Submitted for the Academic Curriculum of 6 th  Semester  Seminar Bachelor of Computer Application Degree of the Jai Narain...
<ul><li>WHAT IS OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING : </li></ul><ul><li>Object oriented programming is an approach or paradigm </l...
<ul><li>CONCEPT OF OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING: </li></ul><ul><li>Object oriented programming support various concept that...
<ul><li>OBJECT: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ An object is a things that can be seen in the world , held and touch’ , such as a ball...
OBJECT: (Continue…)
<ul><li>OBJECT: (Continue…) </li></ul><ul><li>In term of software an object is a memory variable of user </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>CLASS: </li></ul><ul><li>A class define the common characteristics of their objects that  </li></ul><ul><li>means ...
CLASS: ( continue…) <ul><li>In term of software class is : </li></ul><ul><li>Class is a collection of data member and meth...
CLASS : (continue…) Class declaration  syntax: Class <class_name> { Data member; Methods(); }; Example: in c++ Class demo ...
<ul><li>ABSTRACTION AND ENCAPSULATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction means – brief . Abstraction is a process ,which  </li...
<ul><li>ABSTRACTION AND ENCAPSULATION: (continue…) </li></ul><ul><li>There  is another important concept connected to abst...
IMPLEMENTING ABSTRACTION AND ENCAPSULATION    Example:  here abstraction and encapsulation implemented in C++   class demo...
<ul><li>POLYMORPHISM: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Polymorphism is another important concept of object oriented <...
STATIC POLYMORPHISM: Static polymorphism refers to an entity existing in different physical forms simultaneously .   Examp...
IMPLEMENTATION OF POLYMORPHISM:   Polymorphism is implemented by function overloading and function overriding. Function ov...
POLYMORPHISM: Example: in c++ Class demof { Public: Void display ( ) { Cout<<” this function does not have any argument ”;...
<ul><li>INHERITANCE : </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance is a process,  through one object can acquire </li></ul><ul><li>pre ex...
<ul><li>PROCEDURE ORIENTED </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT ORIENTED </li></ul><ul><li>In this approach programs are divided into ...
<ul><li>WHAT IS DESIGN PATTERNS: </li></ul><ul><li>Design patterns is a general reusable solution to a </li></ul><ul><li>c...
<ul><li>ELEMENTS OF DESIGN PATTERNS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern Name (handle)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hig...
<ul><li>TYPES OF DESIGN PATTERNS: </li></ul><ul><li>Creational patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with initializing and conf...
EXPANATION OF SOME DESIGN PATTERNS :
 
 
 
