Environmental pollution control


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  • SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS: 1)Land reclamation/land filling 2)Deep well injection 3)Incinerators
  • Sound barrier for hammer mill
  • SONEX ACOUSTICS lining a pump room
  • sludge
  • Mixing:   Motor and Variable Frequency Drive both control mixing speed of the secondary effluent Flocculation:  A  motor is used to generate slow mixing during flocculation process. The use of a Variable Frequency Drive along with the motor allows for the operators to control the speed at which the mixing occurs Thickening:   Programmable Automation Controller records temperature, pH, level of water, and retention time in thickening tank Lime Recalcination:  PAC controls the temperature, pressure, and pH inside of the lime recalcination tank Make-up Lime:  PAC controls pumps and valves for the desired addition of make-up lime Recarbonation/CO 2 :  PAC controls the valves for optimal addition of Carbon Dioxide during recarbonation Multimedia Filtration:   PAC controls pumps and valves as water is sent in one direction through the filter Carbon Adsorption:  PAC controls the pumps and valves as water is sent through tank for optimum carbon adsorption level Chlorine Solution:  PAC controls the valves to incorporate proper amount of chlorine to water for disinfection
  • Note:EPA acceptable limits is 0 colonies per plate.
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  • Environmental pollution control

    1. 1. PRESENTED BYPRIYANKA ODELAM PHARMDepartment of pharmaceutics.
    2. 2. • POLLUTION: introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms or “that damages the environment which can come in the form of chemical substances or energy such as noise,heat or light.”• ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:• “The contamination of physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected.”09/12/12 2
    3. 3. TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION• 1) Air pollution• 2) Water pollution• 3) Noise pollution• 4) Thermal pollution• 5) Soil / land pollution• 6) Radioactive pollution09/12/12 3
    4. 4. AIR POLLUTION•  • Air Pollution is an atmospheric condition in which certain substances like gases , particulate matter , radioactive substances etc are present in concentrations which can cause undesirable effects on human environment.• SOURCES: dust of drugs produced during milling and seiving. Classification of Air Pollutants• Primary Pollutants: CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, volatile organic compounds(hydrocarbons), and suspended, particulate matter.• Secondary Pollutants: sulfuric acid, nitric acid, carbonic acid.09/12/12 4
    5. 5. NATURE OF AIR POLLUTION• The pollutants present in the air should be identified and categorised so that appropriate measures can be adopted to combat pollution.• Solid matter: light,fine and coarse particles,hydrocarbons,aromatics.• Liquid substances: smoke, soot, fly-ash, dust, mist, fumes, organic acids, inorganic acids• Gases: sulfur dioxide,nitrogen oxide, carbon09/12/12 5 dioxide.
    6. 6. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION1) Health problems: optic irritation(PAN), bronchitis, lung carcinoma, change in blood chemistry,skin cancer, etc in human beings.2) Livestock damage: injury n death due to arsenic metals and fluorides.3) Agriculture damage: leaf damage, stunting of growth, decreased size and less yield of fruit and destruction of flowers4) Material damage: damage of structural metals, surface coatings, fabrics,weathering of stone in buildings and monuments5) Effect on climate: increase in carbondioxide enhances the temperature of the earth melting polar ice caps and 09/12/12 6 glaciers.
