NTTF,SPG
1
FORGING
EXTERNAL GUIDE
Mr. Ramaswamy
Associate vice president
BHARAT Forge LTD
Pune
INTERNAL GUIDE
Mr. Nataraja...
NTTF,SPG
2
CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• FORGING PROCESSES
• MATERIALS
• HAMMERS
• PRESSES
• ADVANTAGES OF FORGING
• DEFECTS I...
NTTF,SPG
3
INTRODUCTION
• By application of heat and pressure, a metal
can be altered in shape permanently without
rupture.
NTTF,SPG
4
FORGING PROCESSES
• OPEN DIE FORGING
• CLOSED DIE FORGING (IMPRESSION
DIE)
NTTF,SPG
5
OPEN DIE PROCESS
NTTF,SPG
6
OPEN DIE PROCESS
• TYPES
– UPSETTING
– COGGING
– SOLID FORGING
– PIERCING, PUNCHING AND TREPANNING
– RING FORGI...
NTTF,SPG
7
OPEN DIE PROCESS
• UPSETTING
NTTF,SPG
8
OPEN DIE PROCESS
• COGGING
NTTF,SPG
9
OPEN DIE PROCESS
• SOLID FORGING
– IS USED TO PRODUCE STOCK FOR FURTHER
FORGING OPERATIONS OR END PRODUCTS
SUCH...
NTTF,SPG
10
OPEN DIE PROCESS
• PIERCING, PUNCHING AND TREPANNING
NTTF,SPG
11
OPEN DIE PROCESS
• RING FORGING
– Slight rotation of the ring on each press stroke
reduces the ring wall unifo...
NTTF,SPG
12
CLOSED DIE FORGING
NTTF,SPG
13
MATERIALS
• CARBON, MICRO ALLOYED AND ALLOYED
STEELS
• STAINLESS STEEL
• ALUMINIUM ALLOYS
• COPPER BASED ALLOY...
NTTF,SPG
14
HAMMERS
• BOARD HAMMERS
• AIR-LIFT HAMMERS
• STEAM OR AIR-POWERED HAMMERS
NTTF,SPG
15
PRESSES
• MECHANICAL PRESSES
• SCREW PRESSES
• HYDRAULIC PRESSES
NTTF,SPG
16
ADVANTAGES OF FORGING METALS
• GREATER STRENGTH
• REDUCTION IN WEIGHT
• ABILITY TO WITHSTAND UNPREDICTABLE
LOA...
NTTF,SPG
17
GRAIN FLOW
NTTF,SPG
18
DEFECTS
• CRACKS
• TEARS
• UNDERFILLING
• PITTING
• DENTS
• LAPS
NTTF,SPG
19
APPLICATION
NTTF,SPG
20
SECONDARY OPERATIONS
• HEAT TREATING
• MACHINING
• FINISHING OPERATIONS
– REMOVAL OF OXIDE SCALES
– CLEANING (...
NTTF,SPG
21
HEAT TREATING
• TO IMPROVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF FORGED COMPONENTS
• UNIFORM GRAIN STRUCTURE
• TO RELIEVE I...
NTTF,SPG
22
MACHINING
• TO ACHIEVE FORM AND FINAL
TOLERANCE
NTTF,SPG
23
FINISHING OPERATIONS
-REMOVAL OF OXIDE SCALES
• WHY ?
– DURING MACHING CUTING TOOL LIFE
REDUCES
– DIE WEAR
– T...
NTTF,SPG
24
FINISHING OPERATIONS
-CLEANING
• PICKLING
– IMMERSED IN ACID SOLUTION
– 12% TO 15% OF CONCENTRATED
SULFURIC AC...
NTTF,SPG
25
FINISHING OPERATIONS
-CLEANING
• TUMBLING
– FORGED COMPONENTS ARE ROTATED
WITH LOOSE ABRASIVES TO REMOVE
THE S...
NTTF,SPG
26
FINISHING OPERATIONS
-CLEANING
• BLAST CLEANING
– SAND, GRIT OR METALLIC SHOT ARE
MIXED WITH AIR AND FORCED
AG...
