… ..Le rn tous c rre t Eng h
      a       e o c        lis
           (c urs title #6 5 )
             o e       : 52
PARTS OF SPEECH
 Be rew g a a w a p rt o g m a w s uld
    fo  e o he d ith ny a f ra m r e ho
 kno tha Eng h Gra m r c n...
1.   Te e
       ns s
2.   Verb
3.   No un
4.   P no
      ro un
5.   Ad rb
        ve
6.   Ad c
        je tive
7.   P p ...
Tenses:
 Thew rdTe e isd rive fro aLa w rd
      o    ns s e d m         tin o
 “ m us m a tim .
 Te p ” e ns e

 The a ...
Different types of tenses:

   Present Tense:
   Simple present tense
   Present Continuous
   Present perfect
   Pre...
Present Tense:

 Sim leTe e rm =s je t+1st fo o ve )
     p    ns (fo ula ub c     rm f rb
 Thisisw ut d ub them s im o n...
Its use:
 Fa tsa g ne liza n
    c nd e ra tio
 Ha itsa ro
     b nd utine   s
 P rm ne s tio
   e a nt itua ns
 Sta v...
 P s nt C ntinuo (fo ula e+ m in ve + ‘ ’ rm
   re e o        us rm =b     a     rb ing fo )

 Weus the Present Continuou...
Its uses:
 P s nt o te p ra a tivitie
   re e r m o ry c          s
 Future(p rs na a ng m nts
          e o l) rra e e
...
 P s nt p rfe t(fo ula ve s+ 3 fo o ve )
   re e e c rm =ha /ha         rd
                                  rm f rb

 Th...
Its uses:
 Ac nsw h ha p ne a a ind finite(unkno n) tim
    tio hic p e d t n e                w      e
  b fo no
   e re...
 The isa the fo o p s nt te ew h I d no
     re no r rm f re e ns hic        id t
 m ntio a it isle s us d
  e n s       ...
Its uses:
 Ac nstha s rte in thep s a c ntinuein thep s nt
    tio   t ta d        a t nd o            re e
 Ac nstha ha...
Past Tense:-
 Sim leP s
     p a t:



 Weus thePast Simple to ta a o a tio tha
      e                   lk b ut c ns t
...
Its uses:
 Eve in thep s tha a no finis d (e . I w nt to
     nts     a t t re w       he .g      e
  s ho l) *
   c o
 ...
 E.g Hedidn't le rn a Ita n w n hewas in Ita tw
     .,          a ny lia he                 ly o
 ye r a o (Us 2
    a g...
 P s c ntinuo (fo ula rm o b + ‘ ’ rmo
   at o       us rm =fo s f e ing fo   f
 ve )
   rb

 Weus the Past Continuous to...
Its uses:
Ac nsin p g s
     tio       ro re s
Inte te a tio in p g s *
       rrup d c ns       ro re s
Ac nsin p g s ...
 P s p rfe t(fo ula d + 3 fo o ve )
   a t e c rm =ha         rd
                             rm f rb

 The Past Perfect ...
Its uses:
 A c m le d a tio b fo a the a tivity in thep s
     o p te c n e re no r c                   at
 Thirdc nd na...
 No thefo
    w     urth o w h isa a le s us d isP s
                ne hic  g in a t e      at
 p rfe t c ntinuo (ha b e...
Its uses:
 Dura n o ap s a tio uptoac rta p int in thep s
       tio f a t c n         e in o           at
 Thirdc nd na...
Future Tense:
 Futurity ise re s d b m ny w ys
               xp s e y a     a .
 Futurity in Eng h ise re s de r b us w...
 Of the e "w isthem s ne l a it isthem s
        s , ill"    o t utra nd        ot
    c m o us d
     o m nly e :
   Si...
 Am nga futurete e , theFuture Simple isthem s
    o ll         ns s                        ot
  c m o It isus d in m ny ...
 * Us g ingto fo toe re sp d tio b s d o
      e o        rm xp s re ic ns a e n
  o s rvingthep s nt s tio
   be        ...
 C utio
   a n:
 Re e b r, yo s uld ne r us will to s y w t
    mm e      u ho     ve e           a ha
  s m b d ha a a ...
 W us theFuture Continuous (Progressive) to ind a
   e e                                          ic te
  tha w w b in th...
 *Remember
 If yo w nt tole rn a o s m b d inte ns yo
       u a       a b ut o e o y's ntio , u
  s uld ne r us theFutu...
 W us thiste etoe re sa a tio tha w b finis d
   e e       ns   xp s n c n t ill e        he
  b fo s m p int in thefutur...
 C m o tim e re s nsus d in theFuture Perfect
   o m n e xp s io     e
  Continuous :
 By to o w/ 8o lo k
       m rro  ...
VERB:
 A ve isaw rd w h e re s sam d o a tio
      rb   o    hic xp s e   o e f c n.
In o r w rd , itsisaw rd in thes nte...
Types of verb:
 TRANSITIVE VERB:
A ve w h s w a a tio w h isa re s d fro a
     rb hic ho s n c n hic         d se    m
s...
In thes nte e"Bobby kicked the ball", "b ll" isthe
        e nc                            a
o je t.
 b c
"Bo b isthes je ...
 INTRANSITIVE VERB:
A ve w h isus din as nte ew noo je t is
     rb hic      e      e nc ith       b c
c lle a intra itiv...
 AUXILIARY VERB:
It isa o c lle a ‘ lp ve ’
      ls a d s he ing rb .
A ve w h he sa the ve in fo ingas nte eis
     rb ...
Auxiliary Verbs and its types:
     Primary Auxiliary Verbs              Its Forms



