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Bio medical waste management (2)

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  • 1. BIO MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • 2. PRESENTED BY:  Deepika Tiwari-15  Ishani Bhattacharya-20  Neha Gupta-31  Pritee Agarwal-42  Shashank Pandey-54
  • 3. LET THE WASTE OF THE “SICK” NOT CONTAMINATE THE LIVES OF “THE HEALTHY” 3
  • 4. BIO-MEDICAL WASTE 4 Definition : Acc to bio medical waste rules ,1998 of India“ bio-medical waste” means any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining there to or in the production or testing of bio medicals. Any unwanted residual material which cannot be discharged directly, or after suitable treatment can be discharged in the atmosphere or to a receiving water source, or used for landfill is waste. (Wilson, 1981)
  • 5. SOURCES OF HEALTH CARE WASTE  Government/private hospitals  Nursing homes  Physician/dentist office or clinic  Dispensaries  Primary health care centers  Medical research and training centers  animal./slaughter houses  labs/research organizations  Vaccinating centers  Bio tech institutions/production units 5
  • 6. DEFINITION  Hospital waste: refers to all waste, biological or non biological, that is discarded and is not intended for further use .  Medical waste: refers to materials generated as a result of patient diagnoses, treatment, immunization of human beings or animals . 6
  • 7. DEFINITION  Infectious waste: are the portion of medical waste that could transmit an ‘infectious disease’.  Pathological waste : waste removed during surgery/ autopsy or other medical procedures including human tissues, organs, body parts, body fluids and specimens along their containers. 8
  • 8. MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM  GLOBALLY- Developed countries generate 1 to 5 kg/bed/day  Developing countries: meager data, but figures are lower. 1-2kg/pt./day  WHO Report: 85% non hazardous waste : 10% infective waste : 5% non-infectious but hazardous. (Chemical, pharmaceutical and radioactive)  INDIA:-No national level study - local or regional level study shows hospitals generate roughly 1-2 kg/bed/day 9
  • 9. CLASSIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION OF BIOMEDICAL WASTES (MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST)  The Ministry of Environment and Forest has drafted certain rules in exercise of powers conferred by sections 6,8 and 25 of the environment (protection) act, 1986  The Gazette of India extraordinary , part II –section 3- subsection (ii)  On 20th July 1998 10
  • 10. 11 WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTION Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste (Human tissues, organs, body parts) Incineration@ / deep burial* Category No. 2 Animal Waste (Animal tissues, organs, body parts, carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid, blood and experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospitals and colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses) Incineration@ / deep burial* Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste (Wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimen of live micro organisms or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell cultures used in research and infectious agents from research and industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biologicals, toxins and devices used for transfer of cultures) Local autoclaving/ microwaving / incineration@ CATEGORIES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE SCHEDULE – I
  • 11. 12 Category No. 4 Waste Sharps (Needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps) Disinfecting (chemical treatment@@ / autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding Category No. 5 Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs (Wastes comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded medicines) Incineration@ / destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills Category No. 6 Soiled Waste (Items contaminated with body fluids including cotton, dressings, soiled plaster casts, lines, bedding and other materials contaminated with blood.) Incineration@ / autoclaving / microwaving Category No. 7 Solid Waste (Waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubing, catheters, intravenous sets, etc.) Disinfecting by chemical treatment@@ / autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding
  • 12. 13 Category No. 8 Liquid Waste (Waste generated from the laboratory and washing, cleaning, house keeping and disinfecting activities) Disinfecting by chemical treatment@@ and discharge into drains Category No. 9 Incineration Ash (Ash from incineration of any biomedical waste) Disposal in municipal landfill Category No.10 Chemical Waste (Chemicals used in production of biologicals, chemicals used in disinfecting, as insecticides, etc.) Chemical treatment @@ and discharge into drains for liquids and secured landfill for solids.
  • 13. PROBLEMS RELATED TO BIO MEDICAL WASTE IN INDIA
  • 14. CLASSIFICATION OF HEALTH CARE WASTE INFECTIOUS WASTE  Lab cultures  Waste from isolation wards  Tissues(swabs)  Materials/equipments of infected patients
  • 15. PATHOLOGICAL WASTE • Excreta • Human tissues/fluids • Body parts • Blood or body fluids
  • 16. SHARP WASTE  Needles  Infusion Sets  Scalpels  Knives Blades  Broken Glass
  • 17. PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE • Expired Pharmaceuticals • Contaminated Pharmaceuticals • Banned Pharmaceuticals
  • 18. GENOTOXIC WASTE  Waste Containing Cytotoxic Drugs(often Used In Cancer Theraphy)  Genotoxic Chemicals CHEMICAL WASTE  Lab reagents  Film developer  Expired disinfectants  Expired solvents WASTE WITH HIGH CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS  Waste with high content of heavy metals  Batteries  Broken thermometers  Blood pressure guages etc
  • 19. PRESSURIZED CONTAINERS  Gas cylinders  Gas catridges  Aerosol cans RADIOACTIVE WASTE  Radiotherapy/lab research liquids  Contaminated glass wares, packages, absorbent papers
  • 20. HOSPITAL WASTE DISPOSAL 21  Hospital waste management is a part of hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. In fact only 15% of hospital waste i.e. "Biomedical waste" is hazardous, not the complete.  But when hazardous waste is not segregated at the source of generation and mixed with nonhazardous waste, then 100% waste becomes hazardous
  • 21. Treatment and Disposal Methods of Hospital Waste 22
  • 22. THANK YOU

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