What are GM‟s? Organism one that has been alteredthrough recombinant DNA technology Involves either the combining of DNAfrom different genomes or the insertionof foreign DNA into a genome The most common genetically modified(GM) organisms are crop plants Microbes are the first organisms to begenetically modified
Other terms that mean the samething: Genetically engineered Transgenic Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology
What is not a GMO? Does not include◦ Mutants.◦ Fusion of animal cells unless the productcan form an animal.◦ Plants formed x protoplast fusion.◦ Plants formed by embryo rescue or invitrofertilisation or zygote implantation.◦ Organisms formed by natural DNA transfer.
How does this differ from Mendeland his peas?GM vs. Selective breadingSelective breading Slow Imprecise Modification of genes that naturally occur in the organism Occur between plant/animal of same species(dog dog)GM Very fast Precise Can introduce genes into an organism that would notoccur naturally It can occur between different types of species(Human bacteria)
How transgenic organisms work…Three Main Methods… DNA Microinjection◦ A foreign gene is directly injected into a fertilized egg that is putinto a female animal that acts as a surrogate mother for the egg. Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer◦ A retrovirus is a virus that attaches to an organism‟s DNA andchanges it to include a new characteristic. Scientists exposeordinary cells to a retrovirus when they are trying to createtransgenic animals. Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer◦ Stem cells are blank cells that can turn into any type of cell.Scientists modify these cells, and then add them to anembryo, which is a fertilized egg that develops and grows until ithatches or is born.
DNA MICROINJECTIONMost commonly usedmethodOnly 5% or less of thetreated eggs becometransgenic progenyNeed to check mousepups for DNA , RNA andprotein ( by somespecific assay method)Expression will vary intransgenic offspring: dueto position effect and copynumberFigure 1.1
Figure 1.2Less than 5% of the microinjected fertilized eggs becometransgenic progeny
Figure 21.1Retroviral vectors canbe used to createtransgenic animalsRETROVIRUS-MEDIATEDGENE TRANSFER
Figure 1.4Genetically engineeredembryonic stem (ES)cells can be used tocreate transgenicanimalsThis method allow forgene targeting viahomologousrecombination.EMBRYONIC STEM CELL-MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER
GENETICALLY ENGINEER OF THE ES CELLSFigure 1.5a
GENETICALLY ENGINEER OF THE ESCELLSFigure 1.6b
THE TWO MOST COMMON TYPES OFGMO‟SI. FOODSCrops are modified to develop resistance toherbicides and increase their nutrientcontent, for example corn and soybeans .Fruits are modified to make them ripen later.This help them available fresh in marketplaceduring a longer time or for fruits that ripenafter being picked, make it easier to transportthem.
THE TWO MOST COMMON TYPES OFGMO‟SII. MEDICINESThese can be produced cheaper and easiersome are: insulin, thyroid hormones and theHepatitis B vaccineGM Bacteria‟s have been particularly importantinproducing large amounts of pure humanproteinsfor use in medicine like clotting factors forhemophilia and human growth hormones totreatdwarfism
OTHER TYPES OF GMO‟S AREIII. MAMMALSResearch human diseases(To develop animal models for many diseases.)Produce industrial or consumer products(pharmaceutical products or tissueimplantation)Enrich the animals‟ interactions withhumans(Hypo-allergic pets)Enhance production or food quality traits(faster growth fish, pigs that digest food moreefficiently)Improve animal health(disease resistance)
OTHER TYPES OF GMO‟S AREIV. INSECTSThe effects of genetic changes on development(malaria resistant mosquitoes)V. AQUATIC LIFEEvolution of immunity and developmentalprocesses,rapid growth( MADAKA -fish to detect pollutions in waterways)
TRANSGENIC MONKEY Its so similar to human hence it used in clinicaltrail used for studying :º HIVº Huntington‟s diseaseDISADVANTAGES Expensive Difficult Breeding problem
