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  • 2. OUTLINE OF OUTLINE OFU.S. HISTORY C O N T E N T SCHAPTER 1 Early America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4CHAPTER 2 The Colonial Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22CHAPTER 3 The Road to Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50CHAPTER 4 The Formation of a National Government . . . . . . . . . . . . 66CHAPTER 5 Westward Expansion and Regional Differences . . . . . . . 110CHAPTER 6 Sectional Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128CHAPTER 7 The Civil War and Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140CHAPTER 8 Growth and Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154CHAPTER 9 Discontent and Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188CHAPTER 10 War, Prosperity, and Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202CHAPTER 11 The New Deal and World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212CHAPTER 12 Postwar America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256CHAPTER 13 Decades of Change: 1960-1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274CHAPTER 14 The New Conservatism and a New World Order . . . . . . 304CHAPTER 15 Bridge to the 21st Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320PICTURE PROFILES Becoming a Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Transforming a Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Monuments and Memorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Turmoil and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 21st Century Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
  • 3. 1 CHAPTER EARLY AMERICA Mesa Verde settlement in Colorado, 13th century.4
  • 4. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “Heaven and Earth never much of the Western Hemisphere by ing earthen burial sites and for- agreed better to frame a place some time prior to 10,000 B.C. tifications around 600 B.C. Some Around that time the mammoth mounds from that era are in the began to die out and the bison took shape of birds or serpents; they for man’s habitation.” its place as a principal source of probably served religious purposes food and hides for these early North not yet fully understood. Americans. Over time, as more and The Adenans appear to have Jamestown founder John Smith, 1607 more species of large game vanished been absorbed or displaced by vari- — whether from overhunting or ous groups collectively known as natural causes — plants, berries, Hopewellians. One of the most im- and seeds became an increasingly portant centers of their culture was important part of the early Ameri- found in southern Ohio, where the can diet. Gradually, foraging and remains of several thousand of these the first attempts at primitive agri- mounds still can be seen. Believed culture appeared. Native Americans to be great traders, the Hopewel- in what is now central Mexico led lians used and exchanged tools and the way, cultivating corn, squash, materials across a wide region of and beans, perhaps as early as 8,000 hundreds of kilometers. B.C. Slowly, this knowledge spread By around 500 A.D., the THE FIRST AMERICANS ancestors had for thousands of northward. Hopewellians disappeared, too,At the height of30,000Ice Age, be- years, along the Siberian coast and By 3,000 B.C., a primitive type of gradually giving way to a broad the then across the land bridge. corn was being grown in the river group of tribes generally knowntween 34,000 and B.C., much Once in Alaska, it would take valleys of New Mexico and Arizona. as the Mississippians or Templeof the world’s water was locked up these first North Americans thou- Then the first signs of irrigation Mound culture. One city, Cahokia,in vast continental ice sheets. As a sands of years more to work their began to appear, and, by 300 B.C., near Collinsville, Illinois, is thoughtresult, the Bering Sea was hundreds way through the openings in great signs of early village life. to have had a population of aboutof meters below its current level, and glaciers south to what is now the By the first centuries A.D., the 20,000 at its peak in the early 12tha land bridge, known as Beringia, United States. Evidence of early life Hohokam were living in settlements century. At the center of the cityemerged between Asia and North in North America continues to be near what is now Phoenix, Arizona, stood a huge earthen mound, flat-America. At its peak, Beringia is found. Little of it, however, can be where they built ball courts and tened at the top, that was 30 metersthought to have been some 1,500 ki- reliably dated before 12,000 B.C.; a pyramid-like mounds reminiscent high and 37 hectares at the base.lometers wide. A moist and treeless recent discovery of a hunting look- of those found in Mexico, as well as Eighty other mounds have beentundra, it was covered with grasses out in northern Alaska, for example, a canal and irrigation system. found nearby.and plant life, attracting the large may date from almost that time. Cities such as Cahokia dependedanimals that early humans hunted So too may the finely crafted spear MOUND BUILDERS AND on a combination of hunting, for-for their survival. points and items found near Clovis, PUEBLOS aging, trading, and agriculture for T The first people to reach North New Mexico. their food and supplies. InfluencedAmerica almost certainly did so Similar artifacts have been found he first Native-American group by the thriving societies to thewithout knowing they had crossed at sites throughout North and South to build mounds in what is now the south, they evolved into complex hi-into a new continent. They would America, indicating that life was United States often are called the erarchical societies that took slaveshave been following game, as their probably already well established in Adenans. They began construct- and practiced human sacrifice. 6 7
  • 5. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY In what is now the southwest had on the indigenous population and strong evidence exists that Columbus never saw the main-United States, the Anasazi, ancestors practically from the time of initial neighboring tribes maintained ex- land of the future United States,of the modern Hopi Indians, began contact. Smallpox, in particular, tensive and formal relations — both but the first explorations of it werebuilding stone and adobe pueblos ravaged whole communities and is friendly and hostile. launched from the Spanish posses-around the year 900. These unique thought to have been a much more sions that he helped establish. Theand amazing apartment-like struc- direct cause of the precipitous de- THE FIRST EUROPEANS first of these took place in 1513 Ttures were often built along cliff cline in the Indian population in the when a group of men under Juanfaces; the most famous, the “cliff 1600s than the numerous wars and he first Europeans to arrive in Ponce de León landed on the Floridapalace” of Mesa Verde, Colorado, skirmishes with European settlers. North America — at least the first coast near the present city of St. Au-had more than 200 rooms. Another Indian customs and culture at the for whom there is solid evidence, the Pueblo Bonito ruins along time were extraordinarily diverse, as — were Norse, traveling west from With the conquest of Mexico inNew Mexico’s Chaco River, once could be expected, given the ex- Greenland, where Erik the Red had 1522, the Spanish further solidi-contained more than 800 rooms. panse of the land and the many dif- founded a settlement around the fied their position in the Western Perhaps the most affluent of the ferent environments to which they year 985. In 1001 his son Leif is Hemisphere. The ensuing discover-pre-Columbian Native Americans had dapted. Some generalizations, thought to have explored the north- ies added to Europe’s knowledge oflived in the Pacific Northwest, where however, are possible. Most tribes, east coast of what is now Canada and what was now named America —the natural abundance of fish and particularly in the wooded eastern spent at least one winter there. after the Italian Amerigo Vespucci,raw materials made food supplies region and the Midwest, combined While Norse sagas suggest that who wrote a widely popular accountplentiful and permanent villages pos- aspects of hunting, gathering, and Viking sailors explored the Atlan- of his voyages to a “New World.” Bysible as early as 1,000 B.C. The opu- the cultivation of maize and other tic coast of North America down 1529 reliable maps of the Atlanticlence of their “potlatch” gatherings products for their food supplies. as far as the Bahamas, such claims coastline from Labrador to Tierraremains a standard for extravagance In many cases, the women were remain unproven. In 1963, however, del Fuego had been drawn up, al-and festivity probably unmatched in responsible for farming and the the ruins of some Norse houses dat- though it would take more than an-early American history. distribution of food, while the men ing from that era were discovered at other century before hope of discov- hunted and participated in war. L’Anse-aux-Meadows in northern ering a “Northwest Passage” to Asia NATIVE-AMERICAN By all accounts, Native-American Newfoundland, thus supporting at would be completely abandoned. CULTURES society in North America was closely least some of the saga claims. Among the most significant earlyT tied to the land. Identification with In 1497, just five years after Spanish explorations was that of he America that greeted the first nature and the elements was integral Christopher Columbus landed in Hernando De Soto, a veteran con-Europeans was, thus, far from an to religious beliefs. Their life was the Caribbean looking for a west- quistador who had accompaniedempty wilderness. It is now thought essentially clan-oriented and com- ern route to Asia, a Venetian sailor Francisco Pizarro in the conquestthat as many people lived in the munal, with children allowed more named John Cabot arrived in of Peru. Leaving Havana in 1539, DeWestern Hemisphere as in Western freedom and tolerance than was the Newfoundland on a mission for Soto’s expedition landed in FloridaEurope at that time — about 40 European custom of the day. the British king. Although quickly and ranged through the southeast-million. Estimates of the number Although some North American forgotten, Cabot’s journey was later ern United States as far as the Mis-of Native Americans living in what tribes developed a type of hiero- to provide the basis for British claims sissippi River in search of now the United States at the on- glyphics to preserve certain texts, to North America. It also opened Another Spaniard, Franciscoset of European colonization range Native-American culture was pri- the way to the rich fishing grounds Vázquez de Coronado, set out fromfrom two to 18 million, with most marily oral, with a high value placed off George’s Banks, to which Eu- Mexico in 1540 in search of thehistorians tending toward the lower on the recounting of tales and ropean fishermen, particularly the mythical Seven Cities of Cibola.figure. What is certain is the devas- dreams. Clearly, there was a good Portuguese, were soon making Coronado’s travels took him to thetating effect that European disease deal of trade among various groups regular visits. Grand Canyon and Kansas, but 8 9