    7. 7. 09/12/12 7
    8. 8. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL• Air pollution can be controlled by two fundamental ways.1) Preventive technique: It includes use of devices for removal of pollutants from exhaust gases e.g. Scrubbers, dry and wet collectors, filters, electrostatic precipitators etc. Building of higher stake facility for discharging of pollution into air. 2) Effluents control: Substitution of raw-materials causing more pollution with that of less pollution causing materials. Use of non-conventional fuels like; Gobar gas, Biogas, 809/12/12
    9. 9. AIR POLLUTION CONTROLTYPE OF  NATURE OF DEVICE  EXAMPLES OF POLLUTANT /MECHANISM DEVICESParticulate Low-energy Settling chambers,matter(coarse or fine) units(gravitational effect, cyclone separators and centrifugal action) spray chambersIntermediate sized Low energy units Impingementparticles separators and wet scrubbersSub-micron particles High energy units Bag filters,electrostatic precipitators and venturi scrubbersGaseous pollutants Absorption,adsorption, Filters,adsorbers and condensation,incineration absorbers09/12/12 9
    10. 10. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES Dust collectors: it consists of a blower, dust filter, filter cleaning system & dust removal system. Different types of dust collectors : 1. Mechanical collectors -Gravity settling chamber, cyclone separator 2. Electrostatic precipitators 3. Filters- HEPA Filters, unwoven fabric air filters. 4. scrubbers – wet scrubbers, dry scrubbers, venturi scrubbers 5. Absorbers- special type of wet scrubbers. 6. Adsorbers- activated carbon, activated alumina, silica09/12/12gel 10
    11. 11. MECHANICAL SEPARATORS Gravity settling chamber cyclone separator09/12/12 11
    12. 12. Electrostatic precipitators Wet scrubbers 09/12/12 12
    13. 13. HEPA FILTERS Non-woven fabric air filter09/12/12 13
    14. 14. Adsorbers Absorbers09/12/12 14
    15. 15. LAND POLLUTION/SOLID WASTE Solid waste refers to all solid discardant materials that are improperly discarded like used chemical containers, packages etc. Industrialization are major causes of land pollution. Adverse effects of land pollution: 1)have impact on human health. 2)affect agriculture.09/12/12 15
    17. 17. SOLID WASTE HANDLING METHODSThe physical nature of the solid waste mainly determines it’s handling methods.Using these methods solid wastes are transported to the desired destination. NATURE  OF  MATERIAL HANDLING  METHODS Solids Front end loaders, buckets, fibre-pack drums, packages, cartons Semisolids, wet, sticky materials Front-end loaders, buckets Viscous liquids Special pumps liquids General purpose pumps09/12/12 17
    18. 18. buckets INCINERATOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS: 1)Land reclamation/land filling 2)Deep well injection09/12/12 3)Incinerators 18
    20. 20. NOISE POLLUTIONNOISE: It may be defined as unwanted sound in the wrong place at the wrong time. SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION: Various equipment used in pharmaceutical manufacturing unit.(ex: ball mill, seiving machines, roller compactors, tablet punching machines etc)Effects of Noise:1) Interfere with man’s health :Rise in BP, CVS problem, elevated stress levels, stimulate violent behaviour.2) Hearing damage : Depends on intensity and duration of sound level.3) Physiological and psychological changes : Affects the 2009/12/12 functioning of various systems of the body.
    21. 21. standards recommended by Central Pollution Control Board committeeAREA  CODE CATEGORY OF  NOISE LEVEL  IN DECIBLE  AREA DAY NIGHT A Industrial 75 70 B Commercial 65 55 C Residential 55 45 D Silence zone 50 40 09/12/12 21
    22. 22. SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION AND CONTROL MEASURESEQUIPMENT SOUND  POSSIBLE NOISE CONTROL MEASURES LEVEL IN  dBA at 3 feetAir coolers 87-94 Aerodynamic fan blades,decrease in rpm,decrease pressure dropCoolers 90-120 Install mufflers on intake and exhaust,enclose machine with casing,vibration isolationElectric motors 90-110 Acoustically lined fan covers,enclosures and motor mutesHeaters and furnaces 95-110 Acoustic plenums, intake mufflers, lined and damped ductsValves <80-108 Avoid sonic velocities,limit pressure drop and mass flow, replace with low noise valvesPipes 9-105 Inline silencers, vibration isolation and lagging09/12/12 22
    23. 23. Melamine foam or fibre glass core Sound barrier for hammer mill09/12/12 23
    24. 24. SONEX ACOUSTICS lining a Equiptment enclosures pump room09/12/12 24
