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Defining ProjectA Project is a work effort made over a finiteperiod of time with a ‘start’ and ‘finish’ tocreate a unique product, service or result.
Project Characteristics• Unique,• Projects are temporary in nature and have adefinite beginning & ending date,• A single, definable purpose & well-defined end-terms or deliverables;• Utilizing skills & talents from multiple professions& organizations,•The ‘process’ of working to achieve a goal;• Progressive elaboration, i.e., developing in steps;• A successful project is one that meets orexceeds the expectations of the stakeholders.
Progressive Elaboration• Because the product of each project is unique, thecharacteristics that distinguish the product or servicemust be progressively elaborated.• Progressively means "proceeding in steps; continuingsteadily by increments."• Elaborated means "worked out with care and detail;” e.g.developed thoroughly.• Progressive elaboration of product characteristics mustbe carefully coordinated with proper project scopedefinition, particularly if the project is performed undercontract.
Examples of ProjectProject Outcome(product/service/result)Constructing a Fly-over. ProductRunning a Parliamentaryelection campaign.Result : win or lose.Product : documents.Setting up a computernetwork in a building.Service.Study literacy growth inIndia.Results: of the researchProduct : Research paper.
Distinguishing ‘Project’ from ‘Operations’ The distinction between ‘projects’ and‘operations’ can be made by sticking to thedefinition of a project – that it is temporary &unique, whereas ‘operations’ are generallyongoing & repetitive; Although projects & operations haveobjectives, a project ends when objectives aremet, whereas operation continues towardobtaining new set of objectives, when thecurrent set of objectives have been obtained;
Distinguishing ‘Project’ from ‘Operations’(contd.) However, projects & operations share somecharacteristics, e.g.,• Both require resources including humanresources (people);• Both are constrained to limited, asopposed to unlimited, resources;• Both are managed – that is planned,executed & controlled;• Both have objectives.
Project ‘Goal’ For virtually every project, the goal is to hit athree dimensional target –• Complete the work for a customer or end-user in accordance with :a)Budget – specified or allowable ‘Cost’ forthe project;b)Schedule – ‘Time’ period over which thework is to be done;
Project ‘Goal’ (contd.)c) Performance requirements – the requiredfeatures of the project end-term deliverables,or final result, including necessary attributesof the final product or service, technologicalspecifications, quality & quantity measures,and whatever else is important to thecustomer or end-user.
Projects & strategic planning Since projects are often utilized as a meansof achieving an organization’s strategic plan,projects are typically authorized as a result ofone or more of the following strategicconsiderations :• A market demand, e.g. an oil companyauthorizes a project to build a new refinery inresponse to chronic gasoline shortage;• An organization need, e.g. a trainingcompany authorizes a project to create a newcourse in order to increase revenues;
Projects & strategic planning (contd.)• A customer request, e.g. an electrical utilitycompany authorises a project to build a newsub-station to serve a new industrial park;• A technological advancement, e.g. a softwarefirm authorises a new project to develop a newgeneration of video games;• A legal requirement, e.g. a paint manufacturerauthorises a project to establish guidelines forhandling of a new toxic material.
Types of Projects The following are the different types of projectsthat project managers, new to projectmanagement, might be involved with : Construction projects, Defense projects, Petrochemical, IT projects, Product development projects, Advertising & marketing projects,
Types of Projects (contd.) Up-grade projects, Bank projects, Event management, Music concerts, Fashion shows, Disaster recovery projects, etc.
Project ManagementProject management is the application ofknowledge, skills, tools & techniques to projectactivities to meet project requirements; Project management is accomplished throughthe application & integration of the projectmanagement processes of initiating, planning,executing, monitoring & controlling andclosing; Almost every project must work within thetriple constraint combination of time, cost(resources) and quality (performance).
The Five Objectives of ProjectsScopeOrganizationTimeCostQuality
Guidelines to Project management• The organization is temporary & established forthe life of the project ;• In many cases, a project forms part of a largerproject structure ;• The project objectives & product characteristicsmay be defined & achieved progressivelyduring the course of the project ;• The result of a project may be the creation of oneor several units of a product ;• The interaction between project activities maybe complex.
Elements of Project Management• Identification of the project ;• Technical & financial appraisal of the project ;• Economic or socio-economic appraisal of theproject, when necessary ;• Proper formulation of the project ;• Plan for implementation of the project ;• Actual implementation of the project ;• Monitoring the implementation ;• Control action / rectification ;• Evaluation at the end of the project.
Traditionally, the management of projects wasconsidered more of an art than a science; Most project managers would begin their careers ina technical field and as they progressed, they wouldbecome more involved in the management of theirprojects; This is when they would develop a need for projectmanagement education; The worldwide trend towards project managementhas been accompanied by formal project managementeducation & training;Background
There are now many academic and certificationprogrammes available from universities & collegesaround the world; Historically, as the discipline of projectmanagement grew and become established, so anumber of institutions & associations were formedto represent the project management practitionerswith respect to education, professionalaccreditation, ethics and body of knowledge;Background
Background The project management standards areassociated with the following :• Body of knowledge,• Certification of project managers (PMP) ,• Unit standards,• Ethics and governance,• Global forum.
