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Biopesticides in Integrated Pest Management

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Types & roles of microbial bio-pesticides in integrated pest management

Types & roles of microbial bio-pesticides in integrated pest management

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  • 1. Agrochemicals for food & nutritional security: BIOPESTICIDES IN IPM Prithusayak Mondal Division of Agricultural Chemicals Roll No. 4944 Chairperson : Dr. Anupama Singh Seminar Leader : Dr. Seeni Rengasamy 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 1
  • 2. Per capita land availability 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 2
  • 3. Problem of food security 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 3
  • 4. 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 4
  • 5. GREEN REVOLUTION RICE WHEAT 239.3 77.4 83.6 98.8 104.2 243.3 Press Information Bureau, 27-10-2008 PULSES ALL FOOD GRAINS Production and Demand of Food grains in 2011-2012 (million tonnes) 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 5
  • 6. 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 6
  • 7. Attack to Crops Bacteria Insects Fungi Viruses Nematodes Weeds Food plants of the world are damaged by more than 10,000 species of insects, 30,000 species of weeds, 100,000 diseases (caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria and other microbes) and 1000 species of nematodes (Hall, 1995; Dhaliwal et al., 2007) 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 7
  • 8. Estimation of crop losses caused by insect pests to major agricultural crops in India 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals Dhaliwal et al., 2010 8
  • 9. Role of Pesticides Crop production without pesticide is unimaginable To ensure better production at harvest against unpredictable losses caused by plant diseases & pests  To improve both quality & quantity of food  To decrease the extent of vector born & other diseases in humans & animals “Complete ban on agrochemicals use in agriculture might result in 50% reduction in global food production and 4 to 5 times increase in food prices” Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 9
  • 10. Risk Associated With Chemical Pesticides Toxicity to plants • Indiscriminate use leads to the Three sad R’s : Toxicity to Resistance, Resurgence and Residues mammals Toxicity to aquatic creatures • Elimination of Natural enemies of pests Toxicity to beneficial organisms • Upsetting the ecological balance • Environmental degradation/Pollution • Enters food chain and lead to Bio-Accumulation and Bio-Magnification As a result of The misuse and overuse of pesticides crop losses have consistently shown an increasing trend (Dhaliwal and Koul, 2010) High persistence of residues 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 10
  • 11. New form of pesticide Environmentally safe Low residual toxicity Host specific in action 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 11
  • 12. Active ingredient- Living organisms Biopesticides are used to control pests, pathogens, and weeds by a variety of means Microbial biopesticides may include a pathogen or parasite that infects the target Alternatively, they might act as competitors or inducers of plant host resistance 1st Biopesticide discovered in the year 1835 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 12
  • 13. Bio means involving life or living organisms Pesticide includes substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest Biopesticide refers introduction of any living organism such as microorganism including bacteria , fungi , nematodes viruses, protozoa and parasitoids and predators that controls pests by biological non-toxic means e.g. Trichoderma sp., Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria etc. All the living organisms, which are cultivated in the laboratory on large scale & used and exploited experimentally for the control of harmful organisms are called biopesticides 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 13
  • 14. Global biopesticides & synthetic pesticides market, 2003-2010 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 14
  • 15. Locked Horns: Synthetic pesticides Vs. Bio-pesticides Factors Synthetic Pesticides Bio-pesticides Cost effectiveness Cheap but increased spraying cost Costlier but reduced number of applications Persistence and residual effect High Low Knockdown effect Immediate Delayed Handling and Bulkiness Easy but danger and Hazardous Bulky : Carrier based Easy : Liquid formulation Pest resurgence More Less Effect on Beneficial flora More harmful Less harmful Target specificity Mostly broad spectrum Mostly host specific Nature of control Curative Preventive Shelf life More Less The market share of bio-pesticide is only 2% as compared to synthetic pesticide 1/10/2011 (Source : agriculture Today. Nov. 2005) Division of Agricultural Chemicals 15
  • 16. MICROBIAL PESTICIDE Active ingredient : Microorganism (Fungi, bacteria, virus, nematode etc.) 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals Woo et al., 2010 16
  • 17. MICROBIAL PESTICIDE List of registered microbial products by CIB Name of microbes Type Bacillus sp. Bacteria Trichoderma sp. Fungi Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteria Gliocladium sp. Fungi Beauveria bassiana Fungi Verticillium lecanii Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae Fungi Nomuraea rileyi Fungi Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses Virus Granulosis Viruses Virus 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals Courtesy: http://www.cibrc.nic.in 17
