Pharmacognosy Simplified


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B.Pharm (Semester-VIII)

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Pharmacognosy Simplified

  2. 2. Objectives 1. Bitter Glycosides drugs - Picrorrhiza, Andrographis 2. Marine cyto-toxin drugs - Ara-A, Ara-C, Crassin acetate, Sinularia, Geranium hydroquinone, Asperidol 3. Phyto-toxin drugs - Abrus, Aconite, Poison ivy, Poison hemlock, Lilly of the valley, Curare, Blighia 4. Drugs used for hormone & steroid manufacturing - Dioscorea, Fenugreek, Agave, Smilax - Diosgenin, Hecogenin, Smilagenin 5. Drug used for Incense stick (dhoop batti) - Benzoin
  3. 3. Objectives 6. Sesquiterpene lactone drug - Quassia 7. Furano-coumarin glycosides drug - Ammi & Psoralea 8. Steroidal saponin drugs - Dioscorea, Aspargus, Agave, Fenugreek, Smilax 9. Pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin drugs - Licorice, Ginseng, Quillaia 10. Lignan drugs - Phyllanthus, Podophyllum 11. Amaroid lactone drug - Quassia
  4. 4. Objectives 12. Iridoid drug - Picrorrhiza 13. Sesqui terpene glucoside & Furano diterpene drug - Tinospora 14. Sesquiterpene lactone drug - Artemisia cina 15. Diterpene lactone drug -Andrographis 16. Polyketide drugs - Male fern & Podophyllum 17. Hepatoprotective drugs - Picrorrhiza, Andrographis, Turmeric 18. Anti Cancer drugs - Taxus, Podophyllum
  5. 5. Objectives 19. Cardio tonic & Cardia glycoside - Digitalis, Strophanthus, Thevetia, Nerium 20. Rodent killer cardiac glycoside - Squill 21. Expectorant drugs - Glycyrrhiza (Licorice), Tolu balsam, Benzoin, Quillaia, Eucalyptus, Anise, Fennel 22. Nervine tonic drugs - Brahmi (Hydrocotyl & Bacopa) 23. Galactogogue drug - Aspargus, Fenugreek 24. Rejuvenator & adaptogen (immuno modulator) increase resistant power-drugs - Ginseng, Tinospora
  6. 6. Objectives 25. Treatment of Vitiligo - Ammi majus 26. Treatment of Psoriasis & leucoderma - Psoralea 27. Bitter stomachic drugs - Gentian, Quassia & chirata 28. Anthelmintic drugs - Quassia (thread worms), Artemisia cina, Gaultheria (hook worm), Male fern (tape worm), Kalmegh 29. Sweetening agent - Licorice 30. Anti malaria drug - Artemisia annua 31. Sharbat preparation - Vetiver (Khus) 32. Treatment of Rheumatism - Gaultheria, Palmrosa, Nutmeg, Rasna, Capsicum
  7. 7. Objectives 33. Skin disease drugs - Palmrosa, Peru balsam (scabies) 34. Mosquito repellant cream - Citronella 35. Counter irritant drugs - Eucalyptus, Turpentine, Capsicum 36. Antiseptic drugs - Eucalyptus, Peppermint, Ajwon, Cinnamon, Saussurea, Myrrh, Tolu balsam, Benzoin 37. Rubefacient drugs - Turpentine 38. Antispasmodic drugs - Ajwon, Dill, Hops 39. Anti-epileptic drugs - Jatamansi, Valerian
  8. 8. Objectives 40. Anti-fungal drugs - Ajwon 41. Dysuria (painful) urination drug - Sandalwood 42. Dental analgesic drug - Clove 43. Sedative drugs - Hops, Jatamansi 44. Treatment of Asthma drugs - Saussurea 45. Enteric coated tablets - Shellac 46. Anti-inflammatory drugs -Turmeric, Guggul
  9. 9. Objectives 47. Diuretic drugs - Colophony 48. Wound healing drugs - Peru balsam 49. Laxative-Purgative drugs - Colocynth, Myrrh 50. Veneral warts drugs - Podophyllum 51. Motion sickness drug -Ginger 52. Narcotic analgesic - Cannabis 53. Intestinal flatulence - Asafoetida 54. Oleo-gum-resin drugs - Asafoetida, Myrrh, Guggul
  10. 10. Objectives 55. Acid resin drugs - Colophony (abietic acid), Myrrh (commiphoric acid), Shellac (alleuritic acid) 56. Ester resin drugs - Siam benzoin (coniferyl benzoate) 57. Sequi terpene drugs example - Artemisia, Sandalwood, Clove, Hops, Saussurea, Valerian 58. Di-terpene drugs example - Taxus 59. Tetraterpenoids drug example - Carrot 60. Balsam drugs (benzoic + cinnamic acid) - Tolu balsam, Peru balsam, Sumatra bezoin 61. Oleo-resin drugs - Turpentine & Ginger 62. Resin phenol drugs - Peruresinotannol (peru balsam), toluresinotannol (tolu balsam) & siaresinotannol (benzoin)
  11. 11. Alcohol volatile oil 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Peppermint-Menthol Cardamom- Borneol Coriander-Coriandrol (Linalool) Rose-Nerol Sandalwood-Santalol
  12. 12. Aldehyde volatile oil 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cinnamon-Cinnamic aldehyde Lemon peel- Citral Orange peel- Citral Citronella- Citronellal Lemon grass- Citronellal
  13. 13. Ester volatile oil 1. Gaultheria (Wintergreen)-Methyl salicylate
  14. 14. Hydrocarbon volatile oil 1. Turpentine- pinene, carene, limonene
  15. 15. Ketone volatile oil 1. 2. 3. 4. Caraway- Carvone Spearmint – Carvone Vetiver - Vetivone Fennel - Fenchone
  16. 16. Oxide volatile oil 1. Eucalyptus- Cineole (eucalyptol)
  17. 17. Phenolic ether volatile oil 1. Anise-Anethol 2. Fennel- Anethol 3. Nutmeg- Myristicin
  18. 18. Phenol volatile oil 1. Clove- Eugenol 2. Ajwon- Thymol