TOPICAL MICROBICIDES FORBLOCKING HIV-1 TRANSMISSION Lactobacilli or E. Coli altered to secrete or expressproteins with anti–hiv-1 activity Colonization of the vagina or rectum withrecombinant bacteria Secret fusion inhibitory peptides or proteins Lactobacilli that maintains a low vaginal ph Lowers the risk of hiv-1 infection
GENETICALLY MODIFIED PIGS MEDICINEº Production of pharmaceuticals (human hemoglobinin blood of pigs for treating Trauma patients)º Organs for Xenotransplantation into humansº development of models for human diseases AGRICULTUREº resistance to diseaseº Altering the carcass compositionº Improving pig‟s resistance to heat stressº Protecting environment
PIGS GIVEN SPINACH GENES Worlds first to genetically engineered mammals tocontain DNA from plants Produce pork that is healthier normal pigs Produces less fat than normal ,less fat intake “It is confirmed for the first time in the world that aplantgene is functioning properly in a living mammal, notin acultured cell,” said professor by akira
PIGS GIVEN SPINACH GENES-EXPERIMENT Inserting the spinach gene into a fertilisedpig egg Implanted in a female pigs womb FAD2 gene converted about a fifth saturatedfatty acids into linoleic acids
ADVANTAGES OF PIG„S Physiology and size Raised in pathogen free condition Less chance to transmit infectious disease tohumans Have fewer ethical issues as donor Short generation interval(114 days) Genome is quite similar to humans (3x times thanmouse)
GOAT THAT PRODUCE SPIDER SILK Two key genes that allow a spider to weave their silkinserted into their genetic code. That produce milk that contain spider silk proteins Proteins are then harvested through the goats milk Goats are separated into two groups, each containsone of the two proteins Proteins must be extracted and combined
GOAT THAT PRODUCE SPIDER SILK Stronger than steel and moreflexible Used to replace damagedtendons and ligaments ,suture damaged eyes, oreven nerves Make stronger and saferparachutes for soldiers ,bulletproof vests
SILK FROM MILK Goats are milked Milk is frozen and the cream is separated Thawed milk is pushed into a micro filter that blocksthe larger fat molecules and lets the smallerproteins through A smaller filter then further isolates the silk proteins When dried looks like a white powder
The challenge : how they take a powder andspin it into a fibre, like a spider does? The two proteins are combinedinto a solution Transformed into microfibersusing wet-spinning fibreproduction methodologies "Biosteel biopolymer" had beentransformed into nanofibres andnanomeshes using electrospinning technique
WAYS GMO TOXICITY AFFECTS ANIMALS,PLANTS AND SOIL Cancer Damage native species Pollute the environment Deplete soil minerals, destroy beneficial bacteria Super weeds, superbugs. Cause infertility, stillbirths, miscarriages
LAB ANIMALS TESTED WITH GMFOODS Stunted growth Impaired immune systems Bleeding stomachs Impaired blood celldevelopment Misshapen cell structures inthe liver, pancreas, andtesticles Altered gene expression andcell metabolism Their offspring have a lowerchance of survival Higher blood sugar Enlarged livers,pancreases Inflamed kidneys Less developed brainsand testicles Intestines reduceddigestive enzymes The animal‟s life spansare shortened Inflamed lung tissue
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF GMO‟S Already 37 people have died from side effects 1,500 partially paralyzed 5,000 were temporarily handicapped by chemicalsused in harvesting Glyophosate "caused malformations in frog andchicken embryos " Malformations of the head Increased death rates and higher offspring mortality
CURRENT RESEARCH Mosquito-borne diseases remain one of the greatestglobal threats to human health With recombinant and novel combinations of DNApassing into the environment Effects of gm plants on soil processes such asdecomposition Lactococcus lactis secreting interleukin 10 providesa therapeutic approach for inflammatory boweldisease
CONCLUSION Transgenic animals are now-a-days used forscreening of many drugs Using of transgenic animals reduce number ofexperimental animals during testing We will need them in the future
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