  • 6. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYfailed to reveal the gold or treasure European settlement in what would trickle of a few hundred English woods. The settlers might not havehis men sought. However, his party become the United States. colonists to a flood of millions of survived had it not been for thedid leave the peoples of the region The great wealth that poured into newcomers. Impelled by powerful help of friendly Indians, who taughta remarkable, if unintended, gift: Spain from the colonies in Mexico, and diverse motivations, they built them how to grow native plants —Enough of his horses escaped to the Caribbean, and Peru provoked a new civilization on the northern pumpkin, squash, beans, and corn.transform life on the Great Plains. great interest on the part of the part of the continent. In addition, the vast, virgin forests,Within a few generations, the Plains other European powers. Emerging The first English immigrants extending nearly 2,100 kilometersIndians had become masters of maritime nations such as England, to what is now the United States along the Eastern seaboard, provedhorsemanship, greatly expanding drawn in part by Francis Drake’s crossed the Atlantic long after thriv- a rich source of game and firewood.the range of their activities. successful raids on Spanish treasure ing Spanish colonies had been estab- They also provided abundant raw While the Spanish were pushing ships, began to take an interest in the lished in Mexico, the West Indies, materials used to build houses, fur-up from the south, the northern New World. and South America. Like all early niture, ships, and profitable itemsportion of the present-day United In 1578 Humphrey Gilbert, the travelers to the New World, they for export.States was slowly being revealed author of a treatise on the search came in small, overcrowded ships. Although the new continent wasthrough the journeys of men such for the Northwest Passage, received During their six- to 12-week voy- remarkably endowed by nature,as Giovanni da Verrazano. A Flo- a patent from Queen Elizabeth to ages, they lived on meager rations. trade with Europe was vital for ar-rentine who sailed for the French, colonize the “heathen and barba- Many died of disease, ships were ticles the settlers could not produce.Verrazano made landfall in North rous landes” in the New World that often battered by storms, and some The coast served the immigrantsCarolina in 1524, then sailed north other European nations had not yet were lost at sea. well. The whole length of shore pro-along the Atlantic Coast past what is claimed. It would be five years before Most European emigrants left vided many inlets and harbors. Onlynow New York harbor. his efforts could begin. When he was their homelands to escape politi- two areas — North Carolina and A decade later, the Frenchman lost at sea, his half-brother, Walter cal oppression, to seek the freedom southern New Jersey — lacked har-Jacques Cartier set sail with the Raleigh, took up the mission. to practice their religion, or to bors for ocean-going vessels.hope — like the other Europeans In 1585 Raleigh established the find opportunities denied them at Majestic rivers — the Kennebec,before him — of finding a sea pas- first British colony in North Amer- home. Between 1620 and 1635, eco- Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna,sage to Asia. Cartier’s expeditions ica, on Roanoke Island off the coast nomic difficulties swept England. Potomac, and numerous others —along the St. Lawrence River laid the of North Carolina. It was later aban- Many people could not find work. linked lands between the coast andfoundation for the French claims to doned, and a second effort two years Even skilled artisans could earn the Appalachian Mountains withNorth America, which were to last later also proved a failure. It would little more than a bare living. Poor the sea. Only one river, however, theuntil 1763. be 20 years before the British would crop yields added to the distress. In St. Lawrence — dominated by the Following the collapse of their try again. This time — at Jamestown addition, the Commercial Revolu- French in Canada — offered a waterfirst Quebec colony in the 1540s, in 1607 — the colony would succeed, tion had created a burgeoning tex- passage to the Great Lakes and theFrench Huguenots attempted to set- and North America would enter a tile industry, which demanded an heart of the continent. Dense forests,tle the northern coast of Florida two new era. ever-increasing supply of wool to the resistance of some Indian tribes,decades later. The Spanish, viewing keep the looms running. Landlords and the formidable barrier of thethe French as a threat to their trade EARLY SETTLEMENTS enclosed farmlands and evicted the Appalachian Mountains discour-route along the Gulf Stream, de-stroyed the colony in 1565. Ironical- T he early 1600s saw the begin- peasants in favor of sheep cultiva- tion. Colonial expansion became aged settlement beyond the coastal plain. Only trappers and tradersly, the leader of the Spanish forces, ning of a great tide of emigration an outlet for this displaced peasant ventured into the wilderness. ForPedro Menéndez, would soon estab- from Europe to North America. population. the first hundred years the colonistslish a town not far away — St. Au- Spanning more than three centu- The colonists’ first glimpse of built their settlements compactlygustine. It was the first permanent ries, this movement grew from a the new land was a vista of dense along the coast. 10 11
  • 7. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY Political considerations influ- they chose a site about 60 kilometers only 1,132 were living there in 1624. nized government, the men draftedenced many people to move to up the James River from the bay. On recommendation of a royal com- a formal agreement to abide by “justAmerica. In the 1630s, arbitrary rule Made up of townsmen and ad- mission, the king dissolved the Vir- and equal laws” drafted by leadersby England’s Charles I gave impetus venturers more interested in finding ginia Company, and made it a royal of their own choosing. This was theto the migration. The subsequent re- gold than farming, the group was colony that year. Mayflower Compact.volt and triumph of Charles’ oppo- unequipped by temperament or abil- In December the Mayflowernents under Oliver Cromwell in the ity to embark upon a completely new MASSACHUSETTS reached Plymouth harbor; the Pil- D1640s led many cavaliers — “king’s life in the wilderness. Among them, grims began to build their settle-men” — to cast their lot in Virginia.Captain John Smith emerged as the uring the religious upheavals ment during the winter. Nearly halfIn the German-speaking regions of dominant figure. Despite quarrels, of the 16th century, a body of men the colonists died of exposure andEurope, the oppressive policies of starvation, and Native-American and women called Puritans sought disease, but neighboring Wampa-various petty princes — particularly attacks, his ability to enforce disci- to reform the Established Church noag Indians provided the informa-with regard to religion — and the pline held the little colony together of England from within. Essentially, tion that would sustain them: how todevastation caused by a long series through its first year. they demanded that the rituals and grow maize. By the next fall, the Pil-of wars helped swell the movement In 1609 Smith returned to Eng- structures associated with Roman grims had a plentiful crop of corn,to America in the late 17th and 18th land, and in his absence, the colony Catholicism be replaced by simpler and a growing trade based on furscenturies. descended into anarchy. During the Calvinist Protestant forms of faith and lumber. The journey entailed careful winter of 1609-1610, the majority of and worship. Their reformist ideas, A new wave of immigrants ar-planning and management, as well the colonists succumbed to disease. by destroying the unity of the state rived on the shores of Massachusettsas considerable expense and risk. Only 60 of the original 300 settlers church, threatened to divide the Bay in 1630 bearing a grant fromSettlers had to be transported nearlywere still alive by May 1610. That people and to undermine royal au- King Charles I to establish a colony.5,000 kilometers across the sea. Theysame year, the town of Henrico (now thority. Many of them were Puritans whoseneeded utensils, clothing, seed, tools, Richmond) was established farther In 1607 a small group of Sepa- religious practices were increasinglybuilding materials, livestock, arms, up the James River. ratists — a radical sect of Puritans prohibited in England. Their leader,and ammunition. In contrast to the It was not long, however, before who did not believe the Established John Winthrop, urged them to cre-colonization policies of other coun- a development occurred that revo- Church could ever be reformed ate a “city upon a hill” in the Newtries and other periods, the emigra- lutionized Virginia’s economy. In — departed for Leyden, Holland, World — a place where they wouldtion from England was not directly 1612 John Rolfe began cross-breed- where the Dutch granted them asy- live in strict accordance with theirsponsored by the government but by ing imported tobacco seed from the lum. However, the Calvinist Dutch religious beliefs and set an exampleprivate groups of individuals whose West Indies with native plants and restricted them mainly to low-paid for all of Christendom.chief motive was profit. produced a new variety that was laboring jobs. Some members of the The Massachusetts Bay Colony pleasing to European taste. The first congregation grew dissatisfied with was to play a significant role in the JAMESTOWN shipment of this tobacco reached this discrimination and resolved to development of the entire New Eng-T London in 1614. Within a decade it emigrate to the New World. land region, in part because Win- he first of the British colonies had become Virginia’s chief source In 1620, a group of Leyden Puri- throp and his Puritan colleaguesto take hold in North America was of revenue. tans secured a land patent from the were able to bring their charterJamestown. On the basis of a charter Prosperity did not come quickly, Virginia Company. Numbering 101, with them. Thus the authority forwhich King James I granted to the however, and the death rate from they set out for Virginia on the May- the colony’s government resided inVirginia (or London) Company, a disease and Indian attacks remained flower. A storm sent them far north Massachusetts, not in of about 100 men set out for extraordinarily high. Between 1607 and they landed in New England Under the charter’s provisions,the Chesapeake Bay in 1607. Seeking and 1624 approximately 14,000 on Cape Cod. Believing themselves power rested with the Generalto avoid conflict with the Spanish, people migrated to the colony, yet outside the jurisdiction of any orga- Court, which was made up of “free- 12 13