Be                             Am ,a...
Modal Auxiliary Verbs                Its Forms
Shall                      Should
Will                       Would
Cn
 a   ...
Modal auxiliary verbs (in
details)
Mo a a
    d l uxilia ve sa us d a c rd to itsm a
               ry rb re e c o ing    ...
 Ma P rm s n,P s ib
    y: e is io o s ility,W he ,P o e
                           is s urp s
 Mig -s m a m y-
     ht:...
Important points to note about
verbs when we speak:
 ‘ a isus d in info a re ue ts It m a , w us it in a
  C n’ e        ...
 ‘ ill’ nd‘ o ’ reus d in ne r fo a o
  W a w uld a        e       ithe rm l r
info a re ue ts
    rm l q s .
It m a , it...
1 ,2 ,3 form of words :
     st   nd    rd

  Ano r m s im o nt thingto kno in ve sisthe
      the o t p rta             ...
Where are they used?
 Ge ra 1st fo sa us din s p p s nt s p .
      ne lly  rm re e       im le re e im le
 2 fo sa us d...
NOUN:
 No isno
    un   thingb it d s rib sthena eo ap rs n,
               ut e c e          m f e o
  p c , thing
   la...
Proper Noun:
 A p p r no isthes e ia w rd (o na e tha w us
     ro e un       pc l o       r m) t e e
 fo ap rs n, p c o ...
Rule 1:
 W always us aCa ita Le r fo thefirs le r o a
   e         e   p l tte r           t tte f
    p p r no (na e Thi...
Rule 2(proper nouns without
‘the’):
 W d no us "the w na e o p o le Fo e m le
     e o t e        " ith m s f e p . r xa ...
 Exception! If ac untry na einc e
                  o        m    lud s
 "Sta s
     te ","King o ", "Re ub " e , w us "t...
Rule 3(Proper nouns with
‘the’):
 W no a us "the fo c untry na e tha inc e
   e rm lly e   " r o         m s t lud
  "Sta...
 W no a us "the fo na e m d w "o
   e rm lly e   " r m s a e ith f":

 e ., TheTo e o Lo o
  .g       w r f nd n
      Th...
Common Nouns:
 All c m o no a d e intoc unta lea
       o m n uns re ivid d o   b nd
  unc unta leno .
      o    b     u...
Collective Noun:
 C lle tiveno a re rre to ac lle tio o thing ,
   o c        uns re fe d    o c n f         s
 p rs ns
 ...
Material Noun:
 The ere r toam te l o thinglikeGo , C p e , e .
     s fe       a ria r            ld o p r tc
 The ea l...
Abstract Nouns:
 The ere r toa id a
     s fe      ny e ,inte c l,Te hno g tc
                         lle tua c lo y,e ....
PRONOUN:
 P no isno
   ro un   thingb aw rdtha re la e ano o
                 ut o     t p cs      un r
  s s
   ub titut...
ADVERB:
 Ad rbisaw rd w h m d s a p rt o s e c
    ve     o    hic o ifie ny a f p e h
 e e t ano o p no
  xc p    un r r...
ADJECTIVE:
 An adjective m d sano o ap no b d s rib ,
                o ifie un r ro un y e c ing
  id ntifying o q ntify...
 In thea o e m le , thew rd ‘ s d s rib sthe
         b ve xa p s     o fa t’ e c e
 driving, tha istheve . In thes c nd ...
PREPOSITIONS:
 A preposition linksno , p no a p s stoo r
                       uns ro uns nd hra e the
  w rd in as nte ...
Few common mistakes:
 Ofte c nfus d p p s nsa :
      n o    e re o itio re
 In a Into ‘ d no sas teo re t o s teo b ing...
 By a W ‘y’ us d tore r thed e o thea tio
      nd ith: b is e  fe     or f     c n
  a ‘ ith’ us dto re r theins
   nd w...
 Be e n a Am ng ‘e e n’ us d toc m a 2
    tw e nd  o : b tw e is e     o p re
  p rs nso thing a ‘m ng isus d c m a m re...
CONJUNCTIONS:
 C njunc nsa thejo
    o     tio re    ininngw rd .
                           o s
 I w g yo as p w y tore...
INTERJECTIONS:
 Interjection isab na efo alittlew rd Inte c ns
                   ig m r          o .     rje tio
  a s r...
ARTICLES:
 Artic sa a o kno n a ‘e rm s .
       le re ls   w s d te ine ’
 The a 2typ so a le :
      re re    e f rtic...
VOICE CHANGES:
 Itsno o vo a vo etha w a ta
       t ur c l ic    t e re lkinga o
                                   b ut...
 Passive Voice
 In s nte e w n in p s ivevo e thes je t re e s
      e nc s ritte   as      ic ,   ub c c ive
  thea tio...
CLAUSES:
 A c us isag m a a unit tha
     la e    ra m tic l     t
 inc e , a m
    lud s t inim , ap d a a a e lic o
   ...
Summary:
Thistuto l inc e :
         ria lud s
 Te e
    ns s
 Verb
 No un
 P no
   ro un
 Ad rb
     ve
 Ad c
     ...
 C us s
   la e
 Vo eC ng s
    ic ha e
 Fe C m o Mis ke
    w o mn    ta s

 So s e , a w re d w o b s so Eng h
     ...
By, Priyad rs
          a hini Be ra
                   he
Ma te in Bio c lo y
  s rs       te hno g
Ba a re
  ng lo ,
IND...
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English Grammar

