CONTENT1. Aconite2. Curare3. Lilly of the valley4. Ergot5. Poison ivy6. Abrus7. Belighia8. Yew9. Mashrooms10. Psoralea11. Datura
1. ACONITESyn: wolfbane rootSource: dried roots of Aconitum napellus(Europe)A. Japonicum (Japan), A. carmichaelli(China), A.chasmanthum (India)Family: RanunculaceaeGS: Western Europe-spain, HimalayaConstituents: total alkaloid 0.3-1.2%terpene ester alkaloids: 30% aconitine,mesoaconitine,hypaconitine, neopelline,napelline, neoline
Use: arrow poison,potent-quick actingpoison-not used internally in UKexcept in homeopathicdoses-formerly used for anti-neuralgic liniment
2. CURAREHistory: generic name applied to various southamerican arrow poisons from family menispermaceae-chondendron spp and Loganiaceae1. Effect is too immediate that the animal can’t flee2. The muscle relaxation induced by the poisonprevents parrots3. Toxic only to parenteral routeGS: upper amazon region: brazil and peruBS: Chondrodendron (Ch. tomentosum, Ch.Platyphyllum, Ch. Microphyllum)Curarea: Cu. Toxicofera, Cu. Candicans, Cu.Tecunarum, Cu. Caurtecasasii)
2. CURAREConstituent: Tubocurarine,isochondrodendrin dimethylether, curine, chondrocurine,isochondrodendrineUse: as source of alkaloids,Tubocurarine chloride officialin BP/EP is used to securemuscular relaxant n surgicaloperation and in certainneurological conditions.Death that kills slowly.
3. LILY OF THE VALLEYBS: dried flower tops of Convallaria majalisFamily: LiliaceaeGS: Europe, North America, Western AsisCompostion: complex nearly 40 glycosides builtupon about 10 aglycone and closely dependent onthe geographical origin.Chief glycoside: aglycone with 5-beta—hydroxylgroup : k-strophanthidin of convalloside,convallatoxin, desglucocheirotoxin), convallataxol& lokundjoside
3. LILY OF THE VALLEYConvallatoxin: very activeglycoside but fortunately it isvery poorly absorbed in theintestineAlthough the ingestion of lilyof the valley is frequently atthe origin of calls to poisoncenters, symptoms areobserved only in 10-15%cases.Nausea, vomitingToxicity even found in flowervases containing lily.
4. ERGOTBS: rye plant Claviceps purpureaAlready studied under ALKALOIDS in Semester-VIIRefer PDF
5. POISON IVYSyn: sumacs, poison dogweedBS: Toxicodendron radicansGS: USAConstituents: Phenols: urushiols, o-diphenolssubstituted by an aliphatic chain of 15-17 carbonatoms, and more or less unsaturatedOxidized to quinones, they formed covalent bondwith proteins and yields an antigenic complex.Use: contact with the fresh plant results in severand extended dermatitis with blisters.Hands and clothing; objects and disseminate thephenol that remain intact for months.
6. ABRUSSyn: Prayer beads, Jequirity, Indian LicoriceSource: dried seeds of Abrus precatoriusFamily: Leguminosae or FabaceaeColor: attractive red and blackTaste: root-sweetNature: PoisonousConstituents: Toxic glycoprotein (abrin) resembling ricin-Alkaloids: abrine, hyaphorine, precatorine, sterols, lectino Use: to procure abortion and to hasten labour.-As oral contraceptive agent-To make necklace & bracelets-The lectin (abrin) induce severe GIT problems likedehydration, hypotension, confusion, coma, convulsion
7. BLIGHIASyn: AkeeSource: dried ripe seeds of Blighia sapidaFamily: SapindaceaeGS: Tropical west AfricaToxicity & Constituents:-unripe fruit contains Hypoglycin-A & B methylenecyclopropyl acetic acidUse: seeds contain hypoglycins, which are toxic andcan be fatal.-leads to vomiting and sickness.-leads to breakdown of glucose stores.
8. YEWBS: Taxus spp.T. baccata (europe), T. brevifolia (US),T.canadensis (Canada), T. cuspidata(Japan), T. wallichiana (Himalaya)Family: TaxaceaeHistory: known since remote antiquity for theirtoxicity to humans and domesticated animals,and have been making medical headlines for afew years: directly or indirectly, they provide twoditerpenoid anticancer compounds with a novelMOA namely paclitaxel and docetaxel.
9. MASHROOMSBecause of chemistry of the active principles in manypoisonous mushrooms is still imperfectly known andpositive botanical identification is often extremelydifficult, these species must be classified on aphysiologic basis, that is, according to the type ofsymptoms observed in human beings followingingestion.Four basic types:1. Protoplasmic: amatoxins, gyrotoxin, orellanine2. Compounds exterting neurologic effects: muscarine,ibotenic acid-muscimol, psilocybin-psilocin3. GIT irritants4. Coprine
1. PROTOPLASMIC POISONS-AMATOXINSSource 1: Amanita phalloides (deadly amanita)Amanita bisporigera, Atkinson, Amanita verna, AmanitavirosaGS: EuropeCharacteristics: White spores, presence of both an annulus anda volva, typically free gills.Constituents: alpha,beta, gamma-amanitinSource 2: GalerinaCharacteristics: nondescript carpophores with yellowish brownsporesConstituents: alpha,beta-amanitinActions: asymptomatic latent period lasting up to 24 hoursprecedes violent vomiting and diarrhoea which may continueuntill death results.-Progressive injuries to liver, kidney, heart and CNS.
TREATMENT OF POISONINGTreatment of poisoning:Removal of toxic material from the GITAdministration of analgesics to control painIV infusion of liquid to prevent dehydration and shockHemodialysis or hemoperfusion to eliminate toxinAppropriate measure to maintain a brisk urine flow.IV corticosteroids to inhibit toxin fixation in the liverIV penicillin G or thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) toprotect that organ.Administration of cytochrome C, Vitamin C, K and Bcomplex and dextrose, NaCl injectionMost used: Penicillin G, chloramphenicol,phenylbutazone, Co-trimaxazole.
GYROMITRINS-N-METHYL-N-FORMYLHYDRAZINE DVT.Source: certain false morels, especially Gyromitraesculenta, G.gigas, HelvellaGS: Europe, Pacific north-west regionCharacteristics: pileus surface that varies fromnearly smooth to strongly convulated, neverpittedConstituents: aliphatic aldehydes: hydrazone ofacetaldehyde, N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine(MFH), oxidation product-N-nitroso-N-methylformamide(NMFA)Actions: latent period of 6-10 hours and vomitingTreatment: similar to amatoxin poisoning
ORELLANINE-CORTINARIN-A & BSource: Cortinarius speciesConstituents: cyclopeptides: cortinarin A & B-cortinarin B is more toxicAction: nephrotoxic, latent period of 3-14days, burning thirst, GIT disturbance,headache, pain in limbs, spasms, loss ofconciousness, liver-kidney damageTreatment: supportive & symptomatic ---particular attention to the maintenance ofkidney function.
COMPOUNDS EXERTING NEUROLOGIC EFFECTS: MUSCARINESource: Amanita muscaria, Amanitapantherina, Boletus, Lepiota, Hebeloma,Russula, Clitocybe, Inocybe-brownishsporesSymptoms: increased salivation, perspiration,lacrimation, abdominal pain, sever nausea,diarrhea, slow pulse, asthmatic breathing,constricted pupil.Treatment: Gastric lavage and administrationof atropine, a specific antidote.