  • 18. Characteristics Storable Economical Easy to produce Safe & acceptable Convenient to apply Virulent against target pest Advantages High degree of specificity Compatible with chemical pesticides Easy to apply & aid growth through out No adverse effect on non-target organisms Absence of residue build-up in the environment Relatively cheaper by 50% as compared to chemical pesticides (Narayanasamy, 1995) 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 18
  • 19. Bio-pesticides Entomopathogenic Fungi Fungal Antagonists Bacterial Antagonists Entomopathogenic Bacteria Parasites & Predators Moore & Prior, 1993 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 19
  • 20. Entomopathogenic Fungi Entomopathogenic fungi are fungi that can act as parasites of insects and kill or seriously disable them Mode of Action 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 20
  • 21. Entomopathogenic fungi in insect control 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 21
  • 22. Beauveria Beauveria bassiana most common Habitat: Foliage Insect Host: White flies, beetles & caterpillars (including Helicoverpa sp.) Dose: 2 treatments made at 15-day intervals with 1.5 kg/ha concentrated product of B. bassiana (3.0 × 109 conidia) Treatment: i) Foliar spray: 400-500 g in ½ bigha (5g/L of water) ii) Soil drench: 250-500 g/3 bigha Health impact: It causes granulosis disease in human ear 1/10/2011 Beauveria bassiana Cultures of B. bassiana Division of Agricultural Chemicals 22 Grasshoppers killed by B. bassiana
  • 23. Metarhizium Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae & var. major Habitat: Foliage Insect host: Frog hoppers, beetles Dose: Aerial treatment at 50 l/ha with 6 1011 to 1.2 1012 conidia/l of water Conidia Different cultures of M. anisopliae 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals Cockroach killed by M. anisopliae 23
  • 24. Verticillium Dose: 41 Verticillium (Cephalosporium) lecanii Habitat: Glasshouse foliage Insect host: Aphids, whiteflies & scales 107 active spores/g either undiluted or as a 10% concentration (diluted with talc or water) Conidia 1/10/2011 Cultures of Verticillium lecanii Division of Agricultural Chemicals Whitefly scale infected with V. lecanii 24
  • 25. Fungal Antagonists  Principal fungi: Gliocladium virens & Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma sp. mainly T. harzianum & T. viride  Habitat: Soil  Effective against: damping-off & wilt Parasitize Rhizoctonia & Sclerotium Inhibit growth of Pythium, Phytophthora & Fusarium T. harzianum T. viride Disease: T. harzianum causes green mold in cultivated button mushrooms & T. viride causes green mold rot of onion 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 25
  • 26. Mode of action  Direct parasitism or lysis (lytic enzymes like chitinase, cellulase & glucanase) & death of the pathogen  Direct toxic effects on the pathogen by antibiotic substances released by the antagonist Mycoparasitism by a Trichoderma strain on the plant pathogen Pythium Cultures of Trichoderma harzianum  Competition with pathogen for food  Indirect toxic effects on the pathogen by volatile substances released by the metabolic activities of the antagonist 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 26
  • 27. The aim of investigations was to confirm the effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Rhizoctonia solani and make a possibility for its usage in tobacco production T. harzianum was applied before and after sowing including a fungicide Top M (0.1%) At additional treatment with Trichoderma after use of fungicide, had a better result than fungicide alone 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 27
  • 28. The influence of T. harzianum on intensity of disease attack Natural inoculation Artificial inoculation The best results have shown by a variant with T. harzianum applied on a soil before sowing and further application at certain intervals any time in a growing season of tobacco seedlings Additional treatment with T. harzianum after a fungicide Top M is advantageous to the situation with a disease, so, it may be applied with this fungicide treatment 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 28
  • 29. Bacterial Antagonists • Pseudomonas sp. are gram negative, aerobic, rods that are inhabitants of wide range of soil, water & plant surfaces • P. fluorescens recognized by fluorescent pigment called ‘pyoverdines’ • Bio-control abilities of strains depend on aggressive root colonization, induction of systemic resistance in the plant & production of diffusible or volatile antifungal antibiotics • Antibiotics with bio-control properties include – phenazines, hydrogen cyanide, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, pyrrolnitrin, lipopeptides etc. Phenazin pyoluteorin Lipopeptide 1/10/2011 pyrrolnitrin Division of Agricultural Chemicals Hydrogen cyanide 29 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol
  • 30. Mode of Action Theories include • Induction of systemic resistance – resist attack by true pathogen • Competition with other (pathogenic) soil microbes, e.g. siderophores • Production of compounds (antibiotics) antagonistic to other soil microbes Control of diseases • Different strains of P. fluorescens extensively used in bioremediation of various organic compounds & bio-controls of pathogens in agriculture • P. fluorescens found effective in controlling fungal pathogens such as wilt/root rot, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense, Pythium sp., R. solani, R. oryzae, S. rolfsii & bacterial pathogens like Xanthomonas citri & P. solanacearum in field tests • Bacterial preparations widely used in organic spice cultivation of southern India 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 30
  • 31. Entomopathogenic Bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a Gram-positive, motile, rod shaped bacterium produces a parasporal crystal composed of one or more proteins • The strains of Bt characterized so far affect members of 3 insect orders: Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Diptera (mosquitoes & biting flies), and Coleoptera (beetles) • EPA registered Bt products include B.t. israelensis (Diptera)—frequently used for mosquitoes B.t. kurstaki (Lepidoptera)—frequently used for gypsy moth, spruce budworm, and many vegetable pests B.t. sandiego and tenebrionis (Coleoptera)—frequently used for leaf beetle, Colorado potato beetle B.t. kurstaki is the most commonly used Bt formulation 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 31
  • 32. Mode of Action Bacillus thuringiensis strains produce crystalline proteins (called δ-endotoxins) Caterpillar consumes the Bt spore (diagram 1) & crystalline toxintreated leaf The Bt Treatments: crystalline toxin (diamond shapes in diagram 2) binds to gut wall receptors, and Dose: the caterpillar– 150 feeding for field crops. i) 100 stops g/ bigha ii) 150-200 g /bigha for orchards. Within hours, the gut wall breaks down, allowing spores (oval tube shapes) and normal Method: The powder is first mixed with small quantity of gut bacteria (circular shapes) to enter body water to prepare a uniform suspension. Then the required cavity, where the toxin dissolves quantity of water is added and thoroughly mixed before spray. The caterpillar dies in 24 to 48 hours from septicemia, as spores and gut bacteria proliferate in its blood (diagram 3) 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 32
  • 33. Laboratory assays were done to evaluate the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis, neem seed kernel extract (Azadirachta indica), Vitex negundo leaf extract, & applied separately or together, on nutritional indices of the rice leaf-folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Bt biopesticide & other 2 botanical pesticide suppressed feeding and larval growth and low concentrations affected the larval performance 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 33
  • 34. The combined effect of these resulted in a considerable decrease in nutritional indices indicating strong deterrence 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals (Nathan et al. ,2005) 34
  • 35. Human Health & Safety • Bt is considered to be “practically nontoxic” to humans and other vertebrates • It can cause a “very slight irritation” if inhaled & can cause eye irritation • Bt is not carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic • Bt does not persist in the brains, lungs, or digestive systems of animals, including humans • Bt has been found in fecal samples of exposed greenhouse workers, no gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with its presence 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 35
  • 36. Human Health & Safety … • Bt appears to be a normal component in the feces of vegetableconsuming animals, where it apparently causes no problem • Like the active bacterial ingredient, the inert ingredients in Bt formulations have also been studied and modified for safety • Granular and microcapsule formulations reduce the inhalation hazard • Volatile agents associated with some Bt formulations do not appear to constitute a significant health hazard. 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 36
  • 37. Environmental Impacts • No danger has been found to aquatic communities accidentally exposed to Bt or to non-target organisms including beneficial insects, amphibians, fish, and mammals • Few reports of Bt lethality upon non-target organisms, such as leaffeeding caterpillars • Clay soils may bind the bacterial toxin, increasing its environmental persistence and possible toxicity to non-target species • Newer formulations employ preservatives, like sorbitol, that are safer than the xylene used decades ago 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 37
  • 38. Phytonematode management through bacteria Bacteria Genus/species Target nematode Mode of action References Parasitic bacteria Pasteuria penetrans, P. thornei Phytonematodes Parasitism Bekal et al.(2001), Bird et al. (2003) Opportunistic bacteria Brevibacillus laterosporus, Bacillus nematocida Free living & Phytonematodes Parasitism Niu et al. (2006), Tian et al. (2007) Rhizobacteria Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp. Meloidogyne sp., Heterodera sp. Interfering with recognition, production of toxin, nutrient competition, plant growth promotion Marleny et al. (2008), Meyer (2003) Crystal forming bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis Trichostrongylus (Cry 5,6,12,13,14,21) colubriformis, Caenorhabditis elegans Cry proteins cause damage to the intestines of nematodes Kotze et al.(2005), Wei et al. (2003) Rhizo-bacterial & endophytic bacterial mode of action Division of Agricultural Chemicals Sturz et al. (2004), Compant et al. (2005) Endophytic bacteria 1/10/2011 Root knot nematode, Cyst nematode 38
