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VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM

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Transaction Processing System …

Transaction Processing System
Office Automation System
Management Information system
Decision support System
Group Decision support System
Expert System
Executive Support system

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  • 1. Kinds of Information System
    Module 2
  • 2. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    2
    Module 2
    Transaction Processing System
    Office Automation System
    Management Information system
    Decision support System
    Group Decision support System
    Expert System
    Executive Support system
  • 3. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    3
  • 4. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    4
    Decision-Making Levels of an Organization
    Executive level (top)
    Long-term decisions
    Unstructured decisions
    Managerial level (middle)
    Decisions covering weeks and months
    Semi-structured decisions
    Operational level (bottom)
    Day-to-day decisions
    Structured decisions
  • 5. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Major Roles of IS
    Support
    Competitive
    Advantage
    Support
    Business
    Decision Making
    Support of
    Business Processes and Operations
  • 6. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    6
  • 7. TPS
  • 8. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    8
    Transaction Processing Systems
    Process business exchanges
    Maintain records about the exchanges
    Handle routine, yet critical, tasks
    Perform simple calculations
    Used at Operational level of the organization
    Goal: to automate repetitive information processing activities
    Increase speed
    Increase accuracy
    Greater efficiency
  • 9. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    9
    Transaction Processing Systems
    Data input
    Manual data entry
    Semi-automated data entry
    Fully automated data entry
    Examples:
    Payroll
    Sales and ordering
    Inventory
    Purchasing, receiving, shipping
    Accounts payable and receivable
  • 10. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    TPS Characteristics
    They collect, store, modify and retrieve the transaction of an organisation.
    Directly support business operations
    Must be designed in conjunction w/ the organisation’s procedures.
    Main information processes: collecting and storage.
  • 11. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    4 important characteristics
    Rapid response (fast performance, rapid response time)
    Reliability (low failure rate, quick and accurate recovery, backup and recovery procedures)
    Inflexibility (every transaction processed in same way regardless of conditions)
    Controlled processing (supports an organisation’s operations)
  • 12. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    12
    Symbols used in System Architecture Diagram
    Computer program
    User workstation
    Direct Access storage device
  • 13. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Symbols used in System Architecture Diagram
    Tape sequential access device
    Document
    Documents
  • 14. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Symbols used in System Architecture Diagram
    Telecommunication Link
    Direct Link
  • 15. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Types of TPS
    Online System
    It involves direct connection between the operator and the TPS program
    They provide immediate results
    Process single transaction at a time
    Batch System
    Real time Processing System
  • 16. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Architecture of a Generic / Online TPS Application
    Notice of Event
    Transaction Keyed
    Event
    Response
    TPS Program
    Report (s)
    TPS Data
  • 17. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Batch Processing
    The Transaction are grouped into a transaction file
    The batch is then read in order by the TPS program
    This program often reads the stored data often called as the master file data, processes the transaction and creates new mater file data
    In the process it generates reports
  • 18. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    3 disadvantages in batch processing
    Processing schedule predetermined
    Errors unable to be corrected during processing
    Sorting transaction data – expensive and time consuming
  • 19. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Real Time Processing
    Frequently called on-line real time (OLRT) processing system
    Not only is input data processed immediately, but output results are available fast enough to meet the immediate information needs of end users
  • 20. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    20
    Real Time processing (for sales transaction processing)
    Application programs required for processing
    Sales transaction processing database updates inquiry response processing
    Sales transaction data entry control response
    Inquiry and responses
    On-line work station
    Product Database
    Customer Database
    Sales Database
    On-line direct access storage devices
  • 21. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Differences between real-time and batch
    Real time: each transaction is unique;
    transactions are stand-alone;
    requires master file to be available more often for updating;
    fewer errors – transaction data is validated and entered immediately;
    infrequent errors may occur – but often tolerated;
    not practical to shut down whole system (infrequent errors);
    more computer operators are required in real-time processing – operations not centralised.
    Batch: each transaction part of a group;
    database not accessible all of the time;
    more errors;
    data is organised and stored before master file is updated – errors can occur during these steps;
    easier to maintain than real-time.
  • 22. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    22
    5 functional categories of TPS
  • 23. DSS
  • 24. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    24
    DSS
    Is a interactive computer based systems, which help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems
    – Scott Morton
  • 25. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    25
    Characteristics of DSS
    Ability to support the solution of complex problems
    Fast response to unexpected situations that results in changed inputs
    Designed to help support decisions that are formulated as semi-structured, complex problems
    May be constructed to support one time decisions
  • 26. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Characteristics of DSS
    DSS is typically designed for either a particular decision-maker or a group of decision-makers
    Allows the decision maker to interact ina natural manner due to the careful design of the interface
    DSS generator (s/w) can be used
    It is a way to organize information intended for use in decision making
  • 27. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    27
    Characteristics of DSS
    Ability to quickly and objectively try different strategies under different configurations
    Consistent and objective decisions
    Other characteristics:
    Cost savings
    Improving managerial effectiveness
    Extensive range of support to management
    Support of individual/groups
    Graphical display
    Designed and run by mangers
  • 28. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Architecture of a generic DSS Application
    DSS Models
    MISData
    TPS Data
    Data Request Models
    DSS Program
    DSS User
    Responses
    External Data
