Introduction to Operating System


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Introduction to Operating System

  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. What is an Operating System? 2. OS Functions 3. OS Services 4. Structure of OS 5. Evolution of OS 2
  4. 4. WHAT IS OS?It is the software that enables all the programs we use.The OS organizes and controls the hardware (CPU, RAM,I/O)SecuritySystem interfaceApplication interfaceOS acts as an interface between the application programsand the machine hardware. 4
  5. 5. Operating System SoftwareExamples: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac OS X, iOS, Android. 5
  6. 6. What is an operating system (OS)? 6
  7. 7. OS FUNCTIONSThe main functions of operating systems are: • Manages and Interacts with Computer Hardware • Process the tasks • Provides the User/ Computer Interface (CLI / GUI) • Provides the Interface for Application Software • Input / Output Operations • Error Detection, Resource Allocation, Security and Protection 7
  8. 8. OS SERVICESOperating system services such as, • Input / Output Operations ,Controlling and Allocating memory, • Work as a Resource Allocator ,Prioritizing system requests, File System Manipulation, Error Detection, • Controlling input and output devices, Communication • Managing file systems, protection • CPUs have this capability to use at least two modes: protected mode and supervisor mode. 8
  9. 9. Manages the CPU - by CPU scheduling algorithms.Manages RAM - What is processing in RAM - Virtual memory.Provides the Interface forApplication Software -Operating systems are designed and developed for a specific CPU or “family of CPUs” 9
  10. 10. Provides the interface for storage devices and manages how data is stored on those devices.Provides the Interface for I/O Devices • device drivers • keyboard, mouse, printer 10
  11. 11. VIRTUAL MEMORYVirtual Memory (VM) = the ability of the CPU and the operatingsystem software to use the hard disk drive as additional RAM whenneeded.Good – no longer get “insufficient memory” error.Bad - performance is very slow when accessing VM.Solution = increase size of RAM. 11
  12. 12. VIRTUAL MEMORY 12
  13. 13. PROCESSESScheduler – Maintains a record ofthe processes. • Adds new processes when launched. • Removes old processes when completed. • Uses a process table.Process Table – Informationabout each process including: • Main memory cells (RAM) • Priority • Running or waiting (input from user or saving to disk) 13
  14. 14. Viewing processes with Microsoft WindowsEnding a process – Killing the process 14
  15. 15. PROCESSESDispatcher - Oversees theexecution of each process by theCPU. • Gives each process a time slice of CPU time. • Changes between processes. 15
  16. 16. MULTIPROCESSING WITH MULTIPLE CPU’S Asymmetric Multiprocessing = Tasks are assigned to a specific CPU and each CPU has its own RAM memory Symmetric Multiprocessing = Tasks are assigned to any available CPU and CPU’s can share RAM memory 16Rick Graziani 16
  17. 17. STRUCTURE OF OPERATINGSYSTEM: Application Programs System Programs Software (Operating System) HARDWARE 17
  18. 18. STRUCTURE OF OPERATING SYSTEMThe structure of OS consists of 4 layers: 1. Hardware Hardware consists of CPU, Main memory, I/O Devices, etc, 2. Software (Operating System) Software includes process management routines, memory management routines, I/O control routines, file management routines. 18
  19. 19. STRUCTURE OF OPERATING SYSTEM 3. System programs This layer consists of compilers, Assemblers, linker etc. 4. Application programs This is dependent on users need. Ex. Railway reservation system, Bank database management etc., 19
  20. 20. EVOLUTION OF OS:Evolution of an OS from simple Batch processing to today’sOS- • Batch Operating System • Multiprogramming Operating System • Time Sharing or Multitasking Operating System • Real-Time Systems • Distributed Operating System 20
  21. 21. BATCH PROCESSING:• In Batch processing same type of jobs batch (BATCH- a set of jobs with similar needs) together and execute at a time.• The OS was simple, its major task was to transfer control from one job to the next.• The job was submitted to the computer operator in form of punch cards. At some later time the output appeared.• The OS was always resident in memory.• Common Input devices were card readers and tape drives. 21
  22. 22. Common output devices were line printers, tape drives,and card punches.Users did not interact directly with the computersystems, but he prepared a job (comprising of theprogram, the data, & some control information). OS User program area 22
  23. 23. MULTIPROGRAMMING:• Multiprogramming is a technique to execute number of programs simultaneously by a single processor.• In Multiprogramming, number of processes reside in main memory at a time.• The OS picks and begins to executes one of the jobs in the main memory.• If any I/O wait happened in a process, then CPU switches from that job to another job.• Hence CPU in not idle at any time. 23
  24. 24. MULTIPROGRAMMING OS • Figuredipicts the layout of multiprogramming system. Job 1 • The main memory consists of 5 Job 2 jobs at a time, the CPU executes one by one. Job 3 Advantages: Job 4 •Efficient memory utilization Job 5 •Throughput increases •CPU is never idle, so performance increases. 24
  25. 25. TIME SHARING SYSTEMS:• Time sharing, or multitasking, is a logical extension of multiprogramming.• Multiple jobs are executed by switching the CPU between them.• In this, the CPU time is shared by different processes, so it is called as “Time sharing Systems”.• Time slice is defined by the OS, for sharing CPU time between processes.• Examples: Unix. 25
  26. 26. PROCESS STATESFOR TIME SHARINGNew Job Execution Terminated Ready Running Time Slice over Wait for I/O I/O Completed Completion Blocked 26
  27. 27. REAL-TIME SYSTEMS: • A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system intended for applications with fixed deadlines. • Such applications include some small embedded systems, automobile engine controllers, industrial robots, spacecraft, industrial control, and some large-scale computing systems. • An early example of a large-scale real-time operating system was Transaction Processing Facility developed by American Airlines and IBM for the Sabre Airline Reservations System. 27
  28. 28. These are of two types: a) Hard Real Time, b) Soft Real Time.a) These OS guarantee that critical tasks be completed within a certain range of time. Ex: A complete car welding by robot hardly on the time.a) These OS provides some relaxation in time limit. Ex: Multimedia systems, digital audio system. 28
  29. 29. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS: • A distributed computer system is a collection of autonomous computer systems capable of communication and cooperation via their H/w and S/w interconnection. • The distributed operating system provides a illusion to its users that it has a single uniprocessor system, although it is actually consisted of multiprocessors. • Distributed OS provide the means for system- wide sharing of resources such as computational capacity, files and I/O devices. • Ex: UNIX, LINUX. 29
  30. 30. SUMMAR Y• HOW AN OS WORKS Interpreting commands, enabling the user to communicate with the computer.• OS IS SOFTWARE• COMPUTER WORKS WITH THE HELP OF OS When a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. These instructions tell the computer how to start up. Usually, one of the first sets of these instructions is a special program called the operating system . 30
  31. 31. Thanks 31