NTTF,SPG
27
FINISHING OPERATIONS
-SHOT PEENING
– ROUND METALLIC SHOT IS THROWN IN
RELATIVELY HIGH VELOCITY
– INCREASES THE...
NTTF,SPG
28
PRODUCT DESIGN OF FORGING
• CONSIDERATION FOR DESIGNING FORGED
PARTS
• CONSIDERATION FOR DESIGNING
FORGING DIE...
NTTF,SPG
29
PRODUCT DESIGN ASPECTS
A TYPICAL PART
NTTF,SPG
30
PRODUCT DESIGN OF FORGING
RECOMMENDATIONS :
•DRAFT
7° OUTSIDE DRAFT ANGLE
10° INSIDE DRAFT ANGLE
•RADII & FILL...
NTTF,SPG
31
PRODUCT DESIGN OF FORGING
• AVOID DEEP IMPRESSIONS
• THIN WALLED SECTIONS SHOULD BE
AVOIDED
• RAPID CHANGE OF ...
NTTF,SPG
32
DESIGN ASPECTS
PARTING LINE SELECTION :
– AVOIDANCE OF DEEP IMPRESSION
– AVOIDANCE OF SIDE THRUST
– FAVOURABLE...
NTTF,SPG
33
DESIGN ASPECTS
NTTF,SPG
34
SAFETY MEASURES
• SHIELDS, GLOVES, GOOGLES Etc.
• WARNING SIGNS
• OPERATOR TRAINING
• SAFETY SENSORS
NTTF,SPG
35
COMPANY VISITED
• BHARAT FORGE LIMITED, PUNE
– ONE OF THE ASIA’S BIGGEST
– ALMOST ALL AUTOMOTIVE LEADERS ARE
T...
NTTF,SPG
36
BHARAT FORGING LIMITED
• PRESS SHOP
– CONNECTING ROD
– FRONT AXLE
• DIE MANUFACTURING
– MACHINES USED
– DIES
–...
NTTF,SPG
37
CONNECTING ROD
NTTF,SPG
38
DIE FOR CONNECTING ROD
NTTF,SPG
39
FORGING DIE
• MATERIAL
• HARDNESS
• LIFE
• MANUFACTURING
NTTF,SPG
40
DIE MANUFACTURING
NTTF,SPG
41
DIE MANUFACTURING
NTTF,SPG
42
DIE MANUFACTURING
NTTF,SPG
43
DIE MANUFACTURING
NTTF,SPG
44
DIE MANUFACTURING
NTTF,SPG
45
DIE MANUFACTURING
NTTF,SPG
46
CONCLUSION
NTTF,SPG
47
THANK YOU
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06.forging

  1. 1. NTTF,SPG 1 FORGING EXTERNAL GUIDE Mr. Ramaswamy Associate vice president BHARAT Forge LTD Pune INTERNAL GUIDE Mr. Natarajan Consultant SPG, NTTF Bangalore By S.Krishnamoorthy, 0201
  2. 2. NTTF,SPG 2 CONTENTS • INTRODUCTION • FORGING PROCESSES • MATERIALS • HAMMERS • PRESSES • ADVANTAGES OF FORGING • DEFECTS IN FORGING • APPLICATION • SECONDARY OPERATIONS • PRODUCT DESIGN ASPECTS • SAFETY MEASURES • COMPANY VISIT • CONCLUSION
  3. 3. NTTF,SPG 3 INTRODUCTION • By application of heat and pressure, a metal can be altered in shape permanently without rupture.