  19. 19. Chemical test for Volatile oil 1. With alcoholic solution of Sudan red-III red color 2. With tincture alkane  red color 3. With vanillin sulphuric acid  yellow-orange color (Fennel, Dill, Coriander, Cassia, Cardamom,Clove)
  20. 20. Chemical test for Saponin glycoside 1. Foam test: Shake with water  froth formation 2. Haemolytic test: Aq solution + drop of blood  RBCs ruptured and causing hemolysis (Licorice, Aspargus, Reetha, Shikakai)
  21. 21. Chemical test for Steroid & Triterpenoid saponin Alcoholic extract of drug evaporated to dryness and extract with CHCl3 (common for 1 to 3) 1. Libermann buchard testand few drops of acetic anhydride followed by conc. Sulphuric acid from side wall of test tube to the CHCl3 extract blue-violet ring at the junction  steroid moiety 2. Salkowaski test and add conc. H2SO4 from sidewall of test tube  yellow ring at the junction  steroid moiety 3. SbCl3 test Add satd solution of SbCl3 in CHCl3 containing 20% acetic anhydride  pink color on heating  triterpenoids & steroids 4. Trichloro acetic acid test colored ppt 5. Tetranitro methane test  yellow color 6. Zimmermann test  meta dinitrobenzene solution was added to the alcoholic solution of drug containing alkali, on heating  violet color (ketosteroid)
  22. 22. Chemical test for Cardiac glycoside To the alc extract, add equal volume of water and 0.5 ml strong lead acetate  shakedfiltered filtrate was extracted with equal volume of CHCl3 and CHCl3 extract is evaporated to dryness (common for Test 1 & 2) 1. Keller-killiani test residue dissolved in 3 ml Glacial acetic acid followed by addition of few drops of FeCl3 solution –The resultant solution transferred to test tube containing 2 ml conc. H2SO4  reddish brown layer is formed  turning to  bluish green after standing due to presence of digitoxose 2. Legal test Residue dissolved in 2 ml pyridine and 2ml sodium nitroprusside followed by NaOH solution to make alkaline  formation of pink color in presence of glycosides or aglycone moiety. 3. Baljet test Addition of sodium picrate solution  yellow-orange color 4. 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid test To the alcoholic solution of drug + few drop of NaOH, followed by 2% 3,5donitro benzoic acid  pink color
  23. 23. Chemical test for Flavonoids 1. Ammonia test Filter paper dipped in alcoholic solution, when exposed to ammonia vapor  yellow spot 2. Shinoda test To the alcoholic extract, add Mg turning and add dil. HCl  red color  flavonoids To the alcoholic extract, add Zn turning and add dil. HCl  deep red to magenta color  dihydro flavonoids 3. Vanillin HCl test Vanillin HCl added to alcoholic solution of drug  pink color  flavonoids
  24. 24. Important powder characteristics 1. Umbelliferous fruits (Dill, Fennel, Coriander) Common: Endocarp, endosperm, yellow vittae, lignified mesocarp Dill  lignified sclreids (stone cells) & nux vomica like red nuclei like endosperm Fennel  fibers Coriander  lignified sclerenchymatous layer (spread like bed sheet) & endocarp-mesocarp combined
  25. 25. Important powder characteristics 2. Cardamom: parallel epidermal cells like broom and if of seed coat part then having benzene type cells as well & perisperm consists of starch grain 3. Licorice: yellow fiber and lignified fibers with cal. Oxalate crystals inside or sideby & cork 4. Picrorrhiza: cork 5. Aspargus: lignified parenchyma 6. Andrographis: diacytic stomata, covering-glandular trichome, acicular unlignified fibers 7. Clove: stomata, lignified anther, aerenchyma, oil gland, polen grain 8. Cassia: Cork & stone cells 9. Quassia: wood: all tissue lignified, medullary rays with cal oxa & wood element, xylem vessel & fiber
  26. 26. Chemical test for Aloe 1. Modified bortranger’s test The aq. Solution is treated with FeCl3, add dil. HCl to bring out oxidative hydrolysis of aloe-emodin. The hydrolysis sets free anthraquinones  which are collected in organic solvent like CCl4 or ether. The organic layer is separated and shaken with dilute ammonia Ammonia layer shows  rose-pink to cherry red color  presence of C-glycoside  aloe-emodin
  27. 27. 1. CLOVE • Syn: Lavang • Source: dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (Eugenia caryophyllus), • Family: Myrtaceae • GS: Molucca or Clove Islands, Zanzibar, Pemba, Madagascar, Indonesia & Brazil.
  28. 28. HISTORY OF CLOVE Cloves were used in China as early as 266 BC, and by the 4th century, they were known in Europe, although very expensive. Same as with nutmeg, the Dutch also destroyed all trees from surrounding native islands to secure a monopoly, and cultivated them only in a small group of islands. In 1770, the French managed to introduce clove trees to Mauritius, and started cultivating them there, as well as in Zanzibar, Penang and Sumatra.