  • 8. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYmen” required to be members of the and deep, rich soil. These new com- encouraged a type of feudal aris- and to avoid trouble with the BritishPuritan, or Congregational, Church. munities often eliminated church tocracy, known as the “patroon” government, they also encouragedThis guaranteed that the Puritans membership as a prerequisite for system. The first of these huge es- Protestant immigration.would be the dominant political as voting, thereby extending the fran- tates were established in 1630 along Maryland’s royal charter hadwell as religious force in the colony. chise to ever larger numbers of men. the Hudson River. Under the pa- a mixture of feudal and modernThe General Court elected the gov- At the same time, other settle- troon system, any stockholder, or elements. On the one hand theernor, who for most of the next gen- ments began cropping up along the patroon, who could bring 50 adults Calvert family had the power toeration would be John Winthrop. New Hampshire and Maine coasts, to his estate over a four-year period create manorial estates. On the oth- The rigid orthodoxy of the Pu- as more and more immigrants was given a 25-kilometer river-front er, they could only make laws withritan rule was not to everyone’s lik- sought the land and liberty the New plot, exclusive fishing and hunting the consent of freemen (propertying. One of the first to challenge the World seemed to offer. privileges, and civil and criminal ju- holders). They found that in orderGeneral Court openly was a young risdiction over his lands. In turn, he to attract settlers — and make aclergyman named Roger Williams, NEW NETHERLAND AND provided livestock, tools, and build- profit from their holdings — theywho objected to the colony’s seizure MARYLAND ings. The tenants paid the patroon had to offer people farms, not just Hired byHenryDutch East Indiaof Indian lands and advocated sepa- rent and gave him first option on tenancy on manorial estates. Theration of church and state. Another the surplus crops. number of independent farms grewdissenter, Anne Hutchinson, chal- Company, Hudson in 1609 Further to the south, a Swed- in consequence. Their owners de-lenged key doctrines of Puritan the- explored the area around what is ish trading company with ties to manded a voice in the affairs of theology. Both they and their followers now New York City and the river the Dutch attempted to set up its colony. Maryland’s first legislaturewere banished. that bears his name, to a point prob- first settlement along the Delaware met in 1635. Williams purchased land from ably north of present-day Albany, River three years later. Without thethe Narragansett Indians in what is New York. Subsequent Dutch voy- resources to consolidate its position, COLONIAL-INDIANnow Providence, Rhode Island, in ages laid the basis for their claims New Sweden was gradually absorbed RELATIONS By 1640 the British had solid1636. In 1644, a sympathetic Puri- and early settlements in the area. into New Netherland, and later,tan-controlled English Parliament As with the French to the north, Pennsylvania and Delaware.gave him the charter that estab- the first interest of the Dutch was In 1632 the Catholic Calvert fam- colonies established along the Newlished Rhode Island as a distinct the fur trade. To this end, they cul- ily obtained a charter for land north England coast and the Chesapeakecolony where complete separation of tivated close relations with the Five of the Potomac River from King Bay. In between were the Dutch andchurch and state as well as freedom Nations of the Iroquois, who were Charles I in what became known the tiny Swedish community. To theof religion was practiced. the key to the heartland from which as Maryland. As the charter did not west were the original Americans, So-called heretics like Williams the furs came. In 1617 Dutch set- expressly prohibit the establishment then called Indians.were not the only ones who left tlers built a fort at the junction of of non-Protestant churches, the col- Sometimes friendly, sometimesMassachusetts. Orthodox Puritans, the Hudson and the Mohawk Rivers, ony became a haven for Catholics. hostile, the Eastern tribes were noseeking better lands and opportuni- where Albany now stands. Maryland’s first town, St. Mary’s, longer strangers to the Europeans.ties, soon began leaving Massachu- Settlement on the island of Man- was established in 1634 near where Although Native Americans ben-setts Bay Colony. News of the fertil- hattan began in the early 1620s. In the Potomac River flows into the efited from access to new technol-ity of the Connecticut River Valley, 1624, the island was purchased from Chesapeake Bay. ogy and trade, the disease and thirstfor instance, attracted the interest of local Native Americans for the re- While establishing a refuge for for land that the early settlers alsofarmers having a difficult time with ported price of $24. It was promptly Catholics, who faced increasing per- brought posed a serious challenge topoor land. By the early 1630s, many renamed New Amsterdam. secution in Anglican England, the their long-established way of life.were ready to brave the danger of In order to attract settlers to the Calverts were also interested in cre- At first, trade with the EuropeanIndian attack to obtain level ground Hudson River region, the Dutch ating profitable estates. To this end, settlers brought advantages: knives, 14 15
  • 9. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYaxes, weapons, cooking utensils, The steady influx of settlers cisions, some fighting with the Brit- established in the Carolinas and thefishhooks, and a host of other into the backwoods regions of the ish, some with the colonists, some Dutch driven out of New Nether-goods. Those Indians who traded Eastern colonies disrupted Native- remaining neutral. As a result, ev- land. New proprietary colonies wereinitially had significant advantage American life. As more and more eryone fought against the Iroquois. established in New York, New Jersey,over rivals who did not. In response game was killed off, tribes were Their losses were great and the Delaware, and European demand, tribes such as faced with the difficult choice of go- league never recovered. The Dutch settlements had beenthe Iroquois began to devote more ing hungry, going to war, or moving ruled by autocratic governors ap-attention to fur trapping during the and coming into conflict with other SECOND GENERATION OF pointed in Europe. Over the years,17th century. Furs and pelts pro- tribes to the west. BRITISH COLONIES the local population had become Tvided tribes the means to purchase The Iroquois, who inhabited the estranged from them. As a result,colonial goods until late into the area below lakes Ontario and Erie in he religious and civil conflict in when the British colonists began en-18th century. northern New York and Pennsylva- England in the mid-17th century croaching on Dutch claims in Long Early colonial-Native-American nia, were more successful in resist- limited immigration, as well as the Island and Manhattan, the unpopu-relations were an uneasy mix of ing European advances. In 1570 five attention the mother country paid lar governor was unable to rally thecooperation and conflict. On the tribes joined to form the most com- the fledgling American colonies. population to their defense. Newone hand, there were the exemplary plex Native-American nation of its In part to provide for the defense Netherland fell in 1664. The termsrelations that prevailed during the time, the “Ho-De-No-Sau-Nee,” or measures England was neglect- of the capitulation, however, werefirst half century of Pennsylvania’s League of the Iroquois. The league ing, the Massachusetts Bay, Plym- mild: The Dutch settlers were ableexistence. On the other were a long was run by a council made up of 50 outh, Connecticut, and New Haven to retain their property and worshipseries of setbacks, skirmishes, and representatives from each of the five colonies formed the New England as they pleased.wars, which almost invariably re- member tribes. The council dealt Confederation in 1643. It was the As early as the 1650s, the Albe-sulted in an Indian defeat and fur- with matters common to all the European colonists’ first attempt at marle Sound region off the coastther loss of land. tribes, but it had no say in how the regional unity. of what is now northern North The first of the important Native- free and equal tribes ran their day- The early history of the British Carolina was inhabited by settlersAmerican uprisings occurred in Vir- to-day affairs. No tribe was allowed settlers reveals a good deal of con- trickling down from Virginia. Theginia in 1622, when some 347 whites to make war by itself. The council tention — religious and political first proprietary governor arrived inwere killed, including a number of passed laws to deal with crimes such — as groups vied for power and po- 1664. The first town in Albemarle, amissionaries who had just recently as murder. sition among themselves and their remote area even today, was not es-come to Jamestown. The Iroquois League was a strong neighbors. Maryland, in particular, tablished until the arrival of a group White settlement of the Con- power in the 1600s and 1700s. It suffered from the bitter religious ri- of French Huguenots in 1704.necticut River region touched off the traded furs with the British and valries that afflicted England during In 1670 the first settlers, drawnPequot War in 1637. In 1675 King sided with them against the French the era of Oliver Cromwell. One of from New England and the Carib-Philip, the son of the native chief in the war for the dominance of the casualties was the state’s Tolera- bean island of Barbados, arrivedwho had made the original peace America between 1754 and 1763. tion Act, which was revoked in the in what is now Charleston, Southwith the Pilgrims in 1621, attempted The British might not have won that 1650s. It was soon reinstated, howev- Carolina. An elaborate system ofto unite the tribes of southern New war otherwise. er, along with the religious freedom government, to which the BritishEngland against further European The Iroquois League stayed it guaranteed. philosopher John Locke contribut-encroachment of their lands. In strong until the American Revolu- With the restoration of King ed, was prepared for the new colony.the struggle, however, Philip lost tion. Then, for the first time, the Charles II in 1660, the British once One of its prominent features was ahis life and many Indians were sold council could not reach a unani- again turned their attention to failed attempt to create a hereditaryinto servitude. mous decision on whom to support. North America. Within a brief span, nobility. One of the colony’s least Member tribes made their own de- the first European settlements were appealing aspects was the early trade 16 17