  • 39. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) A) NPV (Helicoverpa): It is highly effective on H. armigera, pest of cotton,gram, pea, pigeon pea, tomato, cabbage, ground nut, millets, oilseeds & roses A) NPV (Spodoptera): It is highly effective against S. litura caterpillar, pest of cotton, gram, pigeon pea, cabbage, tomato, chillies & oilseeds Treatments: Dose: 250 – 500 LE/ha Method: i) Shake the bottle properly and prepare a solution @ 1 ml/litre of water ii) Spray the solution 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval iii) Spray preferably in the evening and on young larval stages or on sighting of egg laying 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 39
  • 40. Enhancing food security by the local production of microbial bio-pesticides against insect crop pests: African armyworms as a case study 2 types of application studied A) Aerial spray of SpexNPV B) Ground spray of SpexNPV & OP pesticide Diazinon separately SpexNPV = Spodoptera exempta Nucleo polyhedrovirus 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals (Wilson et al., 2008) 40
  • 41. 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals (Wilson et al., 2008) 41
  • 42. 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals (Wilson et al., 2008) 42
  • 43. 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals (Wilson et al., 2008) 43
  • 44. Commercial bio-pesticides for the control of plant pathogens Bactericides Microorganisms Trade Name Pathogens/ Diseases Bacteriophages of Xanthomonas sp. and Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato Agriphage™ Bacterial spot in pepper & tomatoes & bacterial speck in tomatoes Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC 10 Bio-Save® 10LP3 Ice inducing bacteria & biological decay Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 Bloomtime, Biological™ 3 Fire blight( Erwinia amylovora) 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 44
  • 45. Fungicides Microorganisms Trade Name Pathogens/ Diseases Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108 Actinovate®AG, Actinovate®SP Soiborne pathogens: Pythium sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora sp., Fusarium sp. Foliar pathogens: Alternaria sp., Peronospora sp. Bacillus GB03 subtilis Kodiak® Concentrate Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus / Phoma. root rot, damping off, crown rot Trichoderma T-22™HC, Plant Shield®, Fusarium, Pythium & Rhizoctonia/ harzianum T-22™. Planter Box, Root rot, powdery mildew Rifai strain KRL- Serenade® MAX™ AG2 Bacillus pumilus Ballad® Plus QST 2808 1/10/2011 Cercospora sp./ Rust, powdery mildew,, and brown spot Division of Agricultural Chemicals 45
  • 46. Parasitoids & Predators Types of biocontrol agents Names of biocontrol agents Target species PARASITOIDS Trichogramma chilonis Brinjal shoot and fruit borer, shoot borers of cotton, sugarcane, rice T. brasiliensis and T. pretiosum (egg parasitoids) tomato fruit borer Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Austrtralian ladybird beetle) several species of mealy bugs and soft scales Chrysoparla sp. (green lacewing bug) aphids, white flies PREDATORS 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 46
  • 47. Few examples of bio-control Muscodor albus strain QST 20799 acts as bio-fumigant & controls bacteria and soil borne pest by releasing volatile toxin Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 can act as bio-fungicide for cotton. Unlike other strains it will not produce carcinogenic ‘Aflatoxin’ Pasteuria sp. acts as bio-nematicide & controls microscopic worms & other nematodes that feed on plant roots Cydia pomonella granulosis virus acts as bio-insecticide & controls codling moth in fruits like apples & pears Phytophthora palmivora acts as bio-herbicide & controls milkweed (Asclepias sp.) in citrus orchards 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 47
  • 48. Path Ahead More studies needed to determine the environmental effects on the fate of bio-agents New technologies such as micro encapsulation of bio-control agents may be of high priority in enhancing their potential Integration of bio-pesticides with botanical pesticides has a lot of potential in pest management Integration of bio-pesticides with chemical pesticides as part of Biointensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 48
  • 49. Conclusion Microbials such as bacteria, fungi, viruses are the major bio-pesticides being studied mostly to develop alternatives to chemicals The no. & growth rate of bio-pesticide showing an increasing marketing trend in past few decades Bio-pesticides are host specific & bio-degradable resulting in least persistency of residual toxicity Bio-pesticides саn mаkе vital contributions tο IPM & can greatly reduce conventional pesticides, while crop yield remains high Bio-pesticides having lesser health hazard provides an important alternative in the search for an environmentally sound and equitable solution to the problem of food security 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 49
  • 50. “Life is not living, but being in health.” - Latin poet Martial 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 50
  • 51. 1/10/2011 Division of Agricultural Chemicals 51