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English Grammar

  1. 1. … ..Le rn tous c rre t Eng h a e o c lis (c urs title #6 5 ) o e : 52
  2. 2. PARTS OF SPEECH  Be rew g a a w a p rt o g m a w s uld fo e o he d ith ny a f ra m r e ho kno tha Eng h Gra m r c ns w t lis m a o titute o 9p rtso s f a f s ec p e h.  The e9p rtso s e c w te c to s e k ap rfe t a s a f p e h ill a h p a e c nd c rre t Eng h. o c lis  So le ss rt.. t’ ta
  3. 3. 1. Te e ns s 2. Verb 3. No un 4. P no ro un 5. Ad rb ve 6. Ad c je tive 7. P p s ns re o itio 8. C njunc nsa Inte c ns o tio nd rje tio 9. Artic s le
  4. 4. Tenses:  Thew rdTe e isd rive fro aLa w rd o ns s e d m tin o “ m us m a tim . Te p ” e ns e  The a 3typ so te e :- re re e f ns s 1.P s nt Te e re e ns 2 a t Te e .P s ns 3.FutureTe e ns The ethre te e a furthe d e intos d io : s e ns s re r ivid d ub ivis ns
  5. 5. Different types of tenses:  Present Tense:  Simple present tense  Present Continuous  Present perfect  Present Perfect Continuous  Past Tense:  Simple past tense  Past continuous  Past perfect  Past perfect continuous  Future Tense  Future Tense has no specific subdivision.
  6. 6. Present Tense:  Sim leTe e rm =s je t+1st fo o ve ) p ns (fo ula ub c rm f rb Thisisw ut d ub them s im o nt te ein the itho o t o t p rta ns Eng h la ua ea w us it in ag a num e o ve lis ng g nd e e re t b r f ry d re s tio in o live . To e o g yo to ha iffe nt itua ns ur s nc ura e u ve alo k a theb lo tho ug d s rip n o thePresent o t e w ro h e c tio f Simple, I m t s y tha thiste eisre tive e s to us a t ns la ly a y und rs ndfo p o lele rningEng h, w h isa o w e ta r ep a lis hic ls hy it istheb s te etole rn firs OK, no it'stim to ha e t ns a t. w e ve alo k a theus so thiste e o t e f ns :
  7. 7. Its use:  Fa tsa g ne liza n c nd e ra tio  Ha itsa ro b nd utine s  P rm ne s tio e a nt itua ns  Sta ve s(e . b , ha , think, kno ) m re te rb .g e ve w o  Fixe / o ia a ng m nt tha w c n't c ng d ffic l rra e e t e a ha e e ., I e t. .g a Hee ts a . The g . y o
  8. 8.  P s nt C ntinuo (fo ula e+ m in ve + ‘ ’ rm re e o us rm =b a rb ing fo ) Weus the Present Continuous (Progressive) tense e w n ta he lkinga o a tio tha a ha p ningat the b ut c ns t re p e moment (p s nt o te p ra a tivity) o w h w b re e r m o ry c r hic ill e d nein the future (futurea ng m nt). Tofo o rra e e rm s nte e in thiste e yo s uldkno the e e nc s ns , u ho w s.
  9. 9. Its uses:  P s nt o te p ra a tivitie re e r m o ry c s  Future(p rs na a ng m nts e o l) rra e e e ., Heise ting .g a . The a g ing y re o . Ia cm . m o ing Is re ma thefo so ‘e . ,a ,a re rm f b ’ W w d c sa o ve sla r. e ill is us b ut rb te P s nt c ntinuo isa oc lle p s nt p g s ive re e o us ls a d re e ro re s .
  10. 10.  P s nt p rfe t(fo ula ve s+ 3 fo o ve ) re e e c rm =ha /ha rd rm f rb TheP s nt P rfe t isus dtoe re sa tio tha ha p ne a re e e c e xp s c ns t p e d t an indefinite time o tha b g n in thep s a c ntinuein the r t ea a t nd o p s nt. Thiste eisa ous dw n a a tivity ha a e c re e ns ls e he n c s n ffe t o thep s nt m m nt. n re e o e No : la r in thisa le Preset Perfect w b a b via da te te rtic , ill e b re te s PP.
  11. 11. Its uses:  Ac nsw h ha p ne a a ind finite(unkno n) tim tio hic p e d t n e w e b fo no e re w  Ac nsin thep s w h ha a e c o thep s nt tio a t hic ve n ffe t n re e m m nt o e  Ac nsw h b g n in thep s a c ntinuein the tio hic e a a t nd o p s nt re e e ., I ha live he for 20 years. ,g ve d re Shehas ne r s e m b the ve e n y ro r.
  12. 12.  The isa the fo o p s nt te ew h I d no re no r rm f re e ns hic id t m ntio a it isle s us d e n s at e . P s nt p rfe t C ntinuo (fo ula ve sb e + re e e c o us rm =ha /ha e n ‘ ’ rm ing fo )  W us the Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) to e e e re sa tio tha s rte in thep s and continue in xp s c ns t ta d at the present. Thiste eisa ous d tota a o a tio ns ls e lk b ut c ns w h b g n in thep s a ha re e hic e a a t nd ve c ntly s p e . to p d
  13. 13. Its uses:  Ac nstha s rte in thep s a c ntinuein thep s nt tio t ta d a t nd o re e  Ac nstha ha re e tio t ve c ntly s p e to p d e ., I ha b e w itings e6 m .g ve e n a inc p . Heha b e te s e n llingm no to g the . e t o re