    Graphs
    Reports
  • 29. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Comparison b/w MIS and DSS
  • 30. GDSS
  • 31. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Group Decision Support System
    Contains most of the elements of DSS plus software to provide effective support in group decision-making settings
  • 32. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Characteristics of a GDSS (1)
    Special design
    Ease of use
    Flexibility
    Decision-making support
    Delphi approach (decision makers are geographically dispersed)
    Brainstorming
    Group consensus
    Nominal group technique
  • 33. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Characteristics of a GDSS (2)
    Anonymous input
    Reduction of negative group behaviour
    Parallel communication
    Automated record keeping
    Cost, control, complexity factors
  • 34. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    GDSS Alternatives
    Local areadecision network
    Wide areadecision network
    high
    Decision frequency
    Decisionroom
    Teleconferencing
    low
    close
    distant
    Location of group members
  • 35. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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  • 36. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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  • 37. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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  • 38. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Teleconference
  • 39. OAS
  • 40. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    What is Office Automation?
    Office automation refers to the use of integrated computer and communication systems to support administrative procedures in an office environment.
    Computer system, such as word processing, electronic mail system, and scheduling system, that is designed to increase the productivity of data workers in the office.
  • 41. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    TYPE: Knowledge-level
    INPUTS: documents, schedules
    PROCESSING: document management, scheduling, communication
    OUTPUTS: documents; schedules
    USERS: clerical workers
    EXAMPLE: document imaging system
  • 42. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    42
    Includes the following software programs:
    word processing
    a spreadsheet
    a presentation tool
    a database
    a scheduler
  • 43. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    The main OAS are:
    AppleWorks
    Corel WordPerfect
    IBM/Lotus SmartSuite
    Microsoft Office
    Sun StarOffice
    OpenOffice (freeware)
  • 44. ESS/EIS
  • 45. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Executive Support System
    A computer-based system that serves the information needs of top executives
    Provides rapid access to timely information and direct access to management reports
    Very user-friendly, supported by graphics
    Provides exceptions reporting and "drill-down" capabilities
    Easily connected to the Internet
    Drill down
  • 46. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    46
    Executive Support System
    A specialized DSS that includes all the hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization
    Board of directors
    President
    Function areavice presidents
    Function areamanagers
  • 47. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Characteristics of EIS / ESS
    Drill down
    Critical success Factors (CSF)
    Status access
    Analysis
    Exception reporting
    Colors and audio
    Navigation of information
    Communication
  • 48. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Capabilities of an ESS
    Support for
    defining overall vision
    strategic planning
    strategic organizing and staffing
    strategic control
    crisis management
  • 49. MIS
  • 50. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Management Information Systems
    (MIS)
    Information system at the management level of an organization that serves the functions of planning, controlling, and decision making by providing routine summary and exception reports.
  • 51. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    TYPE: Management-level
    INPUTS: high volume data
    PROCESSING: simple models
    OUTPUTS: summary reports
    USERS: middle managers
    DECISION-MAKING: structured to semi-structured
    EXAMPLE: annual budgeting
  • 52. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Characteristics of MIS
    1. MIS support structured decisions at the operational and management control levels. However, they are also useful for planning purposes of senior management staff.
    2.MIS are generally reporting and control oriented. They are designed to report on existing operations and therefore to help provide day-to-day control of operations.
    3.MIS rely an existing corporate data-and data flows.
  • 53. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Characteristics of MIS
    4. MIS have little analytical capability.
    5. MIS generally aid in decision making using past and present data.
    6. MIS are relatively inflexible.
    7. MIS have an internal rather than an external orientation.
  • 54. ES
  • 55. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    AN EXPERT SYSTEM
    is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion.
    An expert system captures expertise from a human expert and applies it to a problem.
    Expert systems are excellent for diagnostic and prescriptive problems.
  • 56. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Expert system
    An expert system (ES) is a computer program that uses knowledgeand inference procedures of an expert to solve problems.
    Expertise is the extensive, task-specific knowledge acquired from training, reading, and experience.
  • 57. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    An ES has two main functions:
    to draw conclusions
    to explain its reasoning
    Explanation:
    HOW was a particular conclusion reached?
    WHY the program asks the user a particular question?
    TRACE displays all rules that are tried (not only those that are executed).
    WHAT-IF explains what will happen if a certain value or rule is changed
  • 58. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Includes:
    theories about the problem area
    rules and procedures
    heuristics
    global strategies
    meta-knowledge
    facts
    Heuristics are rules of experience that characterize expert-level decision making in the field
  • 59. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    The Structure of a Expert System
    Knowledge Base
    Knowledge Acquisition System
    Interface Engine
    Expert
    User Interface
    User
  • 60. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
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    Benefits of a expert system
    Cost reduction
    Increased output
    Improved quality
    Reduced down time
    Capturing scarce expertise
    Operations in hazardous environment
    Reliability
    Response time
    Enhancing problem solving
    Educational Benefits
  • 61. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com
    61
    Expert systems tasks:
    interpretation - inferring situation descriptions from sensor data
    prediction - inferring likely consequences of given situations
    diagnosis - inferring malfunctions from observations
    prescription - prescribing remedies for malfunctions
    design - configuring objects under constraints
    planning - designing actions
    monitoring - comparing observations to expected outcomes
    control - governing overall system behavior
    instruction - diagnosing, prescribing and guiding users' behavior
  • 62. Thank You….

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