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VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
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VTU - MIS - MODULE 2 - KINDS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM

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Transaction Processing System …

Transaction Processing System
Office Automation System
Management Information system
Decision support System
Group Decision support System
Expert System
Executive Support system

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  • 1. Kinds of Information System<br />Module 2<br />
  • 2. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />2<br />Module 2<br />Transaction Processing System<br />Office Automation System<br />Management Information system<br />Decision support System<br />Group Decision support System<br />Expert System<br />Executive Support system<br />
  • 3. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />3<br />
  • 4. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />4<br />Decision-Making Levels of an Organization<br />Executive level (top)<br />Long-term decisions<br />Unstructured decisions<br />Managerial level (middle)<br />Decisions covering weeks and months<br />Semi-structured decisions<br />Operational level (bottom)<br />Day-to-day decisions<br />Structured decisions<br />
  • 5. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />5<br />Major Roles of IS<br />Support <br />Competitive<br />Advantage<br />Support <br />Business<br />Decision Making<br />Support of <br />Business Processes and Operations<br />
  • 6. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />6<br />
  • 7. TPS<br />
  • 8. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />8<br />Transaction Processing Systems<br />Process business exchanges<br />Maintain records about the exchanges<br />Handle routine, yet critical, tasks<br />Perform simple calculations<br />Used at Operational level of the organization<br />Goal: to automate repetitive information processing activities<br />Increase speed<br />Increase accuracy<br />Greater efficiency<br />
  • 9. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />9<br />Transaction Processing Systems<br />Data input<br />Manual data entry<br />Semi-automated data entry<br />Fully automated data entry<br />Examples:<br />Payroll<br />Sales and ordering<br />Inventory<br />Purchasing, receiving, shipping<br />Accounts payable and receivable<br />
  • 10. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />10<br />TPS Characteristics<br />They collect, store, modify and retrieve the transaction of an organisation.<br />Directly support business operations<br />Must be designed in conjunction w/ the organisation’s procedures.<br />Main information processes: collecting and storage.<br />
  • 11. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />11<br />4 important characteristics<br />Rapid response (fast performance, rapid response time)<br />Reliability (low failure rate, quick and accurate recovery, backup and recovery procedures)<br />Inflexibility (every transaction processed in same way regardless of conditions)<br />Controlled processing (supports an organisation’s operations)<br />
  • 12. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />12<br />Symbols used in System Architecture Diagram<br />Computer program<br />User workstation<br />Direct Access storage device<br />
  • 13. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />13<br />Symbols used in System Architecture Diagram<br />Tape sequential access device<br />Document<br />Documents<br />
  • 14. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />14<br />Symbols used in System Architecture Diagram<br />Telecommunication Link<br />Direct Link<br />
  • 15. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />15<br />Types of TPS<br />Online System<br />It involves direct connection between the operator and the TPS program<br />They provide immediate results<br />Process single transaction at a time<br />Batch System<br />Real time Processing System<br />
  • 16. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />16<br />Architecture of a Generic / Online TPS Application<br />Notice of Event<br />Transaction Keyed<br />Event<br />Response<br />TPS Program<br />Report (s)<br />TPS Data<br />
  • 17. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />17<br />Batch Processing<br />The Transaction are grouped into a transaction file<br />The batch is then read in order by the TPS program<br />This program often reads the stored data often called as the master file data, processes the transaction and creates new mater file data<br />In the process it generates reports<br />
  • 18. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />18<br />3 disadvantages in batch processing<br />Processing schedule predetermined<br />Errors unable to be corrected during processing<br />Sorting transaction data – expensive and time consuming<br />
  • 19. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />19<br />Real Time Processing<br />Frequently called on-line real time (OLRT) processing system<br />Not only is input data processed immediately, but output results are available fast enough to meet the immediate information needs of end users<br />
  • 20. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />20<br />Real Time processing (for sales transaction processing)<br />Application programs required for processing<br />Sales transaction processing database updates inquiry response processing<br />Sales transaction data entry control response<br />Inquiry and responses<br />On-line work station<br />Product Database<br />Customer Database<br />Sales Database<br />On-line direct access storage devices<br />