  14. 14. Past Tense:-  Sim leP s p a t: Weus thePast Simple to ta a o a tio tha e lk b ut c ns t ha p ne a as e ifictim in thep s Thea tio c n b pe d t pc e a t. c ns a e s rt o lo . The c n a ob afe a tio ha p ning ho r ng re a ls e w c ns p e o a r a the ne fte no r.
  15. 15. Its uses:  Eve in thep s tha a no finis d (e . I w nt to nts a t t re w he .g e s ho l) * c o  Situa n in thep s (the live ano a lifeuntil the tio at y d rm l y w n alo ry) ** o tte *o n re rre to a s rt a tio in thep s fte fe d s ho c ns at ** o n re rre toa lo a tio in thep s fte fe d s ng c n at  A s rie o a tio in thep s e s f c ns at
  16. 16.  E.g Hedidn't le rn a Ita n w n hewas in Ita tw ., a ny lia he ly o ye r a o (Us 2 a g e ) I wasn't a m g nd a w n yo came (Us 1) t y ra m 's he u e Hedidn't get a g o g d sw n heattended s ho l ny o d ra e he c o (Us 3 e ) No a itslike I a . rm lly , te The a . y te
  17. 17.  P s c ntinuo (fo ula rm o b + ‘ ’ rmo at o us rm =fo s f e ing fo f ve ) rb Weus the Past Continuous to ta a o p s a tio in e lk b ut a t c ns p g s . Thea tio c n a ob inte te b ro re s c ns a ls e rrup d y s m thing(I w se ting o e a a ). * a ,a ,w re a ,is a thefo so b . m re e ,w s re rm f e
  18. 18. Its uses: Ac nsin p g s tio ro re s Inte te a tio in p g s * rrup d c ns ro re s Ac nsin p g s a thes m tim in thep s tio ro re s t a e e a t. Irrita ntio Tim /p liteq s n (re dm reb lo ) id o ue tio a o e w *e ntstha w rein p g s w n a the e nt ve t e ro re s he no r ve ha p ne . W o n us when tolink the etw e nts p e d e fte e s o ve . E.g I w sg ing ., a o . The w rec m . y e o ing Hew se tingw n I c lle him a a he a d .
  19. 19.  P s p rfe t(fo ula d + 3 fo o ve ) a t e c rm =ha rd rm f rb The Past Perfect isquites p a us ful, w us it to im le nd e e e s wtha o a tio in thep s o c dbefore a the ho t ne c n a t c urre no r a tio in thep s c n a t. No a w us thisto s y a inc e w h a o c d rm lly e e a n id nt hic d c urre lo b c ng a k.
  20. 20. Its uses:  A c m le d a tio b fo a the a tivity in thep s o p te c n e re no r c at  Thirdc nd na s nte e (a a re o ds e c (b o itio l e nc s ) nd p rte p e h ) (re d m rea theb tto thep g ) a o t o m ae  Dis a fa tio w thep s s tis c n ith at  e ., Us 3isthes -c lle hyp the a p s W 're .g e o a d o tic l a t. e ta lkinga o thing tha ne r ha p ne . b ut s t ve p e d  I w h I had fixed m um e lla (b I d n't) is y b re . ut id  If o I had known thea w r to tha q s n. (b I nly ns e t ue tio ut d n't) id
  21. 21.  No thefo w urth o w h isa a le s us d isP s ne hic g in a t e at p rfe t c ntinuo (ha b e + ‘ ’ rmo ve ) e c o us d e n ing fo f rb  ThePast Perfect Continuous (Progressive) isvery s ila to theP s P rfe t. Ho e r, w us this im r at e c w ve hile ing te e w fo uso thed tio o a a tivity ra r tha ns , e c n ura n f n c the n there ult o it. s f
  22. 22. Its uses:  Dura n o ap s a tio uptoac rta p int in thep s tio f a t c n e in o at  Thirdc nd na s nte e (a a re o ds e c (b o itio l e nc s ) nd p rte p e h )  I had been runningfo a ho w n it s rte ra r n ur he ta d ining (Us 1) . e Ma s ids had ne r been swimming s m h in o d y. ry a he ve o uc ne a (Us 2 ) e b Ka p o w ig b c us s had been e tingto m h thy ut n e ht e a e he a o uc s a (Us 1) ug r e
  23. 23. Future Tense:  Futurity ise re s d b m ny w ys xp s e y a a .  Futurity in Eng h ise re s de r b us w rd tha lis xp s e ithe y ing o s t im ly futurea tio ("I g to Be ne w e o b p c n o rlin xt e k.") r y e p yinga a m lo n uxilia c ns tio c m ine w the ry o truc n o b d ith m in ve w h re re e thetruea tio o thes nte e a rb hic p s nts c n f e nc (So e W e ia urc : ikip d ).  Them s c m o a o t o m n uxilia ve sus d toe re sfuturity ry rb e xp s a will, can,s uld may, a must.  re ho , nd  Ma a m ht y nd ig
  24. 24.  Of the e "w isthem s ne l a it isthem s s , ill" o t utra nd ot c m o us d o m nly e :  Sim leFuture p  FutureC ntinuo o us  FutureP rfe t e c  FutureP rfe t C ntinuo e c o us  Ap rt fro tha the a s ve l o r c ns tio tha a m t re re e ra the o truc ns t c n e re sfuturity: a xp s  Go to ing
  25. 25.  Am nga futurete e , theFuture Simple isthem s o ll ns s ot c m o It isus d in m ny s tio s h a m king o m n. e a itua ns uc s a p m e o p d tio . ro is s r re ic ns It us s e :-  P m e (Us 1) ro is s e  Unp nne a tio (s o ne usd c io ) (Us 2 la d c ns p nta o e is ns e )  P d tio b s do e e nc o intuitio * (Us 3 re ic ns a e n xp rie e r n e )  Ha its(o s teins nc , us lly ha itua (Us 4 b b tina ite e ua b l) e )
