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  • 2. PROJECT
  • 3. Defining ProjectA Project is a work effort made over a finiteperiod of time with a ‘start’ and ‘finish’ tocreate a unique product, service or result.
  • 4. Project Characteristics• Unique,• Projects are temporary in nature and have adefinite beginning & ending date,• A single, definable purpose & well-defined end-terms or deliverables;• Utilizing skills & talents from multiple professions& organizations,•The ‘process’ of working to achieve a goal;• Progressive elaboration, i.e., developing in steps;• A successful project is one that meets orexceeds the expectations of the stakeholders.
  • 5. Progressive Elaboration• Because the product of each project is unique, thecharacteristics that distinguish the product or servicemust be progressively elaborated.• Progressively means "proceeding in steps; continuingsteadily by increments."• Elaborated means "worked out with care and detail;” e.g.developed thoroughly.• Progressive elaboration of product characteristics mustbe carefully coordinated with proper project scopedefinition, particularly if the project is performed undercontract.
  • 6. Examples of ProjectProject Outcome(product/service/result)Constructing a Fly-over. ProductRunning a Parliamentaryelection campaign.Result : win or lose.Product : documents.Setting up a computernetwork in a building.Service.Study literacy growth inIndia.Results: of the researchProduct : Research paper.
  • 7. Distinguishing ‘Project’ from ‘Operations’ The distinction between ‘projects’ and‘operations’ can be made by sticking to thedefinition of a project – that it is temporary &unique, whereas ‘operations’ are generallyongoing & repetitive; Although projects & operations haveobjectives, a project ends when objectives aremet, whereas operation continues towardobtaining new set of objectives, when thecurrent set of objectives have been obtained;
  • 8. Distinguishing ‘Project’ from ‘Operations’(contd.) However, projects & operations share somecharacteristics, e.g.,• Both require resources including humanresources (people);• Both are constrained to limited, asopposed to unlimited, resources;• Both are managed – that is planned,executed & controlled;• Both have objectives.
  • 9. Project ‘Goal’ For virtually every project, the goal is to hit athree dimensional target –• Complete the work for a customer or end-user in accordance with :a)Budget – specified or allowable ‘Cost’ forthe project;b)Schedule – ‘Time’ period over which thework is to be done;
  • 10. Project ‘Goal’ (contd.)c) Performance requirements – the requiredfeatures of the project end-term deliverables,or final result, including necessary attributesof the final product or service, technologicalspecifications, quality & quantity measures,and whatever else is important to thecustomer or end-user.
  • 11. Project Objective triangleCOSTTIME PERFORMANCE(QUALITY)
  • 12. Projects & strategic planning Since projects are often utilized as a meansof achieving an organization’s strategic plan,projects are typically authorized as a result ofone or more of the following strategicconsiderations :• A market demand, e.g. an oil companyauthorizes a project to build a new refinery inresponse to chronic gasoline shortage;• An organization need, e.g. a trainingcompany authorizes a project to create a newcourse in order to increase revenues;
  • 13. Projects & strategic planning (contd.)• A customer request, e.g. an electrical utilitycompany authorises a project to build a newsub-station to serve a new industrial park;• A technological advancement, e.g. a softwarefirm authorises a new project to develop a newgeneration of video games;• A legal requirement, e.g. a paint manufacturerauthorises a project to establish guidelines forhandling of a new toxic material.
  • 14. Types of Projects The following are the different types of projectsthat project managers, new to projectmanagement, might be involved with : Construction projects, Defense projects, Petrochemical, IT projects, Product development projects, Advertising & marketing projects,
  • 15. Types of Projects (contd.) Up-grade projects, Bank projects, Event management, Music concerts, Fashion shows, Disaster recovery projects, etc.
  • 17. Project ManagementProject management is the application ofknowledge, skills, tools & techniques to projectactivities to meet project requirements; Project management is accomplished throughthe application & integration of the projectmanagement processes of initiating, planning,executing, monitoring & controlling andclosing; Almost every project must work within thetriple constraint combination of time, cost(resources) and quality (performance).
  • 18. The Five Objectives of ProjectsScopeOrganizationTimeCostQuality
  • 19. Guidelines to Project management• The organization is temporary & established forthe life of the project ;• In many cases, a project forms part of a largerproject structure ;• The project objectives & product characteristicsmay be defined & achieved progressivelyduring the course of the project ;• The result of a project may be the creation of oneor several units of a product ;• The interaction between project activities maybe complex.
  • 20. Elements of Project Management• Identification of the project ;• Technical & financial appraisal of the project ;• Economic or socio-economic appraisal of theproject, when necessary ;• Proper formulation of the project ;• Plan for implementation of the project ;• Actual implementation of the project ;• Monitoring the implementation ;• Control action / rectification ;• Evaluation at the end of the project.
  • 22.  Traditionally, the management of projects wasconsidered more of an art than a science; Most project managers would begin their careers ina technical field and as they progressed, they wouldbecome more involved in the management of theirprojects; This is when they would develop a need for projectmanagement education; The worldwide trend towards project managementhas been accompanied by formal project managementeducation & training;Background
  • 23.  There are now many academic and certificationprogrammes available from universities & collegesaround the world; Historically, as the discipline of projectmanagement grew and become established, so anumber of institutions & associations were formedto represent the project management practitionerswith respect to education, professionalaccreditation, ethics and body of knowledge;Background
  • 24. Background The project management standards areassociated with the following :• Body of knowledge,• Certification of project managers (PMP) ,• Unit standards,• Ethics and governance,• Global forum.