  4. 4. NTTF,SPG 4 FORGING PROCESSES • OPEN DIE FORGING • CLOSED DIE FORGING (IMPRESSION DIE)
  5. 5. NTTF,SPG 5 OPEN DIE PROCESS
  6. 6. NTTF,SPG 6 OPEN DIE PROCESS • TYPES – UPSETTING – COGGING – SOLID FORGING – PIERCING, PUNCHING AND TREPANNING – RING FORGING – COMBINED PROCESSES
  7. 7. NTTF,SPG 7 OPEN DIE PROCESS • UPSETTING
  8. 8. NTTF,SPG 8 OPEN DIE PROCESS • COGGING
  9. 9. NTTF,SPG 9 OPEN DIE PROCESS • SOLID FORGING – IS USED TO PRODUCE STOCK FOR FURTHER FORGING OPERATIONS OR END PRODUCTS SUCH AS BARS OR SHAFTS
  10. 10. NTTF,SPG 10 OPEN DIE PROCESS • PIERCING, PUNCHING AND TREPANNING
  11. 11. NTTF,SPG 11 OPEN DIE PROCESS • RING FORGING – Slight rotation of the ring on each press stroke reduces the ring wall uniformly and increases both the inside and outside diameters. The height of the ring remains nearly constant, but may require edging
  12. 12. NTTF,SPG 12 CLOSED DIE FORGING
  13. 13. NTTF,SPG 13 MATERIALS • CARBON, MICRO ALLOYED AND ALLOYED STEELS • STAINLESS STEEL • ALUMINIUM ALLOYS • COPPER BASED ALLOYS • HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS OF IRON, Ni, Co • TITANIUM ALLOYS • MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
  14. 14. NTTF,SPG 14 HAMMERS • BOARD HAMMERS • AIR-LIFT HAMMERS • STEAM OR AIR-POWERED HAMMERS
  15. 15. NTTF,SPG 15 PRESSES • MECHANICAL PRESSES • SCREW PRESSES • HYDRAULIC PRESSES
  16. 16. NTTF,SPG 16 ADVANTAGES OF FORGING METALS • GREATER STRENGTH • REDUCTION IN WEIGHT • ABILITY TO WITHSTAND UNPREDICTABLE LOADS • MIN OF MACHINE FINISH REQUIRED • SAVINIG IN MATERIAL • ELIMINATION OF INTERNAL DEFECTS
  17. 17. NTTF,SPG 17 GRAIN FLOW
  18. 18. NTTF,SPG 18 DEFECTS • CRACKS • TEARS • UNDERFILLING • PITTING • DENTS • LAPS
  19. 19. NTTF,SPG 19 APPLICATION
  20. 20. NTTF,SPG 20 SECONDARY OPERATIONS • HEAT TREATING • MACHINING • FINISHING OPERATIONS – REMOVAL OF OXIDE SCALES – CLEANING (PICKLING, TUMBLING, BLAST CLANING) – SHOT PEENING
  21. 21. NTTF,SPG 21 HEAT TREATING • TO IMPROVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FORGED COMPONENTS • UNIFORM GRAIN STRUCTURE • TO RELIEVE INTERNAL STRESSES – ALL SEVEN GROUPS OF ALLOYS CAN BE HEAT TREATED
  22. 22. NTTF,SPG 22 MACHINING • TO ACHIEVE FORM AND FINAL TOLERANCE
  23. 23. NTTF,SPG 23 FINISHING OPERATIONS -REMOVAL OF OXIDE SCALES • WHY ? – DURING MACHING CUTING TOOL LIFE REDUCES – DIE WEAR – TO FACILITATE SURFACE COATING # STEAM OR COMPRESSED AIR # OIL SPRAYING
  24. 24. NTTF,SPG 24 FINISHING OPERATIONS -CLEANING • PICKLING – IMMERSED IN ACID SOLUTION – 12% TO 15% OF CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID WITH WATER – IN SOME CASES ACID SOLUTION IS HEATED – MOSTLY FOR NON FERROUS FORGINGS (Cu, BRASS, BRONZE, Al, MONEL)
  25. 25. NTTF,SPG 25 FINISHING OPERATIONS -CLEANING • TUMBLING – FORGED COMPONENTS ARE ROTATED WITH LOOSE ABRASIVES TO REMOVE THE SCALE – CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN WHEN FORGING HAVE SHARP EDGES AND SHARPLY DEFINED SECTIONS
  26. 26. NTTF,SPG 26 FINISHING OPERATIONS -CLEANING • BLAST CLEANING – SAND, GRIT OR METALLIC SHOT ARE MIXED WITH AIR AND FORCED AGAINST FORGINGS – USED FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE FORGINGS – IMPROVES SURFACE FINISH
  27. 27. NTTF,SPG 27 FINISHING OPERATIONS -SHOT PEENING – ROUND METALLIC SHOT IS THROWN IN RELATIVELY HIGH VELOCITY – INCREASES THE FATIGUE STRENGTH – PITTING – CRANK SHAFTS, CAM SHAFT, CONNECTING RODS, GEARS AND SPRINGS.