  • 10. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYin Indian slaves. With time, howev- set out to create a refuge where the Perhaps half the settlers living in There was one very importanter, timber, rice, and indigo gave the poor and former prisoners would be the colonies south of New England exception to this pattern: Africancolony a worthier economic base. given new opportunities. came to America under this system. slaves. The first black Africans were In 1681 William Penn, a wealthy Although most of them fulfilled brought to Virginia in 1619, just 12Quaker and friend of Charles II, re- SETTLERS, SLAVES, AND their obligations faithfully, some ran years after the founding of James-ceived a large tract of land west of SERVANTS away from their employers. Never- town. Initially, many were regarded Mthe Delaware River, which became theless, many of them were eventu- as indentured servants who couldknown as Pennsylvania. To help en and women with little active ally able to secure land and set up earn their freedom. By the 1660s,populate it, Penn actively recruited interest in a new life in America were homesteads, either in the colonies in however, as the demand for planta-a host of religious dissenters from often induced to make the move to which they had originally settled or tion labor in the Southern coloniesEngland and the continent — Quak- the New World by the skillful per- in neighboring ones. No social stig- grew, the institution of slavery be-ers, Mennonites, Amish, Moravians, suasion of promoters. William Penn, ma was attached to a family that had gan to harden around them, andand Baptists. for example, publicized the oppor- its beginning in America under this Africans were brought to America in When Penn arrived the follow- tunities awaiting newcomers to the semi-bondage. Every colony had its shackles for a lifetime of involuntarying year, there were already Dutch, Pennsylvania colony. Judges and share of leaders who were former in- servitude. 9Swedish, and English settlers living prison authorities offered convicts dentured servants.along the Delaware River. It was a chance to migrate to colonies likethere he founded Philadelphia, the Georgia instead of serving prison“City of Brotherly Love.” sentences. In keeping with his faith, Penn But few colonists could financewas motivated by a sense of equality the cost of passage for themselvesnot often found in other American and their families to make a start incolonies at the time. Thus, women the new land. In some cases, ships’in Pennsylvania had rights long captains received large rewards frombefore they did in other parts of the sale of service contracts for poorAmerica. Penn and his deputies migrants, called indentured servants,also paid considerable attention and every method from extravagantto the colony’s relations with the promises to actual kidnapping wasDelaware Indians, ensuring that used to take on as many passengersthey were paid for land on which as their vessels could hold.the Europeans settled. In other cases, the expenses of Georgia was settled in 1732, transportation and maintenancethe last of the 13 colonies to be were paid by colonizing agencies likeestablished. Lying close to, if not ac- the Virginia or Massachusetts Baytually inside the boundaries of Span- Companies. In return, indenturedish Florida, the region was viewed as servants agreed to work for the agen-a buffer against Spanish incursion. cies as contract laborers, usually forBut it had another unique quality: four to seven years. Free at the end ofThe man charged with Georgia’s for- this term, they would be given “free-tifications, General James Ogletho- dom dues,” sometimes including arpe, was a reformer who deliberately small tract of land. 18 19
  • 11. CHAPTER 1: EARLY AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY THE ENDURING MYSTERY OF THE ANASAZITime-worn pueblos and dramatic cliff towns, set amid the stark, rugged me-sas and canyons of Colorado and New Mexico, mark the settlements of some ofthe earliest inhabitants of North America, the Anasazi (a Navajo word meaning“ancient ones”). By 500 A.D. the Anasazi had established some of the first villages inthe American Southwest, where they hunted and grew crops of corn, squash,and beans. The Anasazi flourished over the centuries, developing sophisticateddams and irrigation systems; creating a masterful, distinctive pottery tradi-tion; and carving multiroom dwellings into the sheer sides of cliffs that remainamong the most striking archaeological sites in the United States today. Yet by the year 1300, they had abandoned their settlements, leaving theirpottery, implements, even clothing — as though they intended to return — andseemingly vanished into history. Their homeland remained empty of humanbeings for more than a century — until the arrival of new tribes, such as theNavajo and the Ute, followed by the Spanish and other European settlers. The story of the Anasazi is tied inextricably to the beautiful but harshenvironment in which they chose to live. Early settlements, consisting of simplepithouses scooped out of the ground, evolved into sunken kivas (undergroundrooms) that served as meeting and religious sites. Later generations developedthe masonry techniques for building square, stone pueblos. But the most dra-matic change in Anasazi living was the move to the cliff sides below the flat-topped mesas, where the Anasazi carved their amazing, multilevel dwellings. The Anasazi lived in a communal society. They traded with other peoples Major Native American cultural groupings, A.D. the region, but signs of warfare are few and isolated. And although the Ana-sazi certainly had religious and other leaders, as well as skilled artisans, socialor class distinctions were virtually nonexistent. Religious and social motives undoubtedly played a part in the buildingof the cliff communities and their final abandonment. But the struggle to raisefood in an increasingly difficult environment was probably the paramount fac-tor. As populations grew, farmers planted larger areas on the mesas, causingsome communities to farm marginal lands, while others left the mesa tops forthe cliffs. But the Anasazi couldn’t halt the steady loss of the land’s fertilityfrom constant use, nor withstand the region’s cyclical droughts. Analysis of treerings, for example, shows that a drought lasting 23 years, from 1276 to 1299,finally forced the last groups of Anasazi to leave permanently. Although the Anasazi dispersed from their ancestral homeland, theirlegacy remains in the remarkable archaeological record that they left behind,and in the Hopi, Zuni, and other Pueblo peoples who are their descendants.  20 21
  • 12. 2 CHAPTER THE COLONIAL PERIOD Pilgrims signing the Mayflower Compact aboard ship, 1620.22
  • 13. CHAPTER 2: THE COLONIAL PERIOD OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “What then is the American, nearby. Compactness made possible William Penn, Pennsylvania func- the village school, the village church, tioned smoothly and grew rapidly. this new man?” and the village or town hall, where citizens met to discuss matters of By 1685, its population was almost 9,000. The heart of the colony was common interest. Philadelphia, a city of broad, tree- The Massachusetts Bay Colony shaded streets, substantial brick and American author and agriculturist J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur, 1782 continued to expand its commerce. stone houses, and busy docks. By the From the middle of the 17th century end of the colonial period, nearly a onward it grew prosperous, so that century later, 30,000 people lived Boston became one of America’s there, representing many languages, greatest ports. creeds, and trades. Their talent for Oak timber for ships’ hulls, tallsuccessful business enterprise made pines for spars and masts, and pitch the city one of the thriving centers of for the seams of ships came from the the British Empire. Northeastern forests. Building their Though the Quakers dominated NEW PEOPLES were even more so among the three own vessels and sailing them to portsin Philadelphia, elsewhere in Penn-M regional groupings of colonies. all over the world, the shipmasters of sylvania others were well represent- ost settlers who came to Amer- Massachusetts Bay laid the founda- ed. Germans became the colony’sica in the 17th century were English, NEW ENGLAND tion for a trade that was to grow most skillful farmers. Important, Tbut there were also Dutch, Swedes, steadily in importance. By the end too, were cottage industries such asand Germans in the middle region, he northeastern New England of the colonial period, one-third of weaving, shoemaking, cabinetmak-a few French Huguenots in South colonies had generally thin, stony all vessels under the British flag were ing, and other crafts. PennsylvaniaCarolina and elsewhere, slaves from soil, relatively little level land, and built in New England. Fish, ship’s was also the principal gateway intoAfrica, primarily in the South, and long winters, making it difficult stores, and woodenware swelled the the New World for the Scots-Irish,a scattering of Spaniards, Italians, to make a living from farming. exports. New England merchants who moved into the colony in theand Portuguese throughout the col- Turning to other pursuits, the New and shippers soon discovered that early 18th century. “Bold and indi-onies. After 1680 England ceased to Englanders harnessed waterpower rum and slaves were profitable com- gent strangers,” as one Pennsylvaniabe the chief source of immigration, and established grain mills and modities. One of their most enter- official called them, they hated thesupplanted by Scots and “Scots- sawmills. Good stands of timber prising — if unsavory — trading English and were suspicious of allIrish” (Protestants from Northern encouraged shipbuilding. Excellent practices of the time was the “trian-government. The Scots-Irish tendedIreland). In addition, tens of thou- harbors promoted trade, and the gular trade.” Traders would purchase to settle in the backcountry, wheresands of refugees fled northwestern sea became a source of great wealth. slaves off the coast of Africa for New they cleared land and lived by hunt-Europe to escape war, oppression, In Massachusetts, the cod industry England rum, then sell the slaves in ing and subsistence farming.and absentee-landlordism. By 1690 alone quickly furnished a basis for the West Indies where they would New York best illustrated thethe American population had risen prosperity. buy molasses to bring home for sale polyglot nature of America. By 1646to a quarter of a million. From then With the bulk of the early settlers to the local rum producers. the population along the Hudsonon, it doubled every 25 years until, living in villages and towns around River included Dutch, French, Danes,in 1775, it numbered more than 2.5 the harbors, many New Englanders THE MIDDLE COLONIES Norwegians, Swedes, English, Scots, Smillion. Although families occa- carried on some kind of trade or Irish, Germans, Poles, Bohemians,sionally moved from one colony to business. Common pastureland and ociety in the middle colonies was Portuguese, and Italians. The Dutchanother, distinctions between indi- woodlots served the needs of towns- far more varied, cosmopolitan, and continued to exercise an importantvidual colonies were marked. They people, who worked small farms tolerant than in New England. Under social and economic influence on 24 25
  • 14. CHAPTER 2: THE COLONIAL PERIOD OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYthe New York region long after the terials in the world. Not bound to blankets. Quilt-making remains an England colonies, except for Rhodefall of New Netherland and their a single crop as was Virginia, North American tradition today. Island, followed its example.integration into the British colonial and South Carolina also produced The Pilgrims and Puritans hadsystem. Their sharp-stepped gable and exported rice and indigo, a blue SOCIETY, SCHOOLS, AND brought their own little librariesroofs became a permanent part of dye obtained from native plants that CULTURE and continued to import books Athe city’s architecture, and their was used in coloring fabric. By 1750 from London. And as early as themerchants gave Manhattan much more than 100,000 people lived in significant factor deterring the 1680s, Boston booksellers were do-of its original bustling, commercial the two colonies of North and South emergence of a powerful aristocratic ing a thriving business in works ofatmosphere. Carolina. Charleston, South Caroli- or gentry class in the colonies was classical literature, history, politics, na, was the region’s leading port and the ability of anyone in an estab- philosophy, science, theology, and THE SOUTHERN COLONIES trading center. lished colony to find a new home belles-lettres. In 1638 the first print-In middle colonies, the Southern In the southernmost colonies, as on the frontier. Time after time, ing press in the English colonies and contrast to New England and everywhere else, population growth dominant Tidewater figures were the second in North America wasthe in the backcountry had special sig- obliged to liberalize political poli- installed at Harvard College.colonies were predominantly rural nificance. German immigrants and cies, land-grant requirements, and The first school in Pennsylvaniasettlements. Scots-Irish, unwilling