  26. 26.  * Us g ingto fo toe re sp d tio b s d o e o rm xp s re ic ns a e n o s rvingthep s nt s tio be re e itua n.  ** Yo p b b ha e o u ro a ly ve nc unte dthew rd"g nna . re o o " Tha isthec ntra tio o "g ingto . t o c n f o " Keep in mind: "Go " isra r info a s b c re nna the rm l o e a ful w n us it! he ing
  27. 27.  C utio a n:  Re e b r, yo s uld ne r us will to s y w t mm e u ho ve e a ha s m b d ha a a y a ng o d c e to d in the o e o y s lre d rra e r e id d o future:  –Mikeism vingto Ne J rs y ne m nth (no "Mike o w e e xt o t w m ve ill o ") The a s ve l w ysto e re sfuturity. re re e ra a xp s Yo ll le rn a yo us it. u’ a s u e
  28. 28.  W us theFuture Continuous (Progressive) to ind a e e ic te tha w w b in them d o d ings m thingin a t e ill e id le f o o e s e ifie tim in thefuture pc d e . Itsus s e :-  Futurea tio in p g s . c ns ro re s  Gue s sa o thep s nt o thefuture s e b ut re e r .  P liteq s nsa o s m b d inte ns o ue tio b ut o e o y's ntio *.
  29. 29.  *Remember  If yo w nt tole rn a o s m b d inte ns yo u a a b ut o e o y's ntio , u s uld ne r us theFutureSim le Us theFuture ho ve e p . ing Sim leim lie tha yo w nt to influe es m b d p p s t u a nc o e o y's d c io Que tio b c m m h m reo je tiveif e is n. s ns e o e uc o b c fo e in theFutureC ntinuo . rm d o us  W yo c m ho e (= I w nt yo toc m ho e ill u o e m ? a u o e m)
  30. 30.  W us thiste etoe re sa a tio tha w b finis d e e ns xp s n c n t ill e he b fo s m p int in thefuture e re o e o . Itsus s e :-  C m o tim e re s nsus d in theFuture Perfect: o m n e xp s io e  Be re fo  By to o w o lo k/ne m nth m rro /7 'c c xt o  Until/till
  31. 31.  C m o tim e re s nsus d in theFuture Perfect o m n e xp s io e Continuous :  By to o w/ 8o lo k m rro 'c c  Thisye r / m nth / w e a o ek  Ne ye r / m nth / w e xt a o ek  No thisisw t te e a . w ha ns s re  W ’ d c sa o yo q rie if a in d ta if w e ll is us b ut ur ue s ny e ils e c to ha nline riya a hinib he @ g a o ) .(p d rs e ra m il.c m
  32. 32. VERB:  A ve isaw rd w h e re s sam d o a tio rb o hic xp s e o e f c n. In o r w rd , itsisaw rd in thes nte ew h the o s o e nc hic s w tha s m thingisb ingd ne ho s t o e e o . Hee ts e ts‘ ave ) a .(‘a is rb Yo likeyo m the u ur o r.(he ‘ ’ ave ) re like is rb Teb b iss e ing s e ing isave ) a y le p .(‘le p ’ rb
  33. 33. Types of verb:  TRANSITIVE VERB: A ve w h s w a a tio w h isa re s d fro a rb hic ho s n c n hic d se m s je t toa o je t. ub c n b c No , w t iss je t a o je t. w ha ub c nd b c In s p w rd , s je t isthep rs n o thingw a im le o s ub c e o r e re talkinga o a theo je t It d no ss m b d o b ut nd b c e te o e o y r s m thinginvo d in thes je t's"p rfo a e o the o e lve ub c e rm nc " f ve . Asa e m le thefo w s nte eisg n: rb n xa p , llo ing e nc ive
  34. 34. In thes nte e"Bobby kicked the ball", "b ll" isthe e nc a o je t. b c "Bo b isthes je t, thed e o p rfo e w b y" ub c o r r e rm r, hile "kic isthea tio a "b ll" istheo je t invo din k" c n, nd a b c lve thea tio c n. He ‘ k’ thetra itiveve . re kic is ns rb
  35. 35.  INTRANSITIVE VERB: A ve w h isus din as nte ew noo je t is rb hic e e nc ith b c c lle a intra itiveve , p tty s p , is t it? a d n ns rb re im le n’ Fe e m le : w xa p s Hes e sa thetim .(s e ) le p ll e le p A b ll a a ro .(ro ) a lw ys lls lls
  36. 36.  AUXILIARY VERB: It isa o c lle a ‘ lp ve ’ ls a d s he ing rb . A ve w h he sa the ve in fo ingas nte eis rb hic lp no r rb rm e nc c lle a a a d s uxilia ve . ry rb No the ea w s uxilia ve sinc eb ,ha ,d ,e . ry rb lud e ve o tc Theauxilia ve sa a a o 2typ s ry rb re g in f e: PRIMARY a MODALS nd
  37. 37. Auxiliary Verbs and its types: Primary Auxiliary Verbs Its Forms Be Am ,a ,w s e ,is re a ,w re Have Ha ,Ha s d Do Do s e ,Did
  38. 38. Modal Auxiliary Verbs Its Forms Shall Should Will Would Cn a C uld o May Might Must Ha to d Oug (to ht ) -no fo s rm - Ne d e -no fo s rm - Dare -no fo s rm - Us d e -no fo s rm -
