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Bio medical waste management (2)






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Bio medical waste management (2) Bio medical waste management (2) Presentation Transcript

  • PRESENTED BY:  Deepika Tiwari-15  Ishani Bhattacharya-20  Neha Gupta-31  Pritee Agarwal-42  Shashank Pandey-54
  • BIO-MEDICAL WASTEDefinition :Acc to bio medical waste rules ,1998 of India“ bio-medical waste”means any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatmentor immunization of human beings or animals or in research activitiespertaining there to or in the production or testing of bio medicals.Any unwanted residual material which cannot be dischargeddirectly, or after suitable treatment can be discharged in theatmosphere or to a receiving water source, or used for landfill is waste.(Wilson, 1981) 4
  • SOURCES OF HEALTH CARE WASTE Government/private hospitals Nursing homes Physician/dentist office or clinic Dispensaries Primary health care centers Medical research and training centers animal./slaughter houses labs/research organizations Vaccinating centers Bio tech institutions/production units 5
  • DEFINITION Hospital waste: refers to all waste, biological or non biological, that is discarded and is not intended for further use . Medical waste: refers to materials generated as a result of patient diagnoses, treatment, immunization of human beings or animals . 6
  • DEFINITION Infectious waste: are the portion of medical waste that couldtransmit an ‘infectious disease’. Pathological waste : waste removed during surgery/ autopsyor other medical procedures including humantissues, organs, body parts, body fluids and specimens alongtheir containers. 8
  • MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM GLOBALLY- Developed countries generate 1 to 5 kg/bed/day Developing countries: meager data, but figures are lower. 1-2kg/pt./day WHO Report: 85% non hazardous waste : 10% infective waste : 5% non-infectious but hazardous. (Chemical, pharmaceutical and radioactive) INDIA:-No national level study - local or regional level study shows hospitals generate roughly 1-2 kg/bed/day 9
  • CLASSIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION OF BIOMEDICALWASTES (MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST) The Ministry of Environment and Forest has drafted certain rules in exercise of powers conferred by sections 6,8 and 25 of the environment (protection) act, 1986 The Gazette of India extraordinary , part II –section 3- subsection (ii) On 20th July 1998 10
  • CATEGORIES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE SCHEDULE – I WASTE TREATMENT AND TYPE OF WASTE CATEGORY DISPOSAL OPTION Human Anatomical Waste (Human Incineration@ / deep Category No. 1 tissues, organs, body parts) burial* Animal Waste (Animal tissues, organs, body parts, carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid, blood and Incineration@ / deep Category No. 2 experimental animals used in research, burial* waste generated by veterinary hospitals and colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses) Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste (Wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimen of live micro organisms or attenuated vaccines, human and animal Local autoclaving/ Category No. 3 cell cultures used in research and microwaving / infectious agents from research and incineration@ industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biologicals, toxins and 11 devices used for transfer of cultures)
  • Waste Sharps (Needles, syringes, Disinfecting (chemical scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may treatment@@ /Category No. 4 cause puncture and cuts. This includes autoclaving / microwaving both used and unused sharps) and mutilation / shredding Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs Incineration@ / destructionCategory No. 5 (Wastes comprising of outdated, and drugs disposal in contaminated and discarded medicines) secured landfills Soiled Waste (Items contaminated with body fluids including cotton, dressings, Incineration@ /Category No. 6 soiled plaster casts, lines, bedding and autoclaving / microwaving other materials contaminated with blood.) Solid Waste (Waste generated from Disinfecting by chemical disposable items other than the waste treatment@@ /Category No. 7 sharps such as tubing, catheters, autoclaving / microwaving 12 intravenous sets, etc.) and mutilation / shredding
  • Liquid Waste (Waste generated from Disinfecting by chemical the laboratory and washing, cleaning,Category No. 8 treatment@@ and house keeping and disinfecting discharge into drains activities) Incineration Ash (Ash from incineration Disposal in municipalCategory No. 9 of any biomedical waste) landfill Chemical Waste (Chemicals used in Chemical treatment @@ production of biologicals, chemicals and discharge into drainsCategory No.10 used in disinfecting, as insecticides, for liquids and secured etc.) landfill for solids. 13
  • CLASSIFICATION OF HEALTH CARE WASTEINFECTIOUS WASTE Lab cultures Waste from isolation wards Tissues(swabs) Materials/equipments of infected patients
  • PATHOLOGICAL WASTE• Excreta• Human tissues/fluids• Body parts• Blood or body fluids
  • SHARP WASTE Needles Infusion Sets Scalpels Knives Blades Broken Glass
  • PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE• Expired Pharmaceuticals• Contaminated Pharmaceuticals• Banned Pharmaceuticals
  • GENOTOXIC WASTE Waste Containing Cytotoxic Drugs(often Used In Cancer Theraphy) Genotoxic ChemicalsCHEMICAL WASTE Lab reagents Film developer Expired disinfectants Expired solventsWASTE WITH HIGH CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS Waste with high content of heavy metals Batteries Broken thermometers Blood pressure guages etc
  • PRESSURIZED CONTAINERS Gas cylinders Gas catridges Aerosol cansRADIOACTIVE WASTE Radiotherapy/lab research liquids Contaminated glass wares, packages, absorbent papers
  • HOSPITAL WASTE DISPOSAL Hospital waste management is a part of hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. In fact only 15% of hospital waste i.e. "Biomedical waste" is hazardous, not the complete. But when hazardous waste is not segregated at the source of generation and mixed with nonhazardous waste, then 100% waste becomes hazardous 21
  • Treatment and Disposal Methods of Hospital Waste 22