to live in religious practices by the threat of a was begun in 1683. It taught reading, By the late 17th century, Virgin- the original Tidewater settlements mass exodus to the frontier. writing, and keeping of accounts.ia’s and Maryland’s economic and where English influence was strong, Of equal significance for the Thereafter, in some fashion, everysocial structure rested on the great pushed inland. Those who could not future were the foundations of Quaker community provided for theplanters and the yeoman farmers. secure fertile land along the coast, or American education and culture elementary teaching of its children.The planters of the Tidewater region, who had exhausted the lands they established during the colonial pe- More advanced training — in classi-supported by slave labor, held most held, found the hills farther west riod. Harvard College was founded cal languages, history, and literatureof the political power and the best a bountiful refuge. Although their in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachu- — was offered at the Friends Publicland. They built great houses, ad- hardships were enormous, restless setts. Near the end of the century, School, which still operates in Phila-opted an aristocratic way of life, and settlers kept coming; by the 1730s the College of William and Mary delphia as the William Penn Charterkept in touch as best they could with they were pouring into the Shenan- was established in Virginia. A few School. The school was free to thethe world of culture overseas. doah Valley of Virginia. Soon the years later, the Collegiate School of poor, but parents were required to The yeoman farmers, who worked interior was dotted with farms. Connecticut, later to become Yale pay tuition if they were able.smaller tracts, sat in popular assem- Living on the edge of Native University, was chartered. In Philadelphia, numerous pri-blies and found their way into politi- American country, frontier families Even more noteworthy was the vate schools with no religious affili-cal office. Their outspoken indepen- built cabins, cleared the wilderness, growth of a school system main- ation taught languages, mathemat-dence was a constant warning to the and cultivated maize and wheat. tained by governmental authority. ics, and natural science; there wereoligarchy of planters not to encroach The men wore leather made from The Puritan emphasis on reading also night schools for adults. Womentoo far upon the rights of free men. the skin of deer or sheep, known directly from the Scriptures under- were not entirely overlooked, but The settlers of the Carolinas as buckskin; the women wore gar- scored the importance of literacy. In their educational opportunities werequickly learned to combine agri- ments of cloth they spun at home. 1647 the Massachusetts Bay Colony limited to training in activities thatculture and commerce, and the Their food consisted of venison, enacted the “ye olde deluder Satan” could be conducted in the home.marketplace became a major source wild turkey, and fish. They had their Act, requiring every town having Private teachers instructed theof prosperity. Dense forests brought own amusements: great barbecues, more than 50 families to establish daughters of prosperous Philadel-revenue: Lumber, tar, and resin dances, housewarmings for newly a grammar school (a Latin school phians in French, music, dancing,from the longleaf pine provided married couples, shooting matches, to prepare students for college). painting, singing, grammar, andsome of the best shipbuilding ma- and contests for making quilted Shortly thereafter, all the other New sometimes bookkeeping. 26 27
  • 15. CHAPTER 2: THE COLONIAL PERIOD OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY In the 18th century, the intel- primitive cabins, were firm devotees that the charges printed by Zenger Christian churches that believe inlectual and cultural development of scholarship, and they made great were true and hence not libelous. personal conversion and the iner-of Pennsylvania reflected, in large efforts to attract learned ministers to The jury returned a verdict of not rancy of the Bible) and the spirit ofmeasure, the vigorous personalities their settlements. guilty, and Zenger went free. revivalism, which continue to playof two men: James Logan and Ben- Literary production in the The increasing prosperity of the significant roles in American reli-jamin Franklin. Logan was secretary colonies was largely confined to towns prompted fears that the devil gious and cultural life. It weakenedof the colony, and it was in his fine li- New England. Here attention con- was luring society into pursuit of the status of the established clergybrary that young Franklin found the centrated on religious subjects. worldly gain and may have contrib- and provoked believers to rely onlatest scientific works. In 1745 Logan Sermons were the most common uted to the religious reaction of the their own conscience. Perhaps mosterected a building for his collection products of the press. A famous 1730s, known as the Great Awaken- important, it led to the proliferationand bequeathed both building and Puritan minister, the Reverend Cot- ing. Its two immediate sources were of sects and denominations, whichbooks to the city. ton Mather, wrote some 400 works. George Whitefield, a Wesleyan re- in turn encouraged general accep- Franklin contributed even more His masterpiece, Magnalia Christi vivalist who arrived from England tance of the principle of religiousto the intellectual activity of Phila- Americana, presented the pageant in 1739, and Jonathan Edwards, who toleration.delphia. He formed a debating club of New England’s history. The most served the Congregational Churchthat became the embryo of the popular single work of the day was in Northampton, Massachusetts. EMERGENCE OF COLONIALAmerican Philosophical Society. His the Reverend Michael Wigglesworth’s Whitefield began a religious re- GOVERNMENT In the earlystriking of colonial de-endeavors also led to the founding long poem, “The Day of Doom,” vival in Philadelphia and then movedof a public academy that later de- which described the Last Judgment on to New England. He enthralled phasesveloped into the University of Penn- in terrifying terms. audiences of up to 20,000 people velopment, a feature was thesylvania. He was a prime mover in In 1704 Cambridge, Massachu- at a time with histrionic displays, lack of controlling influence by thethe establishment of a subscription setts, launched the colonies’ first gestures, and emotional oratory. English government. All colonies ex-library, which he called “the mother successful newspaper. By 1745 there Religious turmoil swept through- cept Georgia emerged as companiesof all North American subscription were 22 newspapers being published out New England and the middle of shareholders, or as feudal propri-libraries.” in British North America. colonies as ministers left established etorships stemming from charters In the Southern colonies, wealthy In New York, an important step churches to preach the revival. granted by the Crown. The fact thatplanters and merchants imported in establishing the principle of free- Edwards was the most prominent the king had transferred his immedi-private tutors from Ireland or Scot- dom of the press took place with the of those influenced by Whitefield ate sovereignty over the New Worldland to teach their children. Some case of John Peter Zenger, whose and the Great Awakening. His most settlements to stock companies andsent their children to school in Eng- New York Weekly Journal, begun in memorable contribution was his proprietors did not, of course, meanland. Having these other opportuni- 1733, represented the opposition to 1741 sermon, “Sinners in the Hands that the colonists in America wereties, the upper classes in the Tidewa- the government. After two years of of an Angry God.” Rejecting theat- necessarily free of outside control.ter were not interested in supporting publication, the colonial governor rics, he delivered his message in a Under the terms of the Virginiapublic education. In addition, the could no longer tolerate Zenger’s quiet, thoughtful manner, arguing Company charter, for example, fulldiffusion of farms and plantations satirical barbs, and had him thrown that the established churches sought governmental authority was vestedmade the formation of community into prison on a charge of seditious to deprive Christianity of its func- in the company itself. Nevertheless,schools difficult. There were only a libel. Zenger continued to edit his tion of redemption from sin. His the crown expected that the com-few free schools in Virginia. paper from jail during his nine- magnum opus, Of Freedom of Will pany would be resident in England. The desire for learning did not month trial, which excited intense (1754), attempted to reconcile Cal- Inhabitants of Virginia, then, wouldstop at the borders of established interest throughout the colonies. vinism with the Enlightenment. have no more voice in their govern-communities, however. On the fron- Andrew Hamilton, the prominent The Great Awakening gave rise ment than if the king himself hadtier, the Scots-Irish, though living in lawyer who defended Zenger, argued to evangelical denominations (those retained absolute rule. 28 29
  • 16. CHAPTER 2: THE COLONIAL PERIOD OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY Still, the colonies considered Calverts in Maryland, William Penn and control of the government the settlers had come to a land ofthemselves chiefly as common- in Pennsylvania, the proprietors in passed to elected representatives. seemingly unending reach. On suchwealths or states, much like England North and South Carolina, and the Subsequently, other New England a continent, natural conditions pro-itself, having only a loose association proprietors in New Jersey specified colonies — such as Connecticut moted a tough individualism, aswith the authorities in London. In that legislation should be enacted and Rhode Island — also succeeded people became used to making theirone way or another, exclusive rule with “the consent of the freemen.” in becoming self-governing simply own decisions. Government pen-from the outside withered away. The In New England, for many years, by asserting that they were beyond etrated the backcountry only slowly,colonists — inheritors of the long there was even more complete any governmental authority, and and conditions of anarchy often pre-English tradition of the struggle self-government than in the other then setting up their own political vailed on the frontier.for political liberty — incorporated colonies. Aboard the Mayflower, the system modeled after that of the Yet the assumption of self-gov-concepts of freedom into Virginia’s Pilgrims adopted an instrument for Pilgrims at Plymouth. ernment in the colonies did not gofirst charter. It provided that English government called the “Mayflower In only two cases was the self- entirely unchallenged. In the 1670s,colonists were to exercise all liber- Compact,” to “combine ourselves to- government provision omitted. the Lords of Trade and Plantations,ties, franchises, and immunities “as gether into a civil body politic for our These were New York, which was a royal committee established toif they had been abiding and born better ordering and preservation ... granted to Charles II’s brother, the enforce the mercantile system inwithin this our Realm of England.” and by virtue hereof [to] enact, con- Duke of York (later to become King the colonies, moved to annul theThey were, then, to enjoy the ben- stitute, and frame such just and equal James II), and