan, Southern europe, mexico,africa• Characters:• 5-12 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, globular, ovoid or oblong in shape• Pericarp is shrievelled; orange-red in color; pedicel isprominent• Characteristic odor, intense pungent taste
Collection• Rainfed crop• Cold weather crop• Good drainage is essential• Seedlings are first raised in a nursery• Seeds + pods broadcasting• Seeds + pods broadcasting• Germination in a week• Flowering starts when 2.5-3.5 months old• Fruits pick up when fully ripe• Quality determined by its color• Dried in sun, graded by color and ocassionally oil is rubbed on thefruits to give glossiness to the pericarp• Calyx-pedicel removed
16. Turpentine• Source: obtained from Pinus spp. Like P. pinaster-maritimepine, P. palustris-long leaf pine (France), P. elliottii-slashpine, P. sylvestris, P. nigra (North america),P. halepensis(Europe)• Family Pinaceae• GS: Northen hemisphere (oleoresin in secretory canals)• Recent update: portugal type turpentin obtained by steamdistillation, at a temp. <80°C, of the oleoresin collected bytapping the maritime pine, P. pinaster and chiefly producedin Portugal and Spain
Preparation-1• Traditional method:• consists of tapping, in other words cutting a blazeor groove into the pine trunk with a special tool,or groove into the pine trunk with a special tool,then collecting the flow of oleoresin into cups.• The flow can be increased by applying diluteH2SO4.• Steam distillation of the crude oleoresin producesgum turpentine and gum rosin.
Preparation-2• Makes use of the waste from the wood industry,particularly the stumps left after the trees have beencut down.These are washed & chopped, then extracted with an• These are washed & chopped, then extracted with anorganic solvent.• The residual wood chips are burned to generate someof the heat needed by the distillery.• Distillation of the crude extraction product producesdipentene, pine oil, wood turpentine and wood rosinor colophony.
Preparation-3• Recovers the terpenoid constituents contained inpine woods at the time of their transformation inwood pulp.• The pulp used in paper industry is most oftenobtained by cooking the wood pulp (Kraft or sulphateprocess: cooking in the presence of sulphate)• The cooking vapors are condensed to provide sulfateturpentine.• In addition, the liquid wastes yield tall oil, itself thesource of fatty acids, sitosterol an tall oil rosin.
Overall production• World production of turpentine lies somewherebetween 240-260000 metric tons/year with about50% obtained by tree tapping (by China, countries offormer USSR, Portugal, India, Mexico)former USSR, Portugal, India, Mexico)• US and canada produce about 100,000 metric tons ofsulfate turpentine.• Quality of the product varies as a function ofnumerous criteria: nature of the starting material(resin versus stumps), plant species, GS and more.