  • 21. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />21<br />Differences between real-time and batch<br />Real time: each transaction is unique;<br /> transactions are stand-alone; <br />requires master file to be available more often for updating;<br /> fewer errors – transaction data is validated and entered immediately;<br />infrequent errors may occur – but often tolerated; <br />not practical to shut down whole system (infrequent errors);<br /> more computer operators are required in real-time processing – operations not centralised.<br />Batch: each transaction part of a group; <br />database not accessible all of the time; <br />more errors; <br />data is organised and stored before master file is updated – errors can occur during these steps; <br />easier to maintain than real-time.<br />
  • 22. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />22<br />5 functional categories of TPS<br />
  • 23. DSS<br />
  • 24. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />24<br />DSS<br />Is a interactive computer based systems, which help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems <br /> – Scott Morton<br />
  • 25. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />25<br />Characteristics of DSS<br />Ability to support the solution of complex problems<br />Fast response to unexpected situations that results in changed inputs<br />Designed to help support decisions that are formulated as semi-structured, complex problems<br />May be constructed to support one time decisions<br />
  • 26. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />26<br />Characteristics of DSS<br />DSS is typically designed for either a particular decision-maker or a group of decision-makers<br />Allows the decision maker to interact ina natural manner due to the careful design of the interface<br />DSS generator (s/w) can be used<br />It is a way to organize information intended for use in decision making<br />
  • 27. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />27<br />Characteristics of DSS<br />Ability to quickly and objectively try different strategies under different configurations<br />Consistent and objective decisions<br />Other characteristics:<br />Cost savings<br />Improving managerial effectiveness<br />Extensive range of support to management<br />Support of individual/groups<br />Graphical display<br />Designed and run by mangers<br />
  • 28. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />28<br />Architecture of a generic DSS Application<br />DSS Models<br />MISData<br />TPS Data<br />Data Request Models<br />DSS Program<br />DSS User<br />Responses<br />External Data<br />Graphs<br />Reports<br />
  • 29. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />29<br />Comparison b/w MIS and DSS<br />
  • 30. GDSS<br />
  • 31. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />31<br />Group Decision Support System <br /> Contains most of the elements of DSS plus software to provide effective support in group decision-making settings<br />
  • 32. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />32<br />Characteristics of a GDSS (1)<br />Special design<br />Ease of use<br />Flexibility<br />Decision-making support<br />Delphi approach (decision makers are geographically dispersed)<br />Brainstorming<br />Group consensus<br />Nominal group technique<br />
  • 33. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />33<br />Characteristics of a GDSS (2)<br />Anonymous input<br />Reduction of negative group behaviour<br />Parallel communication<br />Automated record keeping<br />Cost, control, complexity factors<br />
  • 34. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />34<br />GDSS Alternatives<br />Local areadecision network<br />Wide areadecision network<br />high<br />Decision frequency<br />Decisionroom<br />Teleconferencing<br />low<br />close<br />distant<br />Location of group members<br />
  • 35. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />35<br />
  • 36. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />36<br />
  • 37. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />37<br />
  • 38. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />38<br />Teleconference<br />
  • 39. OAS<br />
  • 40. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />40<br />What is Office Automation?<br />Office automation refers to the use of integrated computer and communication systems to support administrative procedures in an office environment.<br />Computer system, such as word processing, electronic mail system, and scheduling system, that is designed to increase the productivity of data workers in the office.<br />
  • 41. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />41<br />TYPE: Knowledge-level<br /> INPUTS: documents, schedules<br /> PROCESSING: document management, scheduling, communication<br /> OUTPUTS: documents; schedules<br /> USERS: clerical workers<br />EXAMPLE: document imaging system<br />
  • 42. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />42<br />Includes the following software programs: <br />word processing <br />a spreadsheet<br />a presentation tool <br />a database<br />a scheduler <br />
  • 43. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />43<br />The main OAS are: <br />AppleWorks <br />Corel WordPerfect <br />IBM/Lotus SmartSuite <br />Microsoft Office <br />Sun StarOffice <br />OpenOffice (freeware)<br />