Georgia, which was Massachusetts Bay charter becauseefits of the Magna Carta — the laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, granted to a group of “trustees.” In the colony was resisting the govern-charter of English political and and offices ... as shall be thought most both instances the provisions for ment’s economic policy. James II incivil liberties granted by King John meet and convenient for the general governance were short-lived, for 1685 approved a proposal to createin 1215 — and the common law good of the colony. ...” the colonists demanded legislative a Dominion of New England and— the English system of law based Although there was no legal basis representation so insistently that the place colonies south through Newon legal precedents or tradition, not for the Pilgrims to establish a system authorities soon yielded. Jersey under its jurisdiction, therebystatutory law. In 1618 the Virginia of self-government, the action was In the mid-17th century, the tightening the Crown’s control overCompany issued instructions to its not contested, and, under the com- English were too distracted by their the whole region. A royal governor,appointed governor providing that pact, the Plymouth settlers were able Civil War (1642-49) and Oliver Sir Edmund Andros, levied taxesfree inhabitants of the plantations for many years to conduct their own Cromwell’s Puritan Commonwealth by executive order, implemented ashould elect representatives to join affairs without outside interference. to pursue an effective colonial pol- number of other harsh measures,with the governor and an appointive A similar situation developed in icy. After the restoration of Charles and jailed those who resisted.council in passing ordinances for the the Massachusetts Bay Company, II and the Stuart dynasty in 1660, When news of the Glorious Rev-welfare of the colony. which had been given the right to England had more opportunity to olution (1688-89), which deposed These measures proved to be govern itself. Thus, full authority attend to colonial administration. James II in England, reached Boston,some of the most far-reaching in the rested in the hands of persons resid- Even then, however, it was inef- the population rebelled and impris-entire colonial period. From then ing in the colony. At first, the dozen ficient and lacked a coherent plan. oned Andros. Under a new charter,on, it was generally accepted that the or so original members of the com- The colonies were left largely to their Massachusetts and Plymouth werecolonists had a right to participate in pany who had come to America at- own devices. united for the first time in 1691 astheir own government. In most in- tempted to rule autocratically. But The remoteness afforded by a vast the royal colony of Massachusettsstances, the king, in making future the other colonists soon demanded ocean also made control of the colo- Bay. The other New England colo-grants, provided in the charter that a voice in public affairs and indi- nies difficult. Added to this was the nies quickly reinstalled their previ-the free men of the colony should cated that refusal would lead to a character of life itself in early Amer- ous governments.have a voice in legislation affecting mass migration. ica. From countries limited in space The English Bill of Rights andthem. Thus, charters awarded to the The company members yielded, and dotted with populous towns, the Toleration Act of 1689 affirmed 30 31
  • 17. CHAPTER 2: THE COLONIAL PERIOD OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYfreedom of worship for Christians stand the importance of what the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is now lo- conflict with France, known as thein the colonies as well as in England colonial assemblies were doing and cated, between a band of French reg- French and Indian War in Americaand enforced limits on the Crown. simply neglected them. Nonethe- ulars and Virginia militiamen under and the Seven Years’ War in Europe.Equally important, John Locke’s less, the precedents and principles the command of 22-year-old George Only a modest portion of it wasSecond Treatise on Government established in the conflicts between Washington, a Virginia planter and fought in the Western Hemisphere.(1690), the Glorious Revolution’s assemblies and governors eventually surveyor. The British government In the Peace of Paris (1763),major theoretical justification, set became part of the unwritten “con- attempted to deal with the conflict France relinquished all of Canada,forth a theory of government based stitution” of the colonies. In this way, by calling a meeting of representa- the Great Lakes, and the territorynot on divine right but on contract. the colonial legislatures asserted the tives from New York, Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi to the British.It contended that the people, en- right of self-government. Maryland, and the New England The dream of a French empire indowed with natural rights of life, colonies. From June 19 to July 10, North America was over.liberty, and property, had the right THE FRENCH AND 1754, the Albany Congress, as it Having triumphed over France,to rebel when governments violated INDIAN WAR came to be known, met with the Iro- Britain was now compelled to face Ftheir rights. quois in Albany, New York, in order a problem that it had hitherto ne- By the early 18th century, almost rance and Britain engaged in a to improve relations with them and glected, the governance of its em-all the colonies had been brought succession of wars in Europe and secure their loyalty to the British. pire. London thought it essential tounder the direct jurisdiction of the the Caribbean throughout the 18th But the delegates also declared organize its now vast possessions toBritish Crown, but under the rules century. Though Britain secured a union of the American colonies facilitate defense, reconcile the diver-established by the Glorious Revolu- certain advantages — primarily in “absolutely necessary for their pres- gent interests of different areas andtion. Colonial governors sought to the sugar-rich islands of the Carib- ervation” and adopted a proposal peoples, and distribute more evenlyexercise powers that the king had bean — the struggles were generally drafted by Benjamin Franklin. The the cost of imperial administration.lost in England, but the colonial indecisive, and France remained in a Albany Plan of Union provided for a In North America alone, Britishassemblies, aware of events there, powerful position in North Ameri- president appointed by the king and territories had more than doubled.attempted to assert their “rights” ca. By 1754, France still had a strong a grand council of delegates chosen A population that had been predom-and “liberties.” Their leverage rested relationship with a number of Na- by the assemblies, with each colony inantly Protestant and English nowon two significant powers similar tive American tribes in Canada and to be represented in proportion to its included French-speaking Catholicsto those held by the English Parlia- along the Great Lakes. It controlled financial contributions to the gener- from Quebec, and large numbers ofment: the right to vote on taxes and the Mississippi River and, by estab- al treasury. This body would have partly Christianized Native Ameri-expenditures, and the right to initi- lishing a line of forts and trading charge of defense, Native American cans. Defense and administrationate legislation rather than merely re- posts, had marked out a great cres- relations, and trade and settlement of the new territories, as well as ofact to proposals of the governor. cent-shaped empire stretching from of the west. Most importantly, it the old, would require huge sums of The legislatures used these rights Quebec to New Orleans. The British would have independent authority money and increased personnel. Theto check the power of royal gover- remained confined to the narrow to levy taxes. But none of the colo- old colonial system was obviouslynors and to pass other measures to belt east of the Appalachian Moun- nies accepted the plan, since they inadequate to these tasks. Measuresexpand their power and influence. tains. Thus the French threatened were not prepared to surrender ei- to establish a new one, however,The recurring clashes between gov- not only the British Empire but also ther the power of taxation or control would rouse the latent suspicionsernor and assembly made colonial the American colonists themselves, over the development of the western of colonials who increasingly wouldpolitics tumultuous and worked for in holding the Mississippi Valley, lands to a central authority. see Britain as no longer a protectorincreasingly to awaken the colonists France could limit their westward England’s superior strategic posi- of their rights, but rather a dangerto the divergence between American expansion. tion and her competent leadership to them. 9and English interests. In many cases, An armed clash took place in ultimately brought victory in thethe royal authorities did not under- 1754 at Fort Duquesne, the site where 32 33
  • 18. CHAPTER 2: THE COLONIAL PERIOD OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY AN EXCEPTIONAL NATION? THE WITCHES OF SALEMThe United States of America did not emerge as a nation until about 175 In 1692 a group of adolescent girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts, becameyears after its establishment as a group of mostly British colonies. Yet from the subject to strange fits after hearing tales told by a West Indian slave. Theybeginning it was a different society in the eyes of many Europeans who viewed accused several women of being witches. The townspeople were appalled butit from afar, whether with hope or apprehension. Most of its settlers — whether not surprised: Belief in witchcraft was widespread throughout 17th-centurythe younger sons of aristocrats, religious dissenters, or impoverished inden- America and Europe. Town officials convened a court to hear the charges oftured servants — came there lured by a promise of opportunity or freedom not witchcraft. Within a month, six women were convicted and hanged.available in the Old World. The first Americans were reborn free, establishing The hysteria grew, in large measure because the court permitted wit-themselves in a wilderness unencumbered by any social order other than that nesses to testify that they had seen the accused as spirits or in visions. Suchof the primitive aboriginal peoples they displaced. Having left the baggage of “spectral evidence” could neither be verified nor made subject to objectivea feudal order behind them, they faced few obstacles to the development of a examination. By the fall of 1692, 20 victims, including several men, had beensociety built on the principles of political and social liberalism that emerged executed, and more than 100 others were in jail (where another five victimswith difficulty in 17th- and 18th-century Europe. Based on the thinking of the died) — among them some of the town’s most prominent citizens. When thephilosopher John Locke, this sort of liberalism emphasized the rights of the charges threatened to spread beyond Salem, ministers throughout the colonyindividual and constraints on government power. called for an end to the trials. The governor of the colony agreed. Those still Most immigrants to America came from the British Isles, the most in jail were later acquitted or given reprieves.liberal of the European polities along with The Netherlands. In religion, the Although an isolated incident, the Salem episode has long fascinatedmajority adhered to various forms of