  29. 29. COLLECTION & PREPARATION The flower buds are collected when the lower part turns greencrimson. • In Zanzibar & Pemba collection takes place twice yearly, between august and December. • The inflorescence are collected from movable platforms. • The cloves are dried in the Open air on mats & separated from their Peduncles, the later forming a separate article of commerce known as Clove stalks. • If left on the tree for too long, the buds open & the petals fall, leaving “brown cloves”. • Later the fruits known as “mother cloves” are produced. • A small portion of these, usually at a stage intermediate between that of a clove and a fully ripe fruits, are frequently found in the drug. • Cloves are imported in bales covered with matting made from string of coconut leaves. •
  30. 30. MACROSCOPICAL FEATURES -Cloves are 10-17.5 mm long. -Penang and Amboyna varieties are the largest and plumpest. -Zangibar variety is of good quality and smaller and leaner comparatively a blackish brown rather than reddish brown color. -The head consists of 4 slightly projecting calyx teeth, 4 membranous petals and numerous incurved stamens around a large style. -Odour: Spicy & Pungent -Taste: Aromatic
  31. 31. MICROSCOPICAL FEATURES Heavy cuticularized epidermis Numerous oil cells (shizolysigenous) Calcium oxalates (cluster crystals & prisms) Stomata (epidermis of sepals) Starch (Fruit – “mother cloves”) Lignified sclereids
  32. 32. CONSTITUENTS • • • • • • • • • • • 14-21% Volatile oils 10-13% tannin Various triterpene and esters Glycosides of : aliphatic and monoterpenoid alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol, farnesol, nerolidol, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campestrol
  33. 33. USES OF CLOVE -Stimulant aromatic -as a Spice -For the preparation of volatile oil -Sesquiterpenes: potential anti-carcinogenic compounds
  34. 34. CLOVE OIL Oil distilled in Europe and the US normally does not need purification, while oil distilled in other areas (e.g. Madagascar) does. After purification the oil is sold with varying eugenol contents. Oil of cloves is yellow or colourless, is slightly heavier than water.
  35. 35. CLOVE OIL - CONSTITUENTS • Volatile oils – mainly eugenol & acetyleugenol • Sesquiterpenes (α and β caryophyllenes) • Oil of clove – like other volatile/essential oils – should be stored in a well-fitted, air-tight container, & should be protected from light & heat.
  36. 36. CLOVE OIL - USES Anti-septic Aromatic Stimulant Flavouring Agent
  37. 37. 2. CARDAMOM FRUIT & OIL Syn: Ilaychi Source: dried, nearly dried ripe fruits of Elettaria cardamomum Var. miniscula Family: Zingiberaceae PARTS USED: Seeds (should be kept in the fruit until ready to be used – Prevents loss of volatile oils). (3RD most expensive spice).
  38. 38. Elettaria cardamomum • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES • Sri Lanka • Southern IndiaAlleppy • Guatemala • HISTORY • Traditional Indian ceremonies
  39. 39. PRODUCTION, COLLECTION & PREPARATION • • • • • • • • • • Mainly obtained from cultivated plants (propagated by seedlings or vegetatively [problematic due to virus infection] ). Capsules on the same raceme ripen at different times and it is important to collect them when nearly ripe and before that split to shed their seeds. It is best to cutt off each fruit at the correct stage with a pair of short-bladed scissors. In India & Srilanka, flowering and fruiting continues for practically whole year but most crop is collected from October to December Too rapied drying is avoided, as it causes fruits to split and shed their seeds. Sometimes the capsules are re-moistened and further exposed to the sun-but this sun bleaching though improving appearance, also increases the number of split fruits. Bleaching may also done by placing tray of fruits over burning sulphur. Soaking fruits for 10min. In 2% Sod. Carbonate solution before drying. Capsules have the remains of the calyx at the apex and stalk at the base, removed either by hand clipping or by machines. Fruits then graded by means of sieves into longs, mediums and shorts and tiny. If sulphur bleached, are aired in the open before being packed for export.
  40. 40. COLLECTION & PREPARATION • Fruits are dried slowly (outdoors or indoors). • Too rapid drying – capsules split & shed seeds • Calyx at the apex of the stalk and the stalk at the base may be removed. • Fruits are graded with a sift into ‘longs’, ‘mediums’, ‘shorts’ & ‘tiny’. • If they have been sulphur – bleached (improved colour), it will be aired outdoors before packed for transport.
  41. 41. MACROSCOPICAL FEATURES • Plant is reed-like - > 4 m, with long leaves growing from the rhizome. • Fruits – capsular: inferior, ovoid, 1-2 cm long. • Apex: shortly beaked & shows floral remains. • Base: rounded & shows the remain of a stalk. • Internally the capsule is 3-celled; each cell contains x2 row of seeds. • Each seed: Slightly angular, 4mm long & 3 mm broad. • Colour: dark red-brown (fully ripe seeds)  paler in unripe seeds. • Strong, pleasant, aromatic odour • Pungent taste
  42. 42. MICROSCOPICAL FEATURES • • • • Oil cells Predominant Parenchyma (yellow colour) Cells containing silica Starch grains
  43. 43. VARIETIES & ADULTERANTS • ADULTERATION – Powdered drug adulterated with the fruit pericarp (powdered). • ALLIED HERBS – Official variety – E. cardamomum var miniscula – Other: E. cardamomum var major (more elongated & sometimes 4 cm long with dark brown pericarps) – Amomum aromaticum (Bengal cardamom) – Amomum subulatum (Nepal cardamom) – Amomum cardamomum (Java cardamom)
  44. 44. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 2.8 – 6.2 % volatile oil (BP-NLT 4%) Abundant starch (up to 50%) Fixed oil (1 – 10%) Calcium oxalate • OIL • Terpinyl acetate • Cineole • Monoterpenes (alcohol+ester) • • • • Cineol
  45. 45. Elettaria: ACTIONS & USES • Flavouring agent (curries & biscuits) • Liqueur manufacture • Small amount is used for pharmaceutical manufacture (Compound Tincture of Cardamom).