    25. 25. THERMAL POLLUTION• Defined as presence of waste heat in the water which can cause undesirable changes in the natural environment.• Sources of thermal pollution :• Certain process like evaporation, convection, radiation , and use of equipment such as dryers, evaporators etc may sometimes lead to thermal pollution.• Effects of thermal pollution :• Thermal pollution inturn decreases the oxygen content in the atmosphere and whereby leads to ill effects of human beings09/12/12 25
    26. 26. CONTROL OF THERMAL POLLUTION• Cooling ponds: Water from condensers is stored in ponds where natural evaporation cools the water which can then be discharged in nearby water vapour.• Spray ponds: Here the water is sprayed through nozzles where fine droplets are formed.• Cooling towers:• A) Wet cooling tower: Cool air entering from sides takes away the heat and cools the water. Large amount of water is lost through evaporation.• B) Dry cooling tower: There is no water loss in this method but installation and operation cost of dry cooling tower is many times higher than wet cooling tower09/12/12 26
    27. 27. COOLING TOWERS09/12/12 27
    28. 28. RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION• Sources of radioactivity:i. Natural: Cosmic rays from outer space, radioactive radon-222.ii. Anthropogenic: Nuclear power plants, nuclear accidents, X-rays, diagnostic kits, test laboratories etc.,• Effects of Radiationsi. Genetic damage is caused by radiations, which affects genes and chromosomes.ii. Somatic damage includes burns, miscarriages, eye cataract and cancer of bone, thyroid, breast, lungs and skin• Control of Nuclear Pollution• Siting of nuclear power plants should be carefully done.• Proper disposal of wastes from laboratory should be done• Uranium and Thorium mining and refineries must be carefully maintained.• In-door pollution should be minimized.09/12/12 28
    29. 29. WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is defined as something that adversely impairs the beneficial use of water.Classification of water pollutants:1. Chemical pollutants: a)Organic pollutants: detergents, fats & grease, insecticides & herbicides which contents huge range of organohalides & other chemicals, petroleum hydrocarbons, lubricants (motor oil), volatile organic compounds B)Inorganic pollutants: soluble salts change the PH of the water, acidity(SO2), fertilizers containing nutrients (nitrates & phosphates), heavy metals & toxic chemicals.09/12/12 29
    30. 30.  Physical pollutants: Colour: undesirable in drinking water Turbidity: due to colloidal or finely divided suspended water which is caused by the formation of hydrous oxides of ferrous & Mn Temperature: Foam: Biological pollutants: Micro organisms Radioactive pollutants: presence of radioactive materialsMeasurement of water pollution & tests• In order to measure the quality of water the following general tests are done Physical testing: Colour, Turbidity, odor (volatile materials, dissolved gases, phenolic compounds), temperature. Chemical testing: water samples may be examined in the principles of analytical chemistry it includes ph, BOD ,COD, nutrients (nitrates & phosphorus), metals, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb & Hg. Biological testing: it involves the use of plant, animal or microbial09/12/12 30 indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic eco system.
    31. 31. Water Pollution Abatement And Effluent Treatment• The handling of a liquid water effluent is more complex than handling a waste gas effluent• The water effluent may contain dissolved gases /solids or it may slurry in either concentrated or diluted form. because of this complexity ,priority is given for recovering a part or all of the waste products, which may be reused• The treatment of the wastewater is may be physical, chemical or biological in nature• Physical treatment: sedimentation, gravity settling, adsorption process is employed using activated carbon for the removal of refractive organic substances, toxic substances & colour• Chemical treatment: coagulation, flocculation, emulsion breaking, precipitation & neutralization.• Biological treatment: bacteria are found in water, many organic materials will be oxidized to form CO2, H2O, sulphate. This treatment consumes oxygen that dissolved in water, cause depletion of oxygen09/12/12 31
    32. 32. WASTE WATER TREATMENT:09/12/12 32