Calvinism with its emphasis on both Americans. Most historians agree that Salem Village in 1692 experienced adivine and secular contractual relationships. These greatly facilitated the kind of public hysteria, fueled by a genuine belief in the existence of witch-emergence of a social order built on individual rights and social mobility. The craft. While some of the girls may have been acting, many responsible adultsdevelopment of a more complex and highly structured commercial society in became caught up in the frenzy as well.coastal cities by the mid-18th century did not stunt this trend; it was in these Even more revealing is a closer analysis of the identities of the accusedcities that the American Revolution was made. The constant reconstruction of and the accusers. Salem Village, as much of colonial New England, wassociety along an ever-receding Western frontier equally contributed to a lib- undergoing an economic and political transition from a largely agrarian, Pu-eral-democratic spirit. ritan-dominated community to a more commercial, secular society. Many of In Europe, ideals of individual rights advanced slowly and unevenly; the the accusers were representatives of a traditional way of life tied to farmingconcept of democracy was even more alien. The attempt to establish both in and the church, whereas a number of the accused witches were members of acontinental Europe’s oldest nation led to the French Revolution. The effort to rising commercial class of small shopkeepers and tradesmen. Salem’s obscuredestroy a neofeudal society while establishing the rights of man and democrat- struggle for social and political power between older traditional groups and aic fraternity generated terror, dictatorship, and Napoleonic despotism. In the newer commercial class was one repeated in communities throughout Ameri-end, it led to reaction and gave legitimacy to a decadent old order. In America, can history. It took a bizarre and deadly detour when its citizens were sweptthe European past was overwhelmed by ideals that sprang naturally from the up by the conviction that the devil was loose in their homes.process of building a new society on virgin land. The principles of liberalism The Salem witch trials also serve as a dramatic parable of the deadlyand democracy were strong from the beginning. A society that had thrown off consequences of making sensational, but false, charges. Three hundred yearsthe burdens of European history would naturally give birth to a nation that later, we still call false accusations against a large number of people asaw itself as exceptional.  “witch hunt.”  34 35
  • 19. CHAPTER 2: THE COLONIAL PERIOD OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY Map depicting the English colonies and western territories, 1763-1775. 37
  • 20. John Smith, the stalwart English explorer and settler whose leadership helped save Jamestown from collapse during its critical early years. B ECO M I N G A NATION A PICTURE PROFILE Detail from a painting by American artist Benjamin WestThe United States of America was transformed in the two centuries (1738-1820), which depicts William Penn’s treaty with the from the first English settlement at Jamestown in 1607 to the Native Americans living where he founded the colony of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and others seeking beginning of the 19th century. From a series of isolated colonial religious freedom. Penn’s fair treatment of the Delaware settlements hugging the Atlantic Coast, the United States evolved Indians led to long-term, friendly relations, unlike the conflictsinto a new nation, born in revolution, and guided by a Constitution between European settlers and Indian tribes in other colonies. embodying the principles of democratic self-government. 38 39
  • 21. A devout Puritan elder (right) confronts patrons drinking ale outside atavern. Tensions between the strictly religious Puritans, who first settledthe region, and the more secular population were characteristic of thecolonial era in New England. Cotton Mather was one of the leading Puritan figures of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. His massive Ecclesiastical History of New England (1702) is an exhaustive chronicle of the settlement of New England and the Puritan effort to establish a kingdom of God Statue of Roger Williams, early champion of religious freedom in the wilderness of the and the separation of church and state. Williams founded the colony of New World. Rhode Island after leaving Massachusetts because of his disapproval of its religious ties to the Church of England. 40 41
  • 22. Benjamin Franklin: scientist, inventor, writer, newspaper publisher, city father of Philadelphia, diplomat, and signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Franklin embodied the virtues of shrewd practicality and the optimistic belief in self-improvement often associated with America itself.Drawing of revolutionary firebrand Patrick Henry (standingto the left) uttering perhaps the most famous words of theAmerican Revolution — “Give me liberty or give me death!”— in a debate before the Virginia Assembly in 1775. James Madison, fourth president of the United States, is often regarded as the “Father of the Constitution.” His essays in the debate over ratification of the Constitution were collected with those of Alexander Hamilton and John Jay as The Federalist Papers. Today, they are regarded as a classic defense of republican government, in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches check and balance each other to protect the rights and freedoms of the people. 42 43
  • 23. Artist’s depiction of the first shots of the AmericanRevolution, fired at Lexington, Massachusetts,on April 19, 1775. Local militia confronted Britishtroops marching to seize colonial armamentsin the nearby town of Concord. 44 45
  • 24. Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declarationof Independence and third president ofthe United States. Jefferson also foundedthe University of Virginia and built oneof America’s most celebrated houses,Monticello, in Charlottesville, Virginia. Above: Surrender of Lord Cornwallis and the British army to American and French forces commanded by George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia, on October 19, 1781. The battle of Yorktown led to the end of the war and American independence, secured in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. Left: U.S. postage stamp commemorating the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark expedition, one of Thomas Jefferson’s visionary projects. Meriwether Lewis, Jeffferson’s secretary, and his friend, William Clark, accompanied by a party of more than 30 persons, set out on a journey into the uncharted West that lasted four years. They traveled thousands of miles, from Camp Wood, Illinois, to Oregon, through lands that eventually became 11 American states. 47
  • 25. Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury in the administration of John Marshall, chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835, in a portraitPresident George Washington. Hamilton advocated a strong federal government by Alonzo Chappel. In a series of landmark cases, Marshall established the principle and the encouragement of industry. He was opposed by Thomas Jefferson, of judicial review – the right of the courts to determine if any act of Congress or the a believer in decentralized government, states’ rights, and the virtues of executive branch is constitutional, and therefore valid and legal. the independent farmers and land owners. 48 49
  • 26. 3 CHAPTER THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE The protest against British taxes known as the “Boston Tea Party,” 1773.50
  • 27. CHAPTER 3: THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “The Revolution was effected they claimed the right to extend their boundaries as far west as the from all sources and levied taxes on wines, silks, coffee, and a number of before the war commenced. Mississippi River. The British government, fear- other luxury items. The hope was that lowering the duty on molas- The Revolution was in ing a series of Indian wars, believed that the lands should be opened on ses would reduce the temptation to smuggle the commodity from the the hearts and minds of a more gradual basis. Restricting movement was also a way of ensur- Dutch and French West Indies for the rum distilleries of New England. the people.” ing royal control over existing settle- The British government enforced ments before allowing the formation the Sugar Act energetically. Customs of new ones. The Royal Proclama- officials were ordered to show more tion of 1763 reserved all the west- effectiveness. British warships in Former President John Adams, 1818 ern territory between the Allegheny American waters were instructed to Mountains, Florida, the Mississippi seize smugglers, and “writs of assis- River, and Quebec for use by Na- tance,” or warrants, authorized the tive Americans. Thus the Crown at- king’s officers to search suspected tempted to sweep away every western premises. land claim of the 13 colonies and to Both the duty imposed by the stop westward expansion. Although Sugar Act and the measures to en-Throughout the 18th century, the spread the costs of empire more eq- never effectively enforced, this mea- force it caused consternation amongmaturing British North American uitably, and speak to the interests of sure, in the eyes of the colonists, New England merchants. They con-colonies inevitably forged a distinct both French Canadians and North constituted a high-handed disregard tended that payment of even theidentity. They grew vastly in eco- American Indians. The colonies, on of their fundamental right to occupy small duty imposed would be ruin-nomic strength and cultural attain- the other hand, long accustomed to and settle western lands. ous to their businesses. Merchants,ment; virtually all had long years a large measure of independence, ex- More serious in its repercus- legislatures, and town meetings pro-of self-government behind them. pected more, not less, freedom. And, sions was the new British revenue tested the law. Colonial lawyers pro-In the 1760s their combined popu- with the French menace eliminated, policy. London needed more money tested “taxation without representa-lation exceeded 1,500,000 — a six- they felt far less need for a strong to support its growing empire and tion,” a slogan that was to persuadefold increase since 1700. Nonethe- British presence. A scarcely compre- faced growing taxpayer discontent at many Americans they were beingless, England and America did not hending Crown and Parliament on home. It seemed reasonable enough oppressed by the mother country.begin an overt parting of the ways the other side of the Atlantic found that the colonies should pay for their Later in 1764, Parliament enacteduntil 1763, more than a century itself contending with colonists own defense. That would involve new a Currency Act “to prevent paperand a half after the founding of the trained in self-government and im- taxes, levied by Parliament — at the bills of credit hereafter issued infirst permanent settlement at James- patient with interference. expense of colonial self-government. any of His Majesty’s colonies fromtown, Virginia. The organization of Canada The first step was the replacement being made legal tender.” Since the and of the Ohio Valley necessitated of the Molasses Act of 1733, which colonies were a deficit trade area A NEW COLONIAL SYSTEM policies that would not alienate the placed a prohibitive duty, or tax, and were constantly short of hardIn theWar, London the French and French and Indian inhabitants. Here on the import of rum and molasses currency, this measure added a seri- aftermath of London was in fundamental conflict from non-English areas, with the ous burden to the colonial economy.Indian saw a need for with the interests of the colonies. Sugar Act of 1764. This act outlawed Equally objectionable from the colo-a new imperial design that would Fast increasing in population, and the importation of foreign rum; it nial viewpoint was the Quarteringinvolve more centralized control, needing more land for settlement, also put a modest duty on molasses Act, passed in 1765, which required 52 53