  • 25. Body of Knowledge Over the past fifty years, a considerable body ofknowledge has been built up around projectmanagement tools, skills, techniques & processes; This data base of information has been developedinto what the Project Management Institute (PMI) callthe Project Management Body Of Knowledge(PMBOK); There are number of institutes, associations andgovernment bodies around the world which haveproduced a body of knowledge, unit standards &competency standards – they all have presence in theinternet;
  • 26. Body of Knowledge Some of the institutes are :• Project Management Institute (PMI), USA;(PMBOK)• Association for Project Management (AIM), UK[BOK];• Australian Institute of Project Management(AIPM);• International Project management Association(IPMA);• Association for construction Project Managers(ACPM), etc.
  • 27. Body of Knowledge There are number of standards published bydifferent bodies; Project management techniques• nearly all the special project managementtechniques used today, were developed duringthe 1950s and 1960s by US defense – aerospaceindustry (DoD & NASA);• this includes – CPM/PERT, Earned value (EV),configuration management, value engineering &work breakdown structure (WBS), etc.
  • 29. Areas of Expertise Understanding & applying the knowledge, skills, tools& techniques which are recognized as good practices,are not sufficient alone for project management; Effective project management requires that the projectmanagement team understand and use knowledge &skills from at least five areas of expertise:1. The project management body of knowledge(PMBOK);2. Application area knowledge, standards&regulations;3. Understanding project environment;4. General management knowledge & skills;5. Interpersonal skills.
  • 30. Area of expertise (contd.) Project management body of knowledge• The knowledge of project managementdescribed in PMBOK guide consists of :1. Project life-cycle definition,2. Five project management process groups,3. Nine knowledge areas.
  • 31. Area of expertise (contd.) Application area knowledge, standards &regulations• Each application area generally has a set of acceptedstandards & practices, often codified in regulations.These application areas are :1. Functional departments & supporting disciplines,such as legal, production & inventory mgmt,marketing, logistics & personnel,2. Technical elements, such as software development,water & sanitation engg, or construction engg,3. Management specializations, such as governmentcontracting, community development, etc.,4. Industry groups, such as automotive, chemical,agricultural & financial services.
  • 32. Area of expertise (contd.) Understanding the project environment• The project team should consider the project inthe contexts of :1. Cultural & social environment,2. International & political environment,3. Physical environment. General management knowledge & skills• This encompasses planning, organizing, staffing,directing & controlling the operations of anenterprise.• It includes supporting disciplines, such as –Financial mgmt / sales & marketing/ contracts &commercial law /SCM /Personnel administration /OB / compensation / Health & safety / IT, etc.
  • 33. Area of expertise (contd.) Interpersonal skills• The management of interpersonal relationsinclude : Effective communication, Influencing the organization, Leadership, Motivation, Negotiation & conflict management, Problem-solving.
  • 34. 34PROJECTMANAGEMENTKNOWLEDGEAREAGENERALMANAGEMENTSKILLSTECHNICALMANAGEMENTSKILLS Project -• Integration management• Scope Management• Time Management• Cost Management• Quality management• Human resource Management• Communication Management• Risk management• Procurement management• Economics• Legal (Negotiations & Contracts)• Human Resources• Finance & Accounts• Marketing & Sales• Technical Expertise Arease.g. MechanicalElectricalCivilElectronicsComputersTelecommunications etc.Main Knowledge & Skill Areas for managing Projects
  • 36. Project Life Cycle• The collection of phases that are performed incompleting a project.• Each project phase is marked by completion of oneor more deliverables.• The conclusion of a project phase is generallymarked by a review of both key deliverables andproject performance to date.Determine if the project should continue into itsnext phase.Detect and correct errors.
  • 37. Project Life Cycle• The project life cycle defines the beginning and theend of a project.• Project life cycles generally define:- What technical work should be done ineach phase;- When the deliverables are to be generated ineach phase & how each deliverable isreviewed, verified & validated;- Who should be involved in each phase;- How to control & approve each phase.
  • 38. Project Lifecycle The PMBOK (4thedition) states that as projectsare unique & involve a certain degree of risk,organizations performing projects will generallysub-divide their projects into several projectphases to provide better management control; Collectively these project phases are called the‘project life cycle’; The four-phase project life-cycle is given below :1. Concept & initiation phase,2. Design & development phase,3. Execution phase,4. Commissioning & handover phase.
  • 39. Typical Project Life CycleConcept orDefiningDesign &development orPlanningExecution Commissioningor Delivery•Goals,•Specns.•Feasibility,•Tasks,•Responsibilities,•Teams.•Schedules-Gantt/Network,•Budgets,•Resources,•Risks,•Staffing.•StatusReports,•Changes,•Quality.•Train customers,•Transferdocuments,•Releaseresources,•Reassign staff,•Lessons learned.Level ofEffort
  • 40. Life-cycle characteristics Most project life cycles share a number ofcharacteristics :• Phases are generally sequential & are usuallydefined by some form of technical information transfer;• Cost & staffing levels are low at the start, peak duringthe intermediate phase & drop rapidly as the projectdraws to a conclusion;• The level of uncertainty is highest, and hence, risk offailing to achieve the objectives is greatest at the startof the project - the certainty of completion generallygets progressively better as the project continues;
  • 41. Life-cycle characteristics (contd.)• The ability of the stakeholders to influence thefinal characteristics of the project’s product andthe final cost of the project is highest at the start &gets progressively lower as the project continues;• A major contributor to the phenomenon is thatthe cost of changes and correcting errorsgenerally increases as the project continues.