  46. 46. 3. Digitalis • Source: Dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea Linn • Family: Scrophulariaceae • Syn. : Purple foxglove, Lady’s glove, Finger flower • Histroy: The word purpurea has been derived from the purple colour of flowers • G.S.: England, Germany, France, North America, India, Iraq, Japan, Mexico, Spain, Turkey
  47. 47. • • • • • • • • • • • Cultivation Biennial herb (a plant which blooms in its second year and then dies) Good quality of drug is obtained especially from cultivated plant. Flourish best in well drained loose soil preferably of siliceous origin with some slight shade Plant growing in sunny situation possesses the active qualities of herb compare to shade by trees. Best grown when allowed to seed itself Seeds should be mixed with fine sand in order to ensure even distribution. Before sowing soil is sterilized. Sown in spring, the plant is not blossom till the following year. In dry season, sufficient water is supplied. In 1st yr, long stalk with rosette of leaves is produced. True plant shows dull pink or magenta not pale colored or spotted externally. • • • • • • Collection September to November by hand Organic matter and discolored leaves are avoided. After collection, leaves should be dried as soon as possible at 60°C. By quick drying, green color of leaves is maintained. Drying is carried out till moisture is NMT 5%. Packed under-pressure in airtight container.
  48. 48. • • • • • • • • • • Morphology Color: Dark grayish green Odour: Odourless Taste: bitter Shape: Ovate lanceolate to broadly ovate Size: 10-30 cm long, 4-10 cm wide Margin: Crenate or dentate Apex: Sub acute Base: decurrent Upper surface: Hairy, slightly pubescent, dark green and little wrinkled Lower surface: Hairy, grayish green, very pubescent
  49. 49. Microscopy • • • • • • • • Dorsiventral leaf Plenty of simple covering & glandular trichome on both surfaces Covering trichome: uniseriate, 3-4 celled long, collapsed cells, acute apex & finely warty cuticle. Glandular trichome: short unicellular stalk, bicellular or rarely unicellular head Anomocytic(ranunculaceous) stomata Trichome-stomata more in lower surface Pericycle: parenchymatous above & collechymatous below Calcium oxalate crystal absent
  50. 50. Chemical constituents:
  51. 51. Chemical Test  Baljet Test: thick section of leaf + Sodium picrate  Yellow to orange color  Legal Test: Glycoside (dissolved in pyridine) + Sodium nitroprusside (to make alkaline)Pink to red color  Keller-killiani Test: isolate glycoside(dissolved in glacial acetic acid) + FeCl3 + H2SO4 reddish brown color between two liquids and upper layer becomes bluish green
  52. 52.  Uses Heart complaints, internal heamorrhage, inflammatory disease, epilepsy, acute mania Note: it has cumulative effect in the body so the dose has to be decided very carefully.  Market preparation Lanoxin tablets (Glaxo Smith Kline)  Adulterants -Verbascum thapus: Mullelin leaves, covered with large woolly branched candelabra trichomes -Primula vulgaris: long 8-9 celled covering trichomes -Symphytum officinale: comfrey leaves, multicellular trichome forming hook at the top
  53. 53. 4. Dioscorea • Source: Dried tubers of Dioscorea deltoidea, D. composita & other species of Dioscorea • Family: Dioscoreaceae • Syn.: Yam, Rheumatism root • G.S.: North western Himalaya, USA, Mexico • Chemical Constituents: • Non-edible as very bitter. • Rhizome: 75% starch & phenol • Roots: Diosgenin (4-6%) steroidal sapogenin, glycoside: smilagenin, epismilagenin, B-isomer of yammogenin, • Enzyme: sapogenase; • Diosgenin is hydrolytic product of saponin dioscin. • Uses: Source of diosgenin (in manufacturing progesterone, steroidal drugs, contraceptive) & in treatment of arthritis
  54. 54. Phyto-toxins
  55. 55. CONTENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Aconite Curare Lilly of the valley Ergot Poison ivy Abrus Belighia Yew Mashrooms Psoralea Datura Poison hemlock
  56. 56. 1. ACONITE • Syn: wolfbane root • Source: dried roots of Aconitum napellus (Europe) A. Japonicum (Japan), A. carmichaelli (China), A.chasmanthum (India) • Family: Ranunculaceae • GS: Western Europe-spain, Himalaya • Toxic principle: total alkaloid 0.3-1.2% • terpene ester alkaloids: 30% aconitine, mesoaconitine,hypaconitine, neopelline, napelline, neoline
  57. 57. • Toxicity. All species of monkshood should be considered toxic to humans and animals. All parts of the plant are toxic, especially the roots, seeds, and new leaves. Horses have been fatally poisoned after consuming 0.075% of their body weight of the plant. The alkaloids can be absorbed through the skin and may cause poisoning in humans handling the plant. • Mechanism of toxicologic damage. Aconitine-type diterpene alkaloids bind sodium channels, causing persistant activation. • Diagnosis • Clinical signs. Clinical signs are similar to those caused by larkspur poisoning. Within a few hours of ingestion, restlessness, and excessive salivation are seen. Animals develop muscle weakness and hypotension and have difficulty breathing. Eventually, affected animals will collapse in lateral recumbancy. Death may occur several hours to days postingestion due to either heart block and ventricular fibrillation or to respiratory failure. • Lesions. No lesions are seen. • Treatment. No treatment has been proven effective in monkshood poisoning. Affected animals should be stressed as little as possible. Symptomatic treatment with intravenous fluids may be helpful. Vomiting and diarrhea should be controlled. Oral activated charcoal and osmotic laxatives may be helpful to reduce absorption of alkaloids from the GI tract.
  58. 58. • Use: arrow poison, potent-quick acting poison -not used internally in UK except in homeopathic doses -formerly used for antineuralgic liniment
  59. 59. 2. CURARE • History: generic name applied to various south american arrow poisons from family menispermaceaechondendron spp and Loganiaceae 1. Effect is too immediate that the animal can’t flee 2. The muscle relaxation induced by the poison prevents parrots 3. Toxic only to parenteral route • GS: upper amazon region: brazil and peru • BS: Chondrodendron (Ch. tomentosum, Ch. Platyphyllum, Ch. Microphyllum) • Curarea: Cu. Toxicofera, Cu. Candicans, Cu. Tecunarum, Cu. Caurtecasasii)
  60. 60. 2. CURARE • Toxic principle: Tubocurarine, isochondrodendrin dimethyl ether, curine, chondrocurine, isochondrodendrine • Use: as source of alkaloids, • Tubocurarine chloride official in BP/EP is used to secure muscular relaxant n surgical operation and in certain neurological conditions. • Death that kills slowly.