  • 28. CHAPTER 3: THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYcolonies to provide royal troops with liberties. It asserted that Virginians, The American leaders argued Townshend, British chancellor of theprovisions and barracks. enjoying the rights of Englishmen, that their only legal relations were exchequer, attempted a new fiscal could be taxed only by their own with the Crown. It was the king who program in the face of continued THE STAMP ACT representatives. The Massachusetts had agreed to establish colonies be- discontent over high taxes at home.A Assembly invited all the colonies to yond the sea and the king who pro- Intent upon reducing British taxes general tax measure sparked appoint delegates to a “Stamp Act vided them with governments. They by making more efficient the col-the greatest organized resistance. Congress” in New York, held in Oc- asserted that he was equally a king of lection of duties levied on AmericanKnown as the “Stamp Act,” it re- tober 1765, to consider appeals for England and a king of the colonies, trade, he tightened customs admin-quired all newspapers, broadsides, relief to the Crown and Parliament. but they insisted that the English istration and enacted duties on colo-pamphlets, licenses, leases, and oth- Twenty-seven representatives from Parliament had no more right to nial imports of paper, glass, lead, ander legal documents to bear revenue nine colonies seized the opportunity pass laws for the colonies than any tea from Britain. The “Townshendstamps. The proceeds, collected by to mobilize colonial opinion. After colonial legislature had the right toActs” were based on the premise thatAmerican customs agents, would be much debate, the congress adopted a pass laws for England. In fact, how- taxes imposed on goods imported byused for “defending, protecting, and set of resolutions asserting that “no ever, their struggle was equally withthe colonies were legal while internalsecuring” the colonies. taxes ever have been or can be con- King George III and Parliament. taxes (like the Stamp Act) were not. Bearing equally on people who stitutionally imposed on them, but Factions aligned with the Crown The Townshend Acts were de-did any kind of business, the Stamp by their respective legislatures,” and generally controlled Parliament and signed to raise revenue that wouldAct aroused the hostility of the most that the Stamp Act had a “manifest reflected the king’s determination tobe used in part to support colonialpowerful and articulate groups in tendency to subvert the rights and be a strong monarch. officials and maintain the Brit-the American population: journal- liberties of the colonists.” The British Parliament rejected ish army in America. In response,ists, lawyers, clergymen, merchants the colonial contentions. British Philadelphia lawyer John Dickinson,and businessmen, North and South, TAXATION WITHOUT merchants, however, feeling the ef- in Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer,East and West. Leading merchants REPRESENTATION fects of the American boycott, threw argued that Parliament had the Torganized for resistance and formed their weight behind a repeal move- right to control imperial commercenonimportation associations. he issue thus drawn centered on ment. In 1766 Parliament yielded, but did not have the right to tax the Trade with the mother country the question of representation. The repealing the Stamp Act and modi- colonies, whether the duties werefell off sharply in the summer of colonists believed they could not fying the Sugar Act. However, to external or internal.1765, as prominent men organized be represented unless they actually mollify the supporters of central The agitation following enact-themselves into the “Sons of Lib- elected members to the House of control over the colonies, Parliamentment of the Townshend duties waserty” — secret organizations formed Commons. But this idea conflicted followed these actions with passage less violent than that stirred by theto protest the Stamp Act, often with the English principle of “virtual of the Declaratory Act, which as- Stamp Act, but it was neverthelessthrough violent means. From Mas- representation,” according to which serted the authority of Parliament tostrong, particularly in the cities ofsachusetts to South Carolina, mobs, each member of Parliament rep- make laws binding the colonies “in the Eastern seaboard. Merchantsforcing luckless customs agents to resented the interests of the whole all cases whatsoever.” The colonists once again resorted to non-impor-resign their offices, destroyed the country and the empire — even if had won only a temporary respite tation agreements, and people madehated stamps. Militant resistance ef- his electoral base consisted of only from an impending crisis. do with local products. Colonists,fectively nullified the Act. a tiny minority of property owners for example, dressed in homespun Spurred by delegate Patrick Hen- from a given district. This theory THE TOWNSHEND ACTS clothing and found substitutes for Try, the Virginia House of Burgesses assumed that all British subjects tea. They used homemade paperpassed a set of resolutions in May shared the same interests as the he year 1767 brought another and their houses went unpainted.denouncing taxation without rep- property owners who elected mem- series of measures that stirred anew In Boston, enforcement of theresentation as a threat to colonial bers of Parliament. all the elements of discord. Charles new regulations provoked violence. 54 55
  • 29. CHAPTER 3: THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYWhen customs officials sought to the controversy alive. They contend- accountable to it, thereby leading to In Boston, however, the agents de-collect duties, they were set upon by ed that payment of the tax consti- the emergence of “a despotic form fied the colonists; with the supportthe populace and roughly handled. tuted an acceptance of the principle of government.” The committee of the royal governor, they madeFor this infraction, two British regi-that Parliament had the right to rule communicated with other towns on preparations to land incoming car-ments were dispatched to protect the over the colonies. They feared that at this matter and requested them to goes regardless of opposition. Oncustoms commissioners. any time in the future, the principle draft replies. Committees were set the night of December 16, 1773, a The presence of British troops in of parliamentary rule might be ap- up in virtually all the colonies, and band of men disguised as MohawkBoston was a standing invitation to plied with devastating effect on all out of them grew a base of effective Indians and led by Samuel Adamsdisorder. On March 5, 1770, antago- colonial liberties. revolutionary organizations. Still, boarded three British ships lying atnism between citizens and British The radicals’ most effective Adams did not have enough fuel to anchor and dumped their tea cargosoldiers again flared into violence. leader was Samuel Adams of Mas- set a fire. into Boston harbor. Doubting theirWhat began as a harmless snowball- sachusetts, who toiled tirelessly for countrymen’s commitment to prin-ing of British soldiers degenerated a single end: independence. From THE BOSTON “TEA PARTY” ciple, they feared that if the tea were In 1773, however, Britain furnishedinto a mob attack. Someone gave the the time he graduated from Harvard landed, colonists would actuallyorder to fire. When the smoke had College in 1743, Adams was a public purchase the tea and pay the tax.cleared, three Bostonians lay dead in servant in some capacity — inspec- Adams and his allies with an incen- A crisis now confronted Britain.the snow. Dubbed the “Boston Mas- tor of chimneys, tax-collector, and diary issue. The powerful East India The East India Company had car-sacre,” the incident was dramatically moderator of town meetings. A Company, finding itself in critical fi- ried out a parliamentary statute. Ifpictured as proof of British heart- consistent failure in business, he was nancial straits, appealed to the Brit- the destruction of the tea went un-lessness and tyranny. shrewd and able in politics, with the ish government, which granted it a punished, Parliament would admit Faced with such opposition, Par- New England town meeting his the- monopoly on all tea exported to the to the world that it had no controlliament in 1770 opted for a strategic ater of action. colonies. The government also per- over the colonies. Official opinionretreat and repealed all the Townsh- Adams wanted to free people mitted the East India Company to in Britain almost unanimously con-end duties except that on tea, which from their awe of social and politi- supply retailers directly, bypassing demned the Boston Tea Party as anwas a luxury item in the colonies, cal superiors, make them aware of colonial wholesalers. By then, most act of vandalism and advocated le-imbibed only by a very small minor- their own power and importance, of the tea consumed in America was gal measures to bring the insurgentity. To most, the action of Parliamentand thus arouse them to action. To- imported illegally, duty-free. By sell- colonists into line.signified that the colonists had won ward these objectives, he published ing its tea through its own agents ata major concession, and the cam- articles in newspapers and made a price well under the customary THE COERCIVE ACTS Ppaign against England was largely speeches in town meetings, instigat- one, the East India Company madedropped. A colonial embargo on ing resolutions that appealed to the smuggling unprofitable and threat- arliament responded with new“English tea” continued but was not colonists’ democratic impulses. ened to eliminate the independent laws that the colonists called thetoo scrupulously observed. Prosper- In 1772 he induced the Boston colonial merchants. Aroused not “Coercive” or “Intolerable Acts.” Theity was increasing and most colonial town meeting to select a “Com- only by the loss of the tea trade but first, the Boston Port Bill, closedleaders were willing to let the futuremittee of Correspondence” to state also by the monopolistic practice the port of Boston until the tea wastake care of itself. the rights and grievances of the involved, colonial traders joined the paid for. The action threatened the colonists. The committee opposed radicals agitating for independence. very life of the city, for to prevent SAMUEL ADAMS a British decision to pay the salaries In ports up and down the Atlan- Boston from having access to theD of judges from customs revenues; it tic coast, agents of the East India sea meant economic disaster. Other uring a three-year interval of feared that the judges would no lon- Company were forced to resign. enactments restricted local author-calm, a relatively small number of ger be dependent on the legislature New shipments of tea were either ity and banned most town meetingsradicals strove energetically to keep for their incomes and thus no longer returned