  • 44. ESS/EIS<br />
  • 45. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />45<br />Executive Support System <br />A computer-based system that serves the information needs of top executives<br />Provides rapid access to timely information and direct access to management reports<br />Very user-friendly, supported by graphics<br />Provides exceptions reporting and "drill-down" capabilities<br />Easily connected to the Internet <br />Drill down<br />
  • 46. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />46<br />Executive Support System<br /> A specialized DSS that includes all the hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization<br />Board of directors<br />President<br />Function areavice presidents<br />Function areamanagers<br />
  • 47. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />47<br />Characteristics of EIS / ESS<br />Drill down<br />Critical success Factors (CSF)<br />Status access<br />Analysis<br />Exception reporting<br />Colors and audio<br />Navigation of information<br />Communication<br />
  • 48. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />48<br />Capabilities of an ESS<br />Support for<br />defining overall vision<br />strategic planning<br />strategic organizing and staffing<br />strategic control<br />crisis management<br />
  • 49. MIS<br />
  • 50. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />50<br />Management Information Systems<br />(MIS)<br />Information system at the management level of an organization that serves the functions of planning, controlling, and decision making by providing routine summary and exception reports.<br />
  • 51. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />51<br />TYPE: Management-level<br /> INPUTS: high volume data<br /> PROCESSING: simple models <br /> OUTPUTS: summary reports<br /> USERS: middle managers<br /> DECISION-MAKING: structured to semi-structured<br />EXAMPLE: annual budgeting<br />
  • 52. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />52<br />Characteristics of MIS<br />1. MIS support structured decisions at the operational and management control levels. However, they are also useful for planning purposes of senior management staff.<br />2.MIS are generally reporting and control oriented. They are designed to report on existing operations and therefore to help provide day-to-day control of operations.<br />3.MIS rely an existing corporate data-and data flows.<br />
  • 53. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />53<br />Characteristics of MIS<br />4. MIS have little analytical capability.<br />5. MIS generally aid in decision making using past and present data.<br />6. MIS are relatively inflexible.<br />7. MIS have an internal rather than an external orientation.<br />
  • 54. ES<br />
  • 55. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />55<br />AN EXPERT SYSTEM<br />is an artificial intelligence system that applies reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion.<br />An expert system captures expertise from a human expert and applies it to a problem.<br />Expert systems are excellent for diagnostic and prescriptive problems.<br />
  • 56. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />56<br />Expert system<br />An expert system (ES) is a computer program that uses knowledgeand inference procedures of an expert to solve problems. <br />Expertise is the extensive, task-specific knowledge acquired from training, reading, and experience. <br />
  • 57. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />57<br />An ES has two main functions: <br />to draw conclusions <br />to explain its reasoning <br />Explanation: <br />HOW was a particular conclusion reached? <br />WHY the program asks the user a particular question? <br />TRACE displays all rules that are tried (not only those that are executed). <br />WHAT-IF explains what will happen if a certain value or rule is changed <br />
  • 58. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />58<br />Includes:<br />theories about the problem area <br />rules and procedures <br />heuristics <br />global strategies <br />meta-knowledge <br />facts <br /> Heuristics are rules of experience that characterize expert-level decision making in the field<br />
  • 59. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />59<br />The Structure of a Expert System<br />Knowledge Base<br />Knowledge Acquisition System<br />Interface Engine<br />Expert<br />User Interface<br />User <br />
  • 60. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />60<br />Benefits of a expert system<br />Cost reduction<br />Increased output<br />Improved quality<br />Reduced down time<br />Capturing scarce expertise<br />Operations in hazardous environment<br />Reliability<br />Response time<br />Enhancing problem solving<br />Educational Benefits<br />
  • 61. Module 2 - Priya Diana Mercy - diana.dbit@gmail.com<br />61<br />Expert systems tasks: <br />interpretation - inferring situation descriptions from sensor data <br />prediction - inferring likely consequences of given situations <br />diagnosis - inferring malfunctions from observations <br />prescription - prescribing remedies for malfunctions <br />design - configuring objects under constraints <br />planning - designing actions <br />monitoring - comparing observations to expected outcomes <br />control - governing overall system behavior <br />instruction - diagnosing, prescribing and guiding users' behavior <br />
  • 62. Thank You….<br />

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