A mortar is a muzzle-loading indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories. It typically has a barrel length less than 15 times its caliber .
Mortars have existed for hundreds of years, first seeing use in siege warfare. However, the early incarnations of these weapons such as the Pumhart von Steyr were large and heavy, and could not be easily transported. Simply made, these weapons were no more than iron bowls reminiscent of the kitchen and apothecary mortars from where they drew their name.
An early transportable mortar was invented by Baron Menno van Coehoorn (Siege of Grave, 1673  ). Coehorn-type mortars of approximately 180 pounds (82 kg) weight were used by both sides during the American Civil War .
DEFINITION:A grenade launcher is a weapon that launches a grenade to greater distances, more accurately, and faster than a soldier could throw by hand. Man-portable grenade launchers can either come in the form of a standalone weapon (either single-shot or repeating weapons), or mounted under the barrel of a rifle . Alternatively, many rifles have been designed to fire rifle grenades from their muzzle.
capable of being set to explode at a certain distance from launch or at a certain height above the ground. This gives the ability to hit targets inside of rooms or behind hard cover that would normally not be reachable by small arms fire.
The RPG has its roots in the 19th century, with the early development of the explosive shaped charge . The development of practical rocketry provided a means of delivering such an explosive. Research, occasioned by World War II, produced such weapons as the famous American bazooka , and German Panzerfaust , which combined portability with effectiveness against armoured vehicles such as tanks.
The Soviet Union -developed RPG-7 is the most widely distributed and used RPG in the world.
Smoke grenades are canister-type grenades used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or a screening devices for unit movements. Smoke grenades are normally considered non lethal , although incorrect use may cause injury or fatality .
Smoke grenades should not be confused with smoke bombs , which are typically started with an external fuse rather than a pin. Smoke grenades often cost much more at around $40 USD compared to smoke bombs, which can often cost just a few cents. Smoke grenades generally emit a far larger amount of smoke than smoke bombs that are sold as fireworks .
Smoke grenades are sometimes used in paintball or airsoft events, though these are not necessarily of military grade. Some devices utilised for the purpose of generating concealing smoke are high-volume smoke candles .
A recoilless gun or recoilless rifle (RCLR) is a lightweight weapon that fires a heavier projectile than would be practical to fire from a recoiling weapon of comparable size. Technically, only devices that use a rifled barrel are recoilless rifles [ citation needed ]. Smoothbore variants are recoilless guns . This distinction is often lost, and both are often called recoilless rifles.
The first recoilless gun was developed by Commander Cleland Davis of the US Navy , just prior to the First World War . His design connected two guns back to back, with the backwards-facing gun loaded with lead balls and grease of the same weight as the shell in the other gun. His idea was used experimentally by the British as an anti- Zeppelin and anti- submarine weapon mounted on an Handley Page O/100 bomber and intended to be installed on other aircraft.