  39. 39. Modal auxiliary verbs (in details) Mo a a d l uxilia ve sa us d a c rd to itsm a ry rb re e c o ing e ning to b e re s d e xp s e .  C n: a ility,p rm s n,re ue t,p s ility a b e is io q s o ib  C uld -s m a c n- o : a e s a  Sha Futurity,W ll: illing s ,Sug e tio ne s g s n,Ins te e is nc  Sho : Ob a n,Ad ia ility,ne e s uld lig tio vis b c s ity,Exp c tio e ta n W W ill: illing s ,P d tio ne s re ic n,Re ue t q s  W uld W o : illing s ,Ha itua a tio in the ne s b l c n ps a t,Wis s ro a he ,P b ility
  40. 40.  Ma P rm s n,P s ib y: e is io o s ility,W he ,P o e is s urp s  Mig -s m a m y- ht: a e s a  Must:Ne e s c s ity,P hib n,Ob a n,P b b ro itio lig tio ro a ility ‘ uld isthep s fo o ‘a . Sim rly, Co ’ a t rm f c n’ ila Is a -W s Are e -W re ‘ uld isim o nt to no he a it’ thep s fo o Co ’ p rta te re s s a t rm f c n w h e re s sthea ility tha e te in thep s a hic xp s e b t xis d a t. e ., I c uld s imw n I w sin s ho l. .g o w he a c o
  41. 41. Important points to note about verbs when we speak:  ‘ a isus d in info a re ue ts It m a , w us it in a C n’ e rm l q s . e ns e e typ o re ue t w m ketoo frie sa intim te . e f q s e a ur nd nd a s e ., C n I us yo p n? .g a e ur e  ‘ o ’ us d in fo a re ue ts It m a , w us it to C uld is e rm l q s . e ns e e re ue t hig s tusp o leo p fe s na s h a q s h ta e p r ro s io ls uc s te c rs a g rs tc a he ,m na e ,e . e ., C uldyo p a eg m yo p n? .g o u le s ive e ur e
  42. 42.  ‘ ill’ nd‘ o ’ reus d in ne r fo a o W a w uld a e ithe rm l r info a re ue ts rm l q s . It m a , it’ us d tore ue t le skno n p rs nso e ns s e q s s w e o r s ng rs It isus din q s n fo . tra e . e ue tio rm e ., W yo g tothem e ? .g ill u o e ting W uldyo p a ere e t w t yo jus s id o u le s p a ha u t a ?
  43. 43. 1 ,2 ,3 form of words : st nd rd  Ano r m s im o nt thingto kno in ve sisthe the o t p rta w rb fo so w rd (ve s rm f o s rb ).  E.g Le sta fe e m le . ., t’ ke w xa p s Verbs 1st Form 2nd Form 3rd Form Go Go Went Gone Write Write Wrote Written Draw Draw Drew Dra n w See See Saw Se n e
  44. 44. Where are they used?  Ge ra 1st fo sa us din s p p s nt s p . ne lly rm re e im le re e im le  2 fo sa us din p s s p . nd rm re e a t im le  3 fo sa us d in p s p rfe t te e . rd rm re e a t e c ns s  Le sta o e m le t’ ke ne xa p : I e t(1st fo ) a rm I a (2 fo ) te nd rm I ha e te rd fo ) ve a n(3 rm
  45. 45. NOUN:  No isno un thingb it d s rib sthena eo ap rs n, ut e c e m f e o p c , thing la e .  The a 5typ so no re re e f un: 1.P p r No ro e un 2 o m n No .C m o un 3 o c .C lle tiveNo un 4 te l No .Ma ria un 5 s c No .Ab tra t un
  46. 46. Proper Noun:  A p p r no isthes e ia w rd (o na e tha w us ro e un pc l o r m) t e e fo ap rs n, p c o o a tio likeJ hn, Ma , r e o la e r rg niza n, o rie Lo o Fra eo So A na eisano b ave nd n, nc r ny. m un, ut ry s e ia no - ap p r no P p r no ha s e ia p c l un ro e un. ro e uns ve p c l rule . s  Therule a a fo w : s re s llo s
  47. 47. Rule 1:  W always us aCa ita Le r fo thefirs le r o a e e p l tte r t tte f p p r no (na e Thisinc e na e o p o le ro e un m ). lud s m s f e p , p c s c m a s d yso thew e a m nths Fo la e , o p nie , a f e k nd o . r e m le xa p :  The likeJo (not *The likejo y hn. y hn.)  I livein Eng nd la .  Shew rksfo So o r ny.  Thela t d y in Ja ry isaMo a s a nua nd y.  W s wTitanic in theOd o Cine a ea en m.
  48. 48. Rule 2(proper nouns without ‘the’):  W d no us "the w na e o p o le Fo e m le e o t e " ith m s f e p . r xa p :  firs na e Bill (not *theBill) t ms  W d no no a us "the w na e o c m a s e o t rm lly e " ith m s f o p nie . Fo e m le r xa p :  Re ult, Fo , So Eng hC .c m na rd ny, lis lub o  Ge ra Mo rs Air Fra e Britis Airw ys ne l to , nc , h a  W d no no a us "the fo s p , b nks ho lse e o t rm lly e " r ho s a , te tc na e a r afo e o o r p rs n (w -'so -s m d fte und r r the e o ith r ).
  49. 49.  Exception! If ac untry na einc e o m lud s "Sta s te ","King o ", "Re ub " e , w us "the dm p lic tc e e ": e ., TheUnite Sta s .g d te TheUnite King o d dm  W d no us "the w "P s e e o t e " ith re id nt/Do to c r/Mr e + tc Na e m. e ., TheP s e b no TheP s e Bus .g re id nt ut t re id nt h.
  50. 50. Rule 3(Proper nouns with ‘the’):  W no a us "the fo c untry na e tha inc e e rm lly e " r o m s t lud "Sta s te ","King o ", "Re ub " e : dm p lic tc e ., TheUnite Sta s .g d te  W no a us "the fo na e o c na , rive , s a e rm lly e " r m s f a ls rs e s a o e ns nd c a : e ., TheSue C na .g z a l  W no a us "the fo plural na e o p o lea e rm lly e " r m s f e p nd p cs la e : e ., TheC .g linto , TheHim la s ns a ya