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SEMINAR

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SEMINAR

  1. 1. Submitted for the Academic Curriculum of 6 th Semester Seminar Bachelor of Computer Application Degree of the Jai Narain Vyas University , Jodhpur SUBMITTED BY : PRITESH KUMAR KHANDELWAL BCA 6 TH SEMESTER ROLLNO:600 GUIDE: MR.JOSEPH DICKENSON ASSISTANT PROFESSOR COMPUTER SCIENCE
  2. 2. <ul><li>WHAT IS OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING : </li></ul><ul><li>Object oriented programming is an approach or paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>(paradigm means style of writing of complete program ), </li></ul><ul><li>which represent real world problem as a collection of objects </li></ul><ul><li>that contain attributes and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>CONCEPT OF OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING: </li></ul><ul><li>Object oriented programming support various concept that make easier to solve problem. </li></ul><ul><li>These are as follows:- </li></ul><ul><li>Object </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Encapsulation </li></ul><ul><li>Polymorphism </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>OBJECT: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ An object is a things that can be seen in the world , held and touch’ , such as a ball, table, chair , computer etc. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Grady Booch , an object has the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>It has a State , </li></ul><ul><li>It may display a Behavior , and </li></ul><ul><li>It has a unique Identity . </li></ul>
  5. 5. OBJECT: (Continue…)
  6. 6. <ul><li>OBJECT: (Continue…) </li></ul><ul><li>In term of software an object is a memory variable of user </li></ul><ul><li>define data type of class. </li></ul>Example: Syntax of general variable declaration: < datatype> <variable_name>; Syntax of object declaration: <class_name> < object_name>; Here compare both
  7. 7. <ul><li>CLASS: </li></ul><ul><li>A class define the common characteristics of their objects that </li></ul><ul><li>means we can say that a class is a collection of many object , </li></ul><ul><li>which have common characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>we can say that the peacock ,the sparrow and the kingfisher </li></ul><ul><li>all share structure and behavioral similarities and belong to the </li></ul><ul><li>class called Birds. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CLASS: ( continue…) <ul><li>In term of software class is : </li></ul><ul><li>Class is a collection of data member and methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Class is a user define datatype. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax of general variable declaration: </li></ul><ul><li>< datatype> <variable_name>; </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax of object declaration: </li></ul><ul><li><class_name> < object_name>; </li></ul><ul><li>Here compare both </li></ul>
  9. 9. CLASS : (continue…) Class declaration syntax: Class <class_name> { Data member; Methods(); }; Example: in c++ Class demo { Private: Int a; Public: Void display( ) { Cout<<”value of a is “ << a; } }
  10. 10. <ul><li>ABSTRACTION AND ENCAPSULATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction means – brief . Abstraction is a process ,which </li></ul><ul><li>represent the essential characteristics of an object without giving </li></ul><ul><li>its background details. </li></ul><ul><li>  Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A car driver require to know general feature of a car , to drive it such as Steering , gear , break, etc. ,but he or she does not require background details of structure of engine, wiring ,etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ABSTRACTION AND ENCAPSULATION: (continue…) </li></ul><ul><li>There is another important concept connected to abstraction .It </li></ul><ul><li>is called encapsulation. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Grady Booch </li></ul><ul><li>“ Encapsulation is the process of hiding all of the details of an </li></ul><ul><li>object that do not contribute to its essential characterstics”. </li></ul><ul><li>In simply encapsulation means preventing access to non </li></ul><ul><li>essential details. </li></ul><ul><li>  “ Abstraction and Encapsulation complement to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Encapsulation assists abstraction by providing a mean of </li></ul><ul><li>suppressing the non – essential details”. </li></ul>
  12. 12. IMPLEMENTING ABSTRACTION AND ENCAPSULATION   Example: here abstraction and encapsulation implemented in C++   class demo { Private : Int a; // hide datamember called encapsulation Public: Int b; // show datamember and method as public called abstraction Void display( ) { Cout<<”value of a and b is respectively”<<a<<b; } };   Void main( ) { Demo obj; Cout<<obj.b; // access directly Cout<< obj.disply( ); // private member also access through public member }
  13. 13. <ul><li>POLYMORPHISM: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Polymorphism is another important concept of object oriented </li></ul><ul><li>programming. Polymorphism has been derived from the Greek </li></ul><ul><li>words ‘poly ‘ and ‘morphos’, which means ‘many’ and ‘forms’ </li></ul><ul><li>respectively. Thus ,we can say that polymorphism is define as </li></ul><ul><li>‘ one interface and many forms’. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>carbon as graphite and diamond </li></ul><ul><li>In the programming sphere , polymorphism is broadly divided into two parts Static polymorphism and Dynamic polymorphism . </li></ul>
  14. 14. STATIC POLYMORPHISM: Static polymorphism refers to an entity existing in different physical forms simultaneously .   Example: This concept is analogous to a woman being a wife, a mother, a sister, a daughter , and an executive at the same time.   DYNAMIC POLYMORPHISM: Dynamic Polymorphism refers to an entity changing its form, depending on circumstances.   Example: This concept may be treated as analogous to a chameleon changing its color at the sight of an approaching enemy.
  15. 15. IMPLEMENTATION OF POLYMORPHISM:   Polymorphism is implemented by function overloading and function overriding. Function overloading when various function declared with same name and different signature then called function is overloaded.   Signature refers as Number of argument Type of argument Sequence of argument Function overriding when a function redefine with same name and Same signature within its derived class.
  16. 16. POLYMORPHISM: Example: in c++ Class demof { Public: Void display ( ) { Cout<<” this function does not have any argument ”; } Void display ( int a) { Cout<< “this function have one integer variable as argument”; } Void display (int a ,char x ) { Cout << “this function have argument respectively int a and char x”; } Void display ( char x ,int a) { Cout << “this function have argument respectively char x and int a”; } }; Void main( ) { demof obj; obj.display( ); obj.display(10); obj.display(10,’a’); obj.display(‘a’,12); }
  17. 17. <ul><li>INHERITANCE : </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance is a process, through one object can acquire </li></ul><ul><li>pre existing object properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance provides facility to reuse code that reduced </li></ul><ul><li>number of repetitive task . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A child get many properties from their parents. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>PROCEDURE ORIENTED </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT ORIENTED </li></ul><ul><li>In this approach programs are divided into procedures and methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is not secure. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no provision for reusability of code. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a top-down approach. </li></ul><ul><li>In this approach programs are divided into class and objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is a critical element. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision for reusability of code. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a buttom-up approach . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>WHAT IS DESIGN PATTERNS: </li></ul><ul><li>Design patterns is a general reusable solution to a </li></ul><ul><li>commonly occurring problem in software design. </li></ul><ul><li>A design patterns is not a finished design that can be </li></ul><ul><li>transformed directly into code. It is description or template </li></ul><ul><li>for how to solve a problem that can be used in many </li></ul><ul><li>different situation. </li></ul><ul><li>WHY USED DESIGN PATTERNS: </li></ul><ul><li>To design a new software system quickly and efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand an existing software. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>ELEMENTS OF DESIGN PATTERNS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern Name (handle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher level of abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem (context) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions that must be met before the pattern can be applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe class or object structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution (elements) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences (trade-off) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>TYPES OF DESIGN PATTERNS: </li></ul><ul><li>Creational patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with initializing and configuring classes and objects </li></ul><ul><li>Structural patterns : </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with decoupling interface and implementation of classes </li></ul><ul><li>and objects. Composition of classes or objects </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral patterns : </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with dynamic interactions among societies of classes and </li></ul><ul><li>objects How they distribute responsibility </li></ul>
  22. 22. EXPANATION OF SOME DESIGN PATTERNS :
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