Body of Knowledge Over the past fifty years, a considerable body ofknowledge has been built up around projectmanagement tools, skills, techniques & processes; This data base of information has been developedinto what the Project Management Institute (PMI) callthe Project Management Body Of Knowledge(PMBOK); There are number of institutes, associations andgovernment bodies around the world which haveproduced a body of knowledge, unit standards &competency standards – they all have presence in theinternet;
Body of Knowledge Some of the institutes are :• Project Management Institute (PMI), USA;(PMBOK)• Association for Project Management (AIM), UK[BOK];• Australian Institute of Project Management(AIPM);• International Project management Association(IPMA);• Association for construction Project Managers(ACPM), etc.
Body of Knowledge There are number of standards published bydifferent bodies; Project management techniques• nearly all the special project managementtechniques used today, were developed duringthe 1950s and 1960s by US defense – aerospaceindustry (DoD & NASA);• this includes – CPM/PERT, Earned value (EV),configuration management, value engineering &work breakdown structure (WBS), etc.
Areas of Expertise Understanding & applying the knowledge, skills, tools& techniques which are recognized as good practices,are not sufficient alone for project management; Effective project management requires that the projectmanagement team understand and use knowledge &skills from at least five areas of expertise:1. The project management body of knowledge(PMBOK);2. Application area knowledge, standards®ulations;3. Understanding project environment;4. General management knowledge & skills;5. Interpersonal skills.
Area of expertise (contd.) Project management body of knowledge• The knowledge of project managementdescribed in PMBOK guide consists of :1. Project life-cycle definition,2. Five project management process groups,3. Nine knowledge areas.
Area of expertise (contd.) Application area knowledge, standards ®ulations• Each application area generally has a set of acceptedstandards & practices, often codified in regulations.These application areas are :1. Functional departments & supporting disciplines,such as legal, production & inventory mgmt,marketing, logistics & personnel,2. Technical elements, such as software development,water & sanitation engg, or construction engg,3. Management specializations, such as governmentcontracting, community development, etc.,4. Industry groups, such as automotive, chemical,agricultural & financial services.
Area of expertise (contd.) Understanding the project environment• The project team should consider the project inthe contexts of :1. Cultural & social environment,2. International & political environment,3. Physical environment. General management knowledge & skills• This encompasses planning, organizing, staffing,directing & controlling the operations of anenterprise.• It includes supporting disciplines, such as –Financial mgmt / sales & marketing/ contracts &commercial law /SCM /Personnel administration /OB / compensation / Health & safety / IT, etc.
Area of expertise (contd.) Interpersonal skills• The management of interpersonal relationsinclude : Effective communication, Influencing the organization, Leadership, Motivation, Negotiation & conflict management, Problem-solving.
34PROJECTMANAGEMENTKNOWLEDGEAREAGENERALMANAGEMENTSKILLSTECHNICALMANAGEMENTSKILLS Project -• Integration management• Scope Management• Time Management• Cost Management• Quality management• Human resource Management• Communication Management• Risk management• Procurement management• Economics• Legal (Negotiations & Contracts)• Human Resources• Finance & Accounts• Marketing & Sales• Technical Expertise Arease.g. MechanicalElectricalCivilElectronicsComputersTelecommunications etc.Main Knowledge & Skill Areas for managing Projects
Project Life Cycle• The collection of phases that are performed incompleting a project.• Each project phase is marked by completion of oneor more deliverables.• The conclusion of a project phase is generallymarked by a review of both key deliverables andproject performance to date.Determine if the project should continue into itsnext phase.Detect and correct errors.
Project Life Cycle• The project life cycle defines the beginning and theend of a project.• Project life cycles generally define:- What technical work should be done ineach phase;- When the deliverables are to be generated ineach phase & how each deliverable isreviewed, verified & validated;- Who should be involved in each phase;- How to control & approve each phase.
Project Lifecycle The PMBOK (4thedition) states that as projectsare unique & involve a certain degree of risk,organizations performing projects will generallysub-divide their projects into several projectphases to provide better management control; Collectively these project phases are called the‘project life cycle’; The four-phase project life-cycle is given below :1. Concept & initiation phase,2. Design & development phase,3. Execution phase,4. Commissioning & handover phase.
Life-cycle characteristics Most project life cycles share a number ofcharacteristics :• Phases are generally sequential & are usuallydefined by some form of technical information transfer;• Cost & staffing levels are low at the start, peak duringthe intermediate phase & drop rapidly as the projectdraws to a conclusion;• The level of uncertainty is highest, and hence, risk offailing to achieve the objectives is greatest at the startof the project - the certainty of completion generallygets progressively better as the project continues;
Life-cycle characteristics (contd.)• The ability of the stakeholders to influence thefinal characteristics of the project’s product andthe final cost of the project is highest at the start &gets progressively lower as the project continues;• A major contributor to the phenomenon is thatthe cost of changes and correcting errorsgenerally increases as the project continues.