  51. 51.  W no a us "the fo na e m d w "o e rm lly e " r m s a e ith f": e ., TheTo e o Lo o .g w r f nd n TheLo o Sc o o Ec no ic nd n ho l f o m s TheSta o Lib rty tue f e TheTro ico Ca e p f nc r
  52. 52. Common Nouns:  All c m o no a d e intoc unta lea o m n uns re ivid d o b nd unc unta leno . o b uns  It isthena eo a p rs n , p c o thing m f ny e o la e r .  C unta le c n b c unte (m y b s ula a p l) o b : a e o d a e ing r nd lura  Unc unta le c nno b c unte o b : a t e o d e ., Ric ,Stud nts b ,Ro e .g e e ,Ta le g r,Sing p re s a a o (the e re c unta le o b ) Milk,Hair,W te a r(unc unta leno ) o b uns
  53. 53. Collective Noun:  C lle tiveno a re rre to ac lle tio o thing , o c uns re fe d o c n f s p rs ns e o .  The ea a a p l. s re lw ys lura e ., A b h o g p s .g unc f ra e Thejury Thep o leo Ind ep f ia
  54. 54. Material Noun:  The ere r toam te l o thinglikeGo , C p e , e . s fe a ria r ld o p r tc  The ea le s us d s re a t e . All the ea o m ntio d no c m und r ac te o s b ve e ne uns o e e a g ry c lle C nc teNo . a d o re uns No theo r c te o o no a Ab tra t No . w the a g ry f uns re s c uns
  55. 55. Abstract Nouns:  The ere r toa id a s fe ny e ,inte c l,Te hno g tc lle tua c lo y,e .  Fe e m le a itsus a a b lo : w xa p s nd e re s e w I g vehimag a id a e ) a re t e .(id a Heha a intuitio o a a c e s n n f n c id nt.(intuition)
  56. 56. PRONOUN:  P no isno ro un thingb aw rdtha re la e ano o ut o t p cs un r s s ub titute ano s un.  Fe e m le a : w xa p s re It,That,The y,He ,He ,His r,The ,The m ir,You,Your,She tc ,e . J hn p ysc ke w ll. o la ric t e Hep ysc ke w ll. la ric t e
  57. 57. ADVERB:  Ad rbisaw rd w h m d s a p rt o s e c ve o hic o ifie ny a f p e h e e t ano o p no xc p un r ro un.  An adverb c n m d ave , a a je tive a the a o ify rb n d c , no r a ve , ap s , o ac us . An a ve ind a sm nne d rb hra e r la e d rb ic te a r, tim , p c , c us , o d g ea a w rsq s nss h e la e a e r e re nd ns e ue tio uc a "ho ," "w n," "w re "ho m h“ s w he he ," w uc .
  58. 58. ADJECTIVE:  An adjective m d sano o ap no b d s rib , o ifie un r ro un y e c ing id ntifying o q ntifyingw rd . An a je tiveus lly e , r ua o s d c ua p c d stheno o thep no w h it m d s re e e un r ro un hic o ifie .  An a je tivec n b m d d b a a ve , o b ap s d c a e o ifie y n d rb r y hra e o c us func ninga a a ve . r la e tio s n d rb e ., Hed shisve leto fa t.(fa t) .g rive hic o s s Sheisto b a o e utiful.(b a e utiful)
  59. 59.  In thea o e m le , thew rd ‘ s d s rib sthe b ve xa p s o fa t’ e c e driving, tha istheve . In thes c nd s nte ethew rd t rb e o e nc o ‘e utiful d s rib s ‘he , tha isthep no ba ec e s ’ t ro un.  Othe a je tive a As m d o io ,To ra r d c s re ha e ,C ns us le nt,Ugly, Am ze ,C nfus d ndlo m re a d o e ,a ts o . **Fo b tte c rific tio , c tc m o r e r la a ns a h e nlinea t p d rs riya a hinib he @ g a o e ra m il.c m Tim : 11.3 p o a sGMT e 0 m nw rd
  60. 60. PREPOSITIONS:  A preposition linksno , p no a p s stoo r uns ro uns nd hra e the w rd in as nte e Thew rdo p s tha the o s e nc . o r hra e t p p s n intro uc sisc lle theo je t o the re o itio d e a d b c f p p s n. re o itio  A p p s n us lly ind a sthete p ra s a l o re o itio ua ic te m o l, p tia r lo ic l re tio hipo itso je t tothere t o thes nte e g a la ns f b c s f e nc a in thefo w e m le : s llo ing xa p s Theb o ison theta le Theb o isbeneath theta le ok b . ok b . Theb o isle ningagainst theta le Theb o isbeside ok a b . ok theta le Shehe theb o over theta le Shere d the b . ld ok b . a b o during c s . ok la s
  61. 61. Few common mistakes:  Ofte c nfus d p p s nsa : n o e re o itio re  In a Into ‘ d no sas teo re t o s teo b ing nd : In’ e te ta f s r ta f e ins es m thinga ‘ ’ e te m ve e ins e id o e nd Into d no s o m nt id s m thing o e .  Le stry tound rs nd w a e m le t’ e ta ith n xa p : 1.Thefro isin thew ll. g e Thefro jum e intothew ll. g pd e 2.Theb b isin thero m ay o . Theb b ra into thero m ay n o .