    34. 34. Pre treatment:- Equalization- Neutralization- Grease and oil removal- Removal of toxic substances- Purpose: to remove all large objects that are deposited in the sewage system. This type of waste is removed because it can damage the sensitive equipment in the sewage treatment plant.Primary treatment:- Screens- Grid chamber- Gravity sedimentation tank- Chemical reactionPurpose: reduces the load facilitating subsequent biological treatment.influent Rapid mix flocculation sedimentation effluent09/12/12 sludge 34
    35. 35. PRIMARY TREATMENT09/12/12 35
    36. 36. • Secondary treatment:• Purpose: Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage.• Methods: activated sludge process, trickling filtration,oxidation ditch, oxidation ponds, biodiscs and spray irrigation.• The effluent is subsequently subjected to anaerobic digestion.• ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS: 09/12/12 36
    38. 38. Tertiary treatment:- Coagulation, flocculation, co precipitation- Membrane separation process- Adsorption- Ion exchange- Breaking- Neutralization- Purpose:- Final step of polishing the effluents when the effluent obtained from secondary treatment is not satisfactory. Secondary coagulation coprecipitation effluent09/12/12 Filtration 38
    39. 39. 09/12/12 39
    40. 40. EFFLUENT TESTING AND TREATMENT• EFFLUENT:• Effluent is an out flowing of water or gas from a natural body of water or from a human made structure.• Effluent is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA, 2006) as “wastewater ± treated or untreated water that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall”• EFFLUENT TESTING DONE ACCORDING TO :• American People Health and Association (APHA, 1989), ASTM (Standard Method for the Examination of Water09/12/12 Wastewater, 20thEdition) and Laboratory Manual for and 40 Environmental Science
    41. 41. Effluent testing methods1) Temperature 1) Biological Oxygen Demand 1) Total bacterial2) Turbidity (BOD) count.3) Conductivity 2) Chemical Oxygen Demand 2) coliform test.4) pH (COD) 3)e.coli test5) Dissolve Oxygen (DO) 3) Ammonical Nitrogen6) Suspended Solids (NH3-N)(SS) Note:EPA acceptable limits is 0 colonies per 09/12/12 plate. 41
    42. 42. Effluent treatment for formulation industry• Segreation of waste streams neutralisationEmulsions and colloidal wastes can be removed using coagulants(FeCl3,FeSO4,lime)Dissolved salts precipitatedVolatile materials removed by aerationOrganic chemicals removed by biological oxidation09/12/12 42
    43. 43. Parameter Tolerance limitph 5.5-9Oil and grease 10Total suspended solid 100BOD 30Mercury 0.01Arsenic 0.2Chromium 0.1Lead 0.1Cyanide 0.1Sulphides 2Phosphates 5Bioassay test 90%survival of fish after 96 hrs in 100% effluent09/12/12 43
    44. 44. • Treatment ofTREATMENT FOR SYNTHETIC PLANT EFFLUENT waste from large synthetic drug plant Lime for neutralization Solids to fill land Sand drying bedAcidic wasteWaste water Liquid to bacterial tank Filtration tank to sewage neutralization Water free from sediment Primary air film Oxidation pond primary clarification film Secondary clarification digestion 44 09/12/12
    45. 45. Parameter Inland Public Land for Marine surface water sewage irrigation coastal areasPh 5.5-9 5.5-9 5.5-9 5.5-9Suspended 100 600 200 100solidsDissolved 2100 - 2100 -solidsBOD 30 350 100 100COD 250 - - 250Oils and 10 20 10 20greaseAmmonical 50 50 - 50nitrogencyanide 0.2 2 0.2 0.2Arsenic 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 45
    46. 46. Effluent treatment in fermentation plant: Antibiotics, vitamins, acids and alcohols are produced byfermentation process . The effluent has objectionable odorand effects the biological system. A few types of effluents from fermentation are :-liquor of fermentation, mostly nutrient broth.-Washed water of the floor and equipment-Acids, bases and solvents used for extraction andpurification-Filaments or mycelium or organisms. 46
    47. 47. Effluent treatment in antibiotic Effluent treatment in antibiotic plant plant: Combined factory effluent NEUTRALISATION TREATED EFFLUENT FILTRATION r CLARIFICATION SAND DRY BED DIGESTION PUMP ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS09/12/12 47
    48. 48. BibliographyPharmaceutical production and management by C. V. S. Subrahmanyam, 1st Edition 2005.Introduction to environmental science by Y. Anjaneyulu.http://en.Wikipedia. Org/ wiki/pollution # forms –of-pollution.http://www.doyouknow.in/Articles/Engineering/http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/toprak/ani4061.htm09/12/12 48
    49. 49. 09/12/12 49