  28. 28. NTTF,SPG 28 PRODUCT DESIGN OF FORGING • CONSIDERATION FOR DESIGNING FORGED PARTS • CONSIDERATION FOR DESIGNING FORGING DIES • RECOMMENDED ALLOWANCES
  29. 29. NTTF,SPG 29 PRODUCT DESIGN ASPECTS A TYPICAL PART
  30. 30. NTTF,SPG 30 PRODUCT DESIGN OF FORGING RECOMMENDATIONS : •DRAFT 7° OUTSIDE DRAFT ANGLE 10° INSIDE DRAFT ANGLE •RADII & FILLET SHOULD BE AS LARGE AS POSSIBLE •SHARP RADII SHOULD BE AVAILABLE •IN CASE OF SMALL DEPRESSION OR SMALL HOLES SHOULD BE MACHINED
  31. 31. NTTF,SPG 31 PRODUCT DESIGN OF FORGING • AVOID DEEP IMPRESSIONS • THIN WALLED SECTIONS SHOULD BE AVOIDED • RAPID CHANGE OF SECTIONS SHOULD BE AVOIDED DIE: • THE PARTING LINE SHOULD BE ARRANGED IN ONE PLANE AS NEARLY AS POSSIBLE SO THAT EXCESS METAL OR FLASH CAN BE TRIMMED • INSERT DESIGN
  32. 32. NTTF,SPG 32 DESIGN ASPECTS PARTING LINE SELECTION : – AVOIDANCE OF DEEP IMPRESSION – AVOIDANCE OF SIDE THRUST – FAVOURABLE GRAIN SIZE
  33. 33. NTTF,SPG 33 DESIGN ASPECTS
  34. 34. NTTF,SPG 34 SAFETY MEASURES • SHIELDS, GLOVES, GOOGLES Etc. • WARNING SIGNS • OPERATOR TRAINING • SAFETY SENSORS
  35. 35. NTTF,SPG 35 COMPANY VISITED • BHARAT FORGE LIMITED, PUNE – ONE OF THE ASIA’S BIGGEST – ALMOST ALL AUTOMOTIVE LEADERS ARE THEIR CUSTOMERS – MANUFACTURING CRANK SHAFTS, FRONT AXLE, REAR AXLE, CONNECTING RODS, CAM SHAFTS etc
  36. 36. NTTF,SPG 36 BHARAT FORGING LIMITED • PRESS SHOP – CONNECTING ROD – FRONT AXLE • DIE MANUFACTURING – MACHINES USED – DIES – LUBRICANTS
  37. 37. NTTF,SPG 37 CONNECTING ROD
  38. 38. NTTF,SPG 38 DIE FOR CONNECTING ROD
  39. 39. NTTF,SPG 39 FORGING DIE • MATERIAL • HARDNESS • LIFE • MANUFACTURING
  40. 40. NTTF,SPG 40 DIE MANUFACTURING
  41. 41. NTTF,SPG 41 DIE MANUFACTURING
  42. 42. NTTF,SPG 42 DIE MANUFACTURING
  43. 43. NTTF,SPG 43 DIE MANUFACTURING
  44. 44. NTTF,SPG 44 DIE MANUFACTURING
  45. 45. NTTF,SPG 45 DIE MANUFACTURING
  46. 46. NTTF,SPG 46 CONCLUSION
  47. 47. NTTF,SPG 47 THANK YOU
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