Breweries

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all there is to know about breweries and brewing - food technology

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Breweries

  1. 1. BREWERIES
  2. 2. • Place dedicated to make beer • Diversity of breweries is based on -diversity of processes - degrees of automation -kinds of beer produced • Oldest brewery – Weinhnstephan brewery in Bavaria, Germany.
  3. 3. INDUSTRIALIZATION OF BREWERY • Can be traced back to almost 5,000 years to Mesopotamian writings • Production of beer took place at home- “women’s work”. • Monasteries and other Christian institutions used beer as payment. • Early breweries were built on multiple stories • Used large copper vats • Fermentation and packaging in lined wooden containers.
  4. 4. MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES • The steam engine by James Watt brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. • Carl Von Linde is credited with developing the refrigeration machine . • The discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in controlling the fermentation process.
  5. 5. MODERN BREWERY • Vessels- stainless steel • Heating – pressurized steam, direct- fire systems • Cooling- jackets • Samples are pulled out at every step of the process.
  6. 6. BEER • World’s most widely consumed alcoholic beverage • Third most popular drink overall after water and tea • The “code of Hammurabi” included laws regulating beer and beer products • “the Hymn to Ninkasi” – a prayer to the Mesopotamian Goddess of beer • Today brewing is a global business that includes several multinational companies • Strength of beer is usually around 4 to 6% although it may vary from 0.5 % to 40 %
  7. 7. BREWING • Process of making beer • Starch source wort beer • effected by yeast
  8. 8. INGREDIENTS • Water • Starch source, such as malted barley • Brewer’s yeast • Hops ( for flavoring) MATLED BARLEY BEFORE ROASTING
  9. 9. Less commonly used starch sources include • Millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa • Potato in Brazil • Agave in Mexico
  10. 10. WATER • Beer is composed mostly of water • Different mineral compositions of water- different types of beer • Dublin has hard water, well suited to make stout like Guinness • Waters of Burton in England contain Gypsum which benefits making pale ale.
  11. 11. STARCH SOURCE • Fermentable material • Key source in determining the strength and flavor of beer • Malted grain – most common source GRAIN IS SOAKED IN WATER DRYING PARTIALLY GERMINATED GRAIN IN A KILN
  12. 12. • Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starch into fermentable sugars • Different roasting time and temperature are used to create different colors of malt from the same grain • Darker malts produce darker beers.
  13. 13. HOPS • Flavoring beer • Flowers from hop vine are used as flavoring and preservative agent • Flowers are called hops HOP CONE
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICS OF HOPS • Contributes bitterness to the beer, that balances the sweetness of malt • Contribute floral, citrus and herbal aromas and flavor to the beer • Have an antibiotic effect- useful in fermentation process • Aids in “head” retention • The acidity of hops is a preservative.
  15. 15. YEAST • Brewer’s yeast- Saccharomyces cerevisea(top fermentor) Saccharomyces uvarum( bottom fermentor) • Responsible for fermentation in beer • Metabolize the sugars extracted from grains into alcohol and CO₂. • also influence character and flavor of beer
  16. 16. BREWING PROCESS 9 steps: • Malting • Milling • Mashing • Lautering • Boiling • Fermenting • Conditioning • Filtering • Filling ROYAL BREWERY IN MANCHESTER, UK
  17. 17. MASHING • Combining malted barley and water and heating in a “mash tun” • Allows enzymes in the malt to convert complex sugars into maltose • Usually takes 1 to 2 hours • The end product of mashing is called “wort”.
  18. 18. • Mashing involves pauses at certain temperatures -45˚C –activates various proteases -62˚C –activates β- glucanase -73˚C-used to convert starches in the malt to sugar.
  19. 19. LAUTERING • Separation of wort from the grains • Carried out in a lauter tun • Tank with holes at the bottom small enough to hold back the large bits of hulls. • Two stages: 1. wort run off 2. sparging
  20. 20. BOILING • Beer wort is boiled with hops in “copper” or brew kettles • Chemical reactions -releasing of hop flavors -sterilization of wort -precipitation of proteins -stopping enzymatic reactions -concentration of wort BREW KETTLES
  21. 21. WHIRLPOOLING • Tea-leaf paradox forces denser solids ( coagulated proteins, vegetable matter from hops) into a cone in the centre of the tank. • There is a separate tank for whirl pooling
  22. 22. WORT COOLING • After whirl pooling, the wort is brought down to fermentation temperature before yeast is added • 20 to 26˚C • Plate heat exchanger
  23. 23. FERMENTATION • Chemical conversion of sugars into alcohol • Wort is cooled and aerated with sterile air • Yeast is added to it and fermentation begins. • Cyclo-cylindrical vessels or CCVs are used • Cone’s aperture is 60˚ • Made of stainless steel
  24. 24. • Brewing yeasts may be classified as - top fermenting ( S. cervisea) - bottom fermenting (S. uvarum) • Top fermenting yeasts- form a foam on top of the wort during fermentation • Higher alcohol content • Higher temperature (16 to 24˚C) • Fruitier and sweeter beers.
  25. 25. • Bottom fermenting yeasts - cool fermented, lager type beers -ferment more sugars - dry beer -grow well at low temperature ( 10 to 18 ˚C) - Ex. Saccharomyces pastorianus, formerly known as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis
  26. 26. CONDITIONING • Maturing or aging • 2 to 4 weeks, several months or years depending on the type of beer • Beer is transferred to a second container so that it is no longer exposed to yeast.
  27. 27. Krausening: • Fermenting wort is added to the finished beer • The active yeast will restart fermentation • Introduce fresh CO₂ • Conditioning tanks are sealed so that CO₂ will dissolve in the beer • May be used to condition bottle beer
  28. 28. Lagering: • Lagers are aged at near freezing temperatures for 1 to 6 months • Serves to reduce sulphur compounds produced by bottom- fermenters • Produces a cleaner tasting final product with fewer esters.
  29. 29. FILTRATION • Stabilizes flavor • Gives beer its polished shine and brilliance • Diatomaceous earth powder • Filtration ratings: - rough : leaves some cloudiness in the beer -fine : removes all cloudiness -sterile : removes microorganisms
  30. 30. PACKAGING • Glass bottles • Aluminum cans • Kegs
  31. 31. NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION 1 can (350 ml) of beer contains: • Calories :153 • Fat(g): 0 • Carbohydrates(g): 12.64 • Fibers(g): 0 • Protein(g): 1.64 • Cholesterol(mg): 0
  32. 32. HEALTH EFFECTS • Brewer’s yeast is a rich source of nutrients • Beer contains significant amount of magnesium, selenium, phosphorous,potassium, biotin, chromium and B vitamins • Low alcohol beer has anti cancer properties • Non alcoholic beer has cardiovascular benefits.

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