  62. 62.  By a W ‘y’ us d tore r thed e o thea tio nd ith: b is e fe or f c n a ‘ ith’ us dto re r theins nd w is e fe trum nt o e m nt w e r le e ith w h thea tio isd ne hic c n o .  Le ss ethee m le : t’ e xa p s 1.Hew ss t d a b hiso n b d a s a ho e d y w o y-g urd . Hew ss t d a w ag a ho e d ith un. 2.Thefie w sd b afa e ld a ug y rm r. Thefie w sd w a a . ld a ug ith n xe
  63. 63.  Be e n a Am ng ‘e e n’ us d toc m a 2 tw e nd o : b tw e is e o p re p rs nso thing a ‘m ng isus d c m a m retha e o r s nd a o ’ e o p re o n 2p rs nso thing . e o r s  E.g W ista r b tw e J hn a Ro e ., ho lle e e n o nd g r? W istheta s a o a o the ? ho lle t m ng ll f m Thetw b the s re thep p rty b tw e the s lve . o ro rs ha d ro e e e n me s Theb the s re thep p rty a o the s lve . ro rs ha d ro e m ng m e s
  64. 64. CONJUNCTIONS:  C njunc nsa thejo o tio re ininngw rd . o s  I w g yo as p w y tore e b r it. ill ive u im le a mm e  J t re e b r FANBOYS us m m e F:For A:And a w ll a , s e s N:Ne r/No ithe r B:But O:Or,Either/Or Y:Ye t S:So
  65. 65. INTERJECTIONS:  Interjection isab na efo alittlew rd Inte c ns ig m r o . rje tio a s rt e la a nslikeOh!, Um o Ah! The ha no re ho xc m tio r y ve re l g m a a va b w us the q a ra m tic l lue ut e e m uiteo n, fte us lly m rein s e kingtha in w ua o pa n riting W n . he inte c nsa ins rte into as nte e the ha no rje tio re e d e nc , y ve g m a a c nne tio tothes nte e An inte c n is ra m tic l o c n e nc . rje tio s m tim sfo w db a e la a n m rk (!) w n o e e llo e y n xc m tio a he w n. ritte  E.g Eno h! Do t s e k a ., ug n’ p a nym reo . W w Itsa a . o ! m zing
  66. 66. ARTICLES:  Artic sa a o kno n a ‘e rm s . le re ls w s d te ine ’  The a 2typ so a le : re re e f rtic s Ind finitea De e nd finite  Ind finiteinc e a, a e lud s n.  De finiteinc e The lud s .  Theind finitea le a c lle s b c us thep rs nso e rtic s re a d o e a e e o r thing it re rsa no d fine . s fe re t e d e ., I m t ab g a to a .g e e g r d y.  Ne tim w ta a o theb g a , w us The xt e e lk b ut egr e e . e ., I m t theb g a to a .g e e g r d y.
  67. 67. VOICE CHANGES:  Itsno o vo a vo etha w a ta t ur c l ic t e re lkinga o b ut.  The ea theVo ein Gra m r w h a o 2typ s s re ic m a hic re f e: P s ivea Ac as nd tive  Active Voice In s nte e w n in a tivevo e thes je t p rfo s e nc s ritte c ic , ub c e rm thea tio e re s din theve ; thes je t a ts c n xp s e rb ub c c . e ., Thed gb theb y. .g o it o
  68. 68.  Passive Voice  In s nte e w n in p s ivevo e thes je t re e s e nc s ritte as ic , ub c c ive thea tio e re s din theve ; thes je t isa te up n. c n xp s e rb ub c c d o Thea e p rfo ingthea tio m y a p a in a"b g nt e rm c n a p er y the. . ." p s o m y b o itte . hra e r a e m d e ., Theb y w sb n y thed g .g o a itte o.  If yo w nt toc ng ap s ive ic s nte eto a tive u a ha e a s -vo e e nc c vo e findthea e in a"b the p s , o c ns e ic , g nt y ..." hra e r o id r c re a fully w o w t isp rfo ingthea tio e re s d ho r ha e rm c n xp s e in theve . Ma tha a e thes je t o thes nte e rb ke t g nt ub c f e nc , a c ng theve a c rd ly. nd ha e rb c o ing
  69. 69. CLAUSES:  A c us isag m a a unit tha la e ra m tic l t  inc e , a m lud s t inim , ap d a a a e lic o um re ic te nd n xp it r im lie s je t, a e re s sap p s n. p d ub c nd xp s e ro o itio P a ere r theb lo link fo m rec rific tio o yo le s fe e w r o la a ns r u c n c nta t m o a o c e nline . http w .s rg ://w w il.o /ling tic /Glo s ryOfLing tic rm /W t uis s sa uis Te s ha
  70. 70. Summary: Thistuto l inc e : ria lud s  Te e ns s  Verb  No un  P no ro un  Ad rb ve  Ad c je tive  P p s ns re o itio  C njunc nsa Inte c ns o tio nd rje tio  Artic s le
  71. 71.  C us s la e  Vo eC ng s ic ha e  Fe C m o Mis ke w o mn ta s  So s e , a w re d w o b s so Eng h tud nts re e a y ith ur a ic f lis Gra m r? m a  If yo ha a q s ns, yo c n a k m o u ve ny ue tio u a s e nline at 11.3 p to 1.3 a a w e a in Ind n Tim Zo . 0 m 0 m ny e kd ys ia e ne On w e nd , yo c n c tc m b tw e 10 m 0 m e ke s u a a h e e e n p -1.3 a .
  72. 72. By, Priyad rs a hini Be ra he Ma te in Bio c lo y s rs te hno g Ba a re ng lo , INDIA. **I a c m w m ne c urs o ANIMAL m o ing ith y w o e n BIOTEC HNOLOGY s o Info yo frie sto jo the o n.. rm ur nd in c urs … C e !!!  o e he rs

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