  61. 61. 3. Lily of the valley BS: dried flower tops of Convallaria majalis Family: Liliaceae GS: Europe, North America, Western Asis Compostion: complex nearly 40 glycosides built upon about 10 aglycone and closely dependent on the geographical origin. • Toxic principle: Chief glycoside: aglycone with 5-beta—hydroxyl group : kstrophanthidin of convalloside, convallatoxin, desglucocheirotoxin), convallataxol & lokundjoside • • • •
  62. 62. 3. Lily of the valley • Convallatoxin: very active glycoside but fortunately it is very poorly absorbed in the intestine • Although the ingestion of lily of the valley is frequently at the origin of calls to poison centers, symptoms are observed only in 10-15% cases. • Nausea, vomiting • Toxicity even found in flower vases containing lily.
  63. 63. 5. Poison Ivy Syn: sumacs, poison dogweed BS: Toxicodendron radicans GS: USA Toxic Principles: Phenols: urushiols, o-diphenols substituted by an aliphatic chain of 15-17 carbon atoms, and more or less unsaturated • Oxidized to quinones, they formed covalent bond with proteins and yields an antigenic complex. • Use: contact with the fresh plant results in sever and extended dermatitis with blisters. • Hands and clothing; objects and disseminate the phenol that remain intact for months. • • • •
  64. 64. Chemical Constituents
  65. 65. 10. Psoralea toxin-Furanocoumarins • Syn: Bavchi, Malaya tea • Source: dried ripe fruits and seeds of Psoralea corylifolia • Family: Leguminosae • GS: India, China, Srilanka, Nepal, Vietnam • Toxic principle: coumarin like psoralen, isopsoralen, psoralidin, isopsoralidin, carylifolean, bavachromanol and psoralenol, Fixed oil 10%, essential oil 0.05% and resin • Seeds: Flavonoids: bavachalcone, bavachinin, isobavachalcone, bavachin and isobavachin • Seed oil: limonene, aelemene, betacaryophyllenoxide, 4-terpineol, linalool, geranyl acetate, angelicin, psoralen, bakuchiol
  66. 66. Psoralen Psoralidin • Chemical Test: 1) psoralen, dissolved in alcohol + NaOH  UV light observation yellow fluorescence 2) Psoralen, dissolved in small amount of alcohol, 3 times propylene glycol, 5 times acetic acid, 40 times water UV light observation blue fluorescence • USES Aphrodiasic, antibacterial, astringent, cytotoxic, deobstruent, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant, stomachic , tonic, lower back pain, skin disease, bed wetting, leprosy, hair loss
  67. 67. 1. Quassia • Syn: Bitter wood, Jamaica Quassia • Source: dried wood of the stem of Aeschrion excelsa (Picroena or Picrasma excelsa) • Family: Simaroubaceae • GS: West indies, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Barbados, St. Vincent • Use: Bitter tonic, Insecticide, vermicide for thread worms, slightly narcotic & acts on flies, increase appetite
  68. 68. Constituents & Structures 1. Terpenoid : Amaroid • quassin, an intensely bitter lactone • Neoquassin • Isoquassin (picrasmin) • 18-hydroxy quassin • Scopoletin 2. Alkaloid: Cathine-6-one 3. Volatile Oil 4. Inorganic salt: CaCl2, NaCl, sulphate of lime, oxalate, ammonical, KNO3, Neoquassin
  69. 69. 2. Picrorrhiza • Syn: Kutki, Yellow gentian • Source: dried rhizomes of Picrorrhiza kurroa • Family: Scrophulariaceae • GS: North-west Himalaya region at 3000-4000 m • Use: Bitter tonic, Hepatoprotective, Immunomodulator, curing different types of jaundice, skin disease, improves eye sight, Cholagoguestimulates gallbladder contraction to promote bile flow
  70. 70. Constituents & Structures 1. Iridoid glycoside: • Picroside I • Picroside II • Kutkoside • Pikoroside • Picrorhizinon hydrolysispicrorhizetin + dextrose 2. Phenolic glycoside: • Picein • Androsin 3. Cucurbitacin glycoside
  71. 71. 5. Taxus • Syn: Yew • Source & GS: dried bark of • Taxus baccata (Europe) • Taxus brevifolia & T. canadensis (North america) • Taxus cuspidata (Japan) • Taxus wallichiana (Himalaya) • Family: Taxaceae
  72. 72. Constituents & Structures Tricyclic diterpenoids: • Taxane skeleton • Taxusines • Taxagifen • Baccatin-III • Taxine • Taxol • Cephalomannine • Taxicine
  73. 73. USES • Paclitaxel: mitotic spindle poison • M/a: it promotes assembly of tubulin dimers into microtubules which is stabilized by inhibiting their depolymerization • Indication: Advanced ovarian cancer, metastatic breast cancer • S/e: neutropenia, peripheral neuropathy, CVS, alopecia • Posology: 135-175 mg/m2 • • • • Docetaxel: Indication: breast cancer S/e: severe neutropenia, hypersensitivity reaction, water retention, cutaneous reaction Posology: 100 mg/m2
  74. 74. 7. Gentian • Syn: yellow gentian root • Source: dried fermented roots and rhizomes of Gentiana lutea • Family: Gentianaceae • GS: Mountainous regions of Central and south europe, Turkey, Yugoslavia Now: France, Italy, Germany • Use: bitter tonic, GIT problems, antiinflammatory, wound healing, choleretic-stimulating bile production, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, antifungal
