Atomic structure and BondingPresentation Transcript
Atomic Structure and Bonding
What We Will Cover:
•Atomic Mass Unit Number and Calculations
•Bonding – Ionic and Covalent
Sub Atomic Particles
Located in nucleus of atom
Has a positive charge
Number of Protons = Atomic Number
Has 1 AMU in mass (Atomic Mass Unit)
Located in nucleus of atom
Has NO electrical charge
Has mass of 1 amu
Number of neutrons usually is equal to
number of protons
Quiz – Subatomic
1.The positive particle is the ___.
2.The negative particle is the ___.
3.The neutral particle is the ___.
4.The proton is the same as the __ number.
5.The two particles located inside the nucleus
are the __ and the __.
6.Each of these particles
have a mass of ___.
• Located outside the
nucleus of the atom
• Housed in Electrical
Clouds, Shells, Orbits
• Has a negative charge
• Does not have an amu
because of tiny size
• Moves around the
nucleus in an orbit
Quick Quiz – Subatomic Particles
7. The electron ___ around the
8. The ___ electrons are the outer
___ electrons and are involved in
9.To find the number of neutrons in
an atom you subtract the __
number from the ___ number.
• Number used to arrange the Periodic
• Increase Left to Right
• Same as number of Protons or Electrons
in a neutral atom
• The sum of the Protons and Neutrons in
• Also called Atomic Weight
• Electrons orbit the nucleus in
• The first level (or cloud, or shell)
contains up to 2 electrons
• The second level contains up to 8
• The third level contains up to 18
• 4th 32; 5th 50; 6th 72 max in shell
Electron Arrangement ctd.
• The electrons in the
outermost shell (if it is not
completely full) are
available for bonding
• These electrons are called
• Bonding is the chemical
combining of 2 or more
Quick Quiz –
Numbers, Electron Arrangement
10. The __ __ is used to arrange the periodic table as it
increases from __ to __.
11. The atomic number is the same as the number of
12. The __ number is the sum of protons and neutrons
inside the ___.
13. The outermost electrons are the __ electrons and
they orbit the nucleus in __ levels.
14. Bonding is the ___________ combining of 2 or more
• The process when 2 or more atoms
combine chemically is known as Bonding
• The 2 we are learning today are
• Ionic Bonding
• Covalent Bonding
• Electrons are either gained or lost by
• One atom is positive +, One is negative
• Occurs between Metals and Nonmetals
• Metals lose electrons
• Nonmetals gain electrons
• Very strong bond – usually solids - with
high melting temperatures
Sodium and Chlorine
Sodium – a
Chlorine – a
Lithium and Fluorine diagram
shows Ionic Bonding in action
Common Ionic Bonds
• CuSo4 Copper Sulfate
Baking & Health
Quiz – Bonding
15. In ionic bonding electrons are either _ or
16. __ lose electrons and ___ gain electrons.
17. A positive ions has __ electrons and a
negative ion has __ electrons.
18. __ bonds are strong, usually solid, and
have __ melting and boiling points.
19.The magic number of valence electrons
needed by all but two atoms is ___.
20.Name two common ionic bonds.
• Electrons are shared between atoms (co)
• Neither atom has an electrical charge
• Forces between atoms are weak – have
low boiling or melting points
• Usually are liquids or gasses
• If a solid is usually a crystal
Common Covalent Bonds
Quick Quiz – Bonding
21. In a covalent bond, electrons are ___.
22. Neither atom has a ___.
23. Intermolecular forces __ __ are weak.
24. Covalent bonds have ___ melting and
25. Covalent bonds are usually found in
these two states of matter.
26. Two common covalent compounds
are __ and __.
Covalent – Share
Ionic – Gain