Worsening of Female to Male Ratio in India<br /> PRESENTED BY:<br /> PRADEEP SAINI<br /> PRANJALI AGRAWAL<br /> PRATEEK JAIN<br /> PREETI SINGH<br /> PRIYANKA MITTAL<br />
What is sex ratio?<br />Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. <br />Sex Ratio is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females at a given point of time.<br />Sex Ratio can be <br /><ul><li>Primary - ratio at the time of conception
Secondary - ratio is the ratio at time of birth
Tertiary - ratio of mature organisms</li></li></ul><li>Sex ratio in india<br />India is said to be another Asian economic superpower after China. Economic growth, better technologies and mushrooming businesses have changed India’s status from ‘developing’ to ‘fast developing’ nation. However, the world’s second largest populous country’s achievements have failed to impress social scientists, anthropologists and demographers because of its record of continued recession in sex ratio.<br />The sex ratio in India, as per 2001 Census, is 1000:927 while in some states like Gujarat the ratio stands at 1000:878, Himachal Pradesh 1000:820 and Chhatisgarh 1000:845, according to the National Commission of Women (NCW).<br />In 1991, the national figure was 947 girls to 1000 boys.<br />
Contd…<br />Even as the latest UNDP Report ranks India 119 in the Human Development Index, in the Gender Inequality Index, India ranks 122 at 0.748.<br />A survey conducted by the United Nations in 2007 revealed that over 2,000 unborn girls are aborted every day in India<br />While we boast that we have a female President in PratibhaPatil and a female leader of the ruling coalition in the Parliament in Sonia Gandhi - while we celebrate the staggering achievements of KalpanaChawla, Sunita Williams, IndraNooyi, Kiran M. Shaw and SaniaMirza - we all fail to undo the hypocrisy of sex selection in India.<br />
Amazed???<br />According to the most recent estimates, China and India account for nearly 80 per cent of all ‘missing women’ in the world.”<br />
Some important reasons for worsening female to male ratio<br />Female infanticide / Foeticide<br /><ul><li>Son preference - Sons, on the other hand, can inherit property, continue the family line, and play a vital role in important Hindu rituals. when investing on sons, say on education or business, the wealth remains within the family itself.
Practice of dowry - Indian wedding customs mean that girls are often seen as a huge cost with very little returns, partly because the practice of demanding dowries remains the norm, despite being illegal.
The unabated practice of the selective abortion of girls in the womb needs to be stopped in a bid to evade insecurity and shortage of girls in the long run. On April 19,2007 authorities in Gujarat found over a dozen human foetuses in a rubbish bin in Ahmedabad. They suspect that local abortion clinics might have dumped the foetuses after conducting illegal sex determination tests.</li></li></ul><li>Contd…<br />Ancient Traditions<br />There are many rituals in our society which are to be performed by the son of the family. Our society makes it very necessary to have at least one son. Men regarded as a protector in our society so this feeling tends the families to go for sex selective abortion.<br />A girl child is discriminated against in many ways - ranging from abandonment of girl children, fewer months of breast feeding, less of nurturing and play, lesser medical treatment if falls ill etc. all working against the very existence of girl child. Today, with the Technological Advancement in medical diagnosis this discrimination begins even before her birth. Various medical technologies have been put into practice to identify the sex of the child before the birth and selective abortion, if found female.<br />
Contd…<br />A study was conducted by SreevidyaSubramoney & Prakash C. Gupta, Mumbai. The available data demonstrate ultrasound misuse as a major culprit. The data revealed lower sex ratios among women accessing private hospitals compared to those accessing government hospitals (780 vs 872).<br />
Impacts of the decreasing ratio<br />Societal effects<br /> It is estimated that by 2020 there could be more than 25 million young 'surplus males' in India. , the loss of the 'natural balance' will result in a skewed society which will be warped from within to the extent of being unable to concentrate on other important issues of national interest. The Hindi movie Matrubhoomi (2005) tried to portray this.<br /><ul><li>Ethical Concerns</li></ul> It leads to increase in the acts of sexual violence , discrimination, and abuse of the smaller group.<br />
Contd…<br />There may be psychological implications for both the parents and child if the procedure does not produce a child of the desired sex. Furthermore, problems may also arise if the gender-related expectations of the parents are not subsequently fulfilled by the child. However, it may be the case that any child will fail to fulfill particular parental expectations. <br />
Steps taken by government<br />The Indian government banned sex-determination tests at national level in 1994 with the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act. The new legislation authorised only government- registered clinics and laboratories to utilise prenatal diagnostic procedures that could be used to find out the sex of the foetus. The Act further rejected the use of prenatal diagnostic procedures unless there is a heightened possibility that the foetus suffers from a harmful condition or genetic disease. However, the law has by far proved ineffectual. <br />The law’s ineffectiveness is also proved by the reports that claim Indian women in the UK come to India to abort their female foetus to have more boys.<br />Government schemes like “Laadli” support single girl child <br />
Solution to the problem<br />The problem has to be tackled through women’s education and empowerment including the right to property and land rights.<br />Women should also be socialized from early childhood to consider themselves equal to men. They should be encouraged to assume all those responsibilities, which are normally considered to belong to the male domain. This would have a positive influence on future generations, as today’s girls would be tomorrow’s mothers, as well as, mothers-in-law.<br />
Contd…<br />Central/state governments should popularize schemes in operation in the states through economic benefits that could accrue to those families having a girl child, similar to the Shagan scheme launched by the Government of Punjab, Apni beti apna dhan, Balika samriddhi yojana.<br />Multimedia campaigns at the National and state levels should be launched against female foeticide to create awareness to curb the problem and synergize government initiatives to promote women-oriented programmes<br />
CONCLUSION<br />In a Nation where women are considered the symbol of strength and purity and are worshipped , we should be reminded of our values and the fact that in order to be a developed nation we have to develop the woman power equally. <br />