  75. 75. Constituents & Structures • • • • • • • Bitter glycoside, alkaloids, yellow coloring agent, sugar, pectin, fixed oil Seco-iridoid: gentiopicroside (gentiopicrin-gentiomarine) Hydrolysis product: gentiogenin + glucose Biphenolic acid ester of gentiopicrosideamarogentinhighest bitter Sweroside, swertiamarine Yellow color is due to Xanthonegentistin or gentiamarine, isogentistin, gentioside, gentisic acid Alkaloid: gentianine, gentialutine
  76. 76. 8. Chirata • Syn: Indian gentian, Indian balmony, chirayta • Source: entire herb of Swertia chirata • Family: Gentianaceae • GS: India, Nepal, Bhutan • Use: ingredient of Mahasudrashan & Sudarashan churna, chronic fever, bitter tonic, stimulant, liver protective, promoting flow of bile, cures constipation and useful in treating dyspepsia
  77. 77. Constituents & Structures Chirata: • chiritin, gentiopicrin and amarogentin • Amarogentin: phenol carboxylic acid ester of sweroside: related to gentiopicrin • Ophelic acid • Gentianine • Gentiocrucine
  78. 78. 9. Andrographis • Syn: Kalmegh, King of bitter, kirayet • Source: leaves and entire aerial part of Andrographis paniculata • Family: Acanthaceae • GS: growing -India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Indonesia Cultivated-China, Thailand, west indies, Mauritius • Use: bitter tonic, febrifuge-reduce fever, anthelmintic, astringent, cholagoggue, cholera, diabetes, weakness, blood purifier, jaundice, GI disturbances, itching
  79. 79. Constituents & Structures • Diterpene lactone: kalmeghin • Andrographolide • Neoandrographolide • 14-deoxy-11,12didehydroandrographolide • 14-deoxy-11-oxoAndrographolide • Andrographiside
  80. 80. 1. Podophylum: Lignan & Polyketide • Syn: May apple, Wild mandrake • Source: dried roots and rhizomes of American: Podophyllum peltatum & India: Podophyllum hexandrum (P.emodi) • Family: Podophyllaceae • GS: America (US-Virginia, Kentucky, North carolina, Tennessee, Indiana, Canada) Indian: Tibet, China, Afghanistan, Himalayas • Collection: The rhizome which is about 1 m in length, is dug up cut into pieces about 10 cm in length and dried.
  81. 81. • Constituents: P. peltatum 2-8% resinous material as podophyllin Lignan dvt: podophyllotoxin, alpha & beta peltatin (Lignan: in form of glycoside) Desmethyl podophyllotoxin, desoxypodophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxone, Flavonoid: quercetin Starch P. hexandrum 6-12% Resin 40% podophyllotoxin
  82. 82. • Chemical Test: Alcoholic ext. + strong copper acetate- brown ppt with Indian podophyllum & green color without ppt with american podophyllum • USES: -Cyto-toxic, venereal disease -Podophyllotoxin is semisynthetically converted to etoposide potent anticancer agent for lung & testicular. -Its GIT irritant, drastic purgative in moderate uses
  83. 83. 3. Ammi majus Syn: Bishop’s weed, Laceflower, Toothpick ammi, Large bullwort • Source: dried fruits of Ammi majus • Family: Umbelliferae • GS: Europe, Egypt, West africa, India • Constituents: furanocoumarins, xanthotoxin, imperatorin, bergapten, isopimpilin • CT: 1) drug+ waterboilstrainfiltrate+ NaOH no rose color----distinct from Ammi visanaga 2) Alc. Ext of fruit blue fluorescence under UV light • USES: furanocoumarin: stimulate pigment production in skin when exposed to bright sunlight and hence- treatment of vitiligo and psoriasis •
  84. 84. • Constituents: furanocoumarins, xanthotoxin, imperatorin, bergapten, isopimpilin
  85. 85. 4. Phyllanthus (Lignan) • Syn: Bhumyamlaki, Stone breaker • Source: dried leaves and stem of Phyllanthis niruri • Family: Euphorbiaceae • GS: trophical zone • Uses: Kidney stones treatment Antibacterial Anti inflamatory Anti hepatotoxic Antiespasmodic Anti viral Hepatotonic Choleretic Inmuno stimulant
  86. 86. • Constituents • • • • • • • • • Lignans: phyllanthin, hypophyllanthine, phyltetralin, lintetralin, niranthin, nirtetralin, nirphylline, nirurin, niruriside. Terpenes: Cymene, limonene, lupeol and lupeol acetate. Flavonoids. Quercetin, Quercitrin, Isoquercitrin, astragalin, rutin, physetinglucoside. Lipids: Ricinoleic acid, dotriancontanoic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid. Benzenoids: Methylsalicilate. Alkaloids: Norsecurinine, 4 - metoxy - Norsecurinine, entnorsecurinina, nirurine, phyllantin, phyllochrysine. Steroids. Beta-sitosterol. Alcanes: Triacontanal, Triacontanol. Others. Vitamin C, tanins, saponins.
  87. 87. 2. ASAFOETIDA • Syn: Hing, Devil’s dung, Asant, Asafoda • Source: Oleogum resin obtained from the incision of rhizome and root of Ferula foetida, F.rubricaulis, F.asafoetida & other species of Ferula • Family: Umbelliferae • GS: Iran,Pakistan, Afghanistan, India (Kashmir)
  88. 88. COLLECTION large schizogenous ducts and lysigenous cavaties containing milky liquid. removal of the stem and the cutting of successive slices in March-April. exposed surface is covered by a dome shaped structure made of twigs and earth. The product is packed in tine lined cases for export. after each slice is removed, oleo-gumresin exudes and when sufficiently hardened, is collected.
  89. 89. CHARACTERS • Forms: 2 Types: Tears & Masses • Color: golden yellowish brown • Odor: strong • Taste: bitter & acrid Specification: • NMT 15% ash • NMT 50% matter which is insoluble in 90% alcohol
  90. 90. CONSTITUENTS Resin Volatile Oil • Asaresinol ferulate • Ferulic acid • C7H14S2 • C16H20S2 • C8H16S2 • C10H18S2 • C7H14S3 • C8H16S3 • Umbelliferyl ester Sulphur containing Gum Flavour: R-2-butyl-1-propenyl disulphide
  91. 91. CT & USE 1. Powder + water  trituration milky white emulsion 2. Combined umbelliferone Test: Powder+ HCl boilfilter filtrate + NH3 blue fluorescence 3. Fractured surface+H2SO4 red color production, which changes to violet on washing with water 4. Fractured surface+HNO3green color USE Carminative, expectorant, flavoring curry, sauce and pickles, nerve stimulant, intestinal flatulence, enema, sedative in hysteria
  92. 92. ALLIED SPP. & ADULTERANTS Allied spp: Galbanum (Ferula galbaniflua and Ammoniacum (Dorema ammoniacum) Adulterant: Red clay, gypsum, chalk, potato slices
  93. 93. 4. PERU BALSAM • Syn: China Oil, Black balsam, Peruvian balsam • Source: Obtained from trunk of the Myroxylum balsamum var. pereirae (trunk is beaten and scorched) • Family: Leguminosae • GS: Central America (San Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala)
  94. 94. COLLECTION & PREPARATION The balsam is collected from trees that are around 10 years old in the month of November or December i.e. by the end of rainy season The trunk is beaten at an area of 30x15 cm using the handle of the axe or a stone or a stick. As peru balsam is a pathological resin, which is present only in the young twigs, a secretion of the balsam takes place after 5 days A rag is placed under the bark so that it can absorb the resin Balsam sinks at the bottom of water, the water is decanted, balsam collected, packed in tins and exported The rags, which are collected, are put into strong rope bags, which are twisted at the ends and pressed, so that balsam falls into boiling water The resin flow for about 5-6 weeks and the fresh area on the bark are beaten and scorched. Once the bark is exhausted the bark is removed and the young wood is also treated in similar manner
  95. 95. CHARACTERS • Color: dark brown • Odor: aromatic vanilla like • soluble in chloroform, chloral hydrate, in equal proportion with 90% alcohol • sparingly soluble in petroleum ether, glacial acetic acid and insoluble in water • Specific gravity: 1.14 to 1.17 • NLT 45% and NMT 70% of esters.
  96. 96. CONSTITUENTS & USES • benzyl cinnamate (cinnamein) C6H5CH=CHCOOCH2C6H5, • benzyl benzoate and cinnamyl cinnamate (styracin). • 28% of resin: peruresinotannol combined with cinnamic acid, benzoic acids, alcohols (nerolidol, farnesol and benzyl alcohol) and small quantities of vanillin and free cinnamic acid. • antiseptic dressing for wounds • parasiticide for scabies • internally to treat catarrh and diarrhea.
  97. 97. 5. TOLU BALSAM • Syn: Tolu resin, Thomas balsam, Opobalsam • Source: Obtained by incision from the trunk of Myroxylon balsamum var. balsamum • Family: Leguminosae • GS: West indies, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia • Collection: • V-shaped incisions in the bark • Many such receivers are fixed on each tree, the yield per tree being 8-10kg. • Periodically, the balsam is transferred to large containers.
  98. 98. CHARACTERS & CT • Color: yellow on standing brown • Odor & Taste: aromatic Test 1. Alcoholic solution is acidic to Litmus 2. Powder + FeCl3  green (resinotannol) 3. Powder + Water  decoction  oxidation  KMnO4  odor of benzaldehyde (due to oxidation of cinnamic acid)
  99. 99. CONSTITUENTS & USES • • • • • • • • • 80% of resin alcohols combined with cinnamic and benzoic acids. 12-15% of free cinnamic and 8% of free benzoic acid. Benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamte & vanillin Styrene,eugenol, vanillin, ferulic acid, 1,2-diphenylethane, mono and sesqui-terpene hydrocarbon and alcohols. triterpenoids 35-50% of total balsamic acid USE Genuine tolu balsam is difficult to obtain now uses tolu flavor solution containing 5 aromatics for preparation of tolu syrup. antiseptic, common ingredient of cough mixture
  100. 100. 6. SUMATRA (INDONESIA) BENZOIN • Syn: Gum benjamin • Source: balsamic resin obtained from the incised stem of Styrax benzoin, Styrax parallloneurus • Family: Styracaceae • GS: Sumatra (western Indonesia), Java, Borneo
  101. 101. COLLECTION Cultivation in rice plants-Tapping-Grading Seeds are sown in rice fields, rice shading the young trees during 1st year. After harvesting of rice the tress are allowed to grow until they are about 7 years old Stamping in to Tins & commercial drug arrives in plaited container with plastic wrapping Blending done by: breaking up the drug; mixing different proportion of 3 qualities, softening in sun Triangular wounds are made in a vertical row about 40 cm apart, bark between wounds being scraped smoothly Grading done mixing 3 quality: best contains most almonds and worst contains a few almonds but abundant resin mixture 1st secretion is very sticky and is rejected.. After making further cuts, each about 4 cm above the preceding ones, harder Secretion is obtained About 2 weeks later the strip is scrapped again, giving a lower quality darker in color and containing fragments of bark Further incision, after 3 months and secretion becomes amorphous instead of crystalline About 6 weeks of fresh tapping, the product is scrapped off, outer layer (finest quality) being kept separate from the next layer (intermediate quality
  102. 102. CHARACTERISTICS • • • • Occur as: brittle mass Color: whitish-reddish tears Odor: agreeable & balsamic Taste: slightly acrid
  103. 103. CONSTITUENTS • Free balsamic acid (20% cinnamic + 10% benzoic acid) • Triterpenoids: siaresinolic acid, sumaresinolic acid High grade of S.paralleloneurum 3% benzoic acid 0.5% vanillin 20-30% cinnamic acid Siaresinolic acid Sumaresinoliac acid
  104. 104. ALLIED DRUGS & USES • Internally: expectorant, antisepctic • Ingredient: Friar’s balsam Palembang, inferior quality benzoin: lighter in weight & • Externally: cosmetic lotion, food, drink, breaking with an irregular perfumary & toilet porous fracture & as a source of natural benzoic industries acid • Component: Incense
  105. 105. 6.1 SIAM (Thailand) BENZOIN • Source: obtained by incision of the trunk of Styrax tonkinesis • Family: Styracaceae • GS: Thai province of Luang prabang, Northen Laos, Northen Vietnam at altitude of 600-2500 m • It seems that this height is necessary for resin production; not all trees are productive
  106. 106. METHOD OF PREPARATION • Similar to Sumatra benzoin • Resin, being produced at the interface of the bark and wood layers only after injury. • Grading of tears: size, color, largest, palest • Size: few mm to 3cm • Color: yellowish white to reddish changes to brown due to oxidation • Odor: agreeable & vanilla like
  107. 107. CONSTITUENTS • Coniferyl benzoate, coniferyl cinnamate, coniferyl alcohol • 10% benzoic acid, Triterpenoid acid, esters, Vanillin
  108. 108. CHEMICAL TEST • Siam benzoin is expensive & liable to adulteration with the sumatra benzoin, which can be detected by BP/EP/TLC 1. Powdered benzoin + KMnO4  warm faint odor of benzaldehyde (with sumatra benzoin due to oxidation of cinnamic acid) (NOT OBSERVED WITH SIAM) 2. Alc Ext + Alcoholic FeCl3 green color produced (with SIAM benzoin due to coniferyl benzoate-tannins) (NOT WITH SUMATRA) 3. When Sumatra benzoin is gradually heated evolves fumes of benzoic and cinnamic acid  readily condensed on cool surface as a crystal sublimate 4. Petroleum ether solution of benzoin + 2-3 drops of H2SO4 in a china dish  reddish brown color with SUMATRA BENZOIN and purple-red color with SIAM BENZOIN
  109. 109. 9. SHELLAC resemble cochineal insect in structure and life history • Source: resinous substance prepared from a secretion that encrusts the bodies of a scale insect Karria Lacca (Lucifer lacca), order Hemiptera • GS: India, Thailand, China (5% of world’s production) • India: Leguminosae (Acacia spp., Butea frondosa), Euphorbiaceae (Aleuritis laccifera), Moraceae (Ficus spp.), Dipterocarpaceae (Cajanus indivus, Shorea talura), Rhamnaceae (Ziziphus jujuba) • China: species of Ficus and Dalbergia (Leguminosae)
  110. 110. Preparation Lac is found on smaller branches & twigs Broken off and constitute stick lac Scraped from twigs by means of curved knives Usually ground in India & coloring matter is extracted with water or dilute soda solution. • Solution evaporates to dryness constitute lac dye and exhausted lac when dried seed lac • • • •
  111. 111. Types of Shellac
  112. 112. Characters, Constituents & Uses • Orange shellac: brownish yellow flake • Garnet shellac: reddish brown • 6% wax, 6.5% red water soluble coloring matter,laccaic acid, 70-85% resin, few insect remains, vegetable debris • Resin: Hard & Soft (hydroxy fatty acid + sesqui terpene) • Hard Resin: aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid) • Soft resin: cedrene type sesquiterpene acid, water insoluble yellow pigment –erythrolaccin (tetrahydroxy-4-methylanthraquinone • Pharmaceutical aid, In varnishes, polish, sealing wax
  113. 113. Marine Cyto-toxic • any drug that has a toxic effect on cells; commonly used in chemotherapy to inhibit the proliferation of cancerous cells • Categorized as – Cembranes – Macrolide – Depipeptides – Miscellaneous
  114. 114. Cembranes • 14 membered cyclic diterpened • Source: soft coral • Exocyclic lactone integral part
  115. 115. Cembranes • Lactone ring – 1) Sinularine – 2) Crassin acetate – 3) Cytabarine = Ara-C – 4) Fludarabine – 5) Aplysistatin • Non-Lactone ring • 1) Asperidol • 2) Geranyl hydroquinone
  116. 116. Sinularine • • • • • • • Source: Sinularia flexibilis Constituents: Epoxide ring Simularin Dihyrdosimularin Simulariolide Application: Anti-cancer
  117. 117. Crassin acetate • Source: soft coral, Caribbean gorgonian Pseudoplexaura porosa • Use: observed to be comparatively inert to the mammalian systems but on the contrary found to be extremely cytotoxic to human leukemic as well Hella cells in vitro & mouse fibroblast.
  118. 118. Cytarabine = Ara-C • Source: Cryptotethya crypta • Market preparation: Cytosar by Upjohn pharma • 1-alpha-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine or cytosine arabinoside • Obtained from Caribbean sponges viz. Spongosine & Spongouridine • Synthesized from acetylation of uracil arabinoside followed by treatment with phosphorus pentasulphide and subsequent heating with ammonia • Application: acute myelogenous leukemia and human acute leukemia for therapeutic purpose • Active against Erlich carcinoma, sarcoma-180 and L-1210 leukemia in mice
  119. 119. 4) Fludarabine: Ara-A 5) Aplysistatin: Aplysistatin angasi
  120. 120. Non-lactone • Gorgonian coral 1) Geranyl hydroquinone: Chloroform extract of Aplydium spp. • Cytotoxic to leukemia and mammary carcinoma & as radioprotective agent 2) Asperidol
  121. 121. Bryostatin • Source: Bugula neritina • They are currently under investigation as anticancer agents and as a memory enhancing agent. • Synthesis: • The low concentration in bryozoans (to extract one gram of bryostatin, roughly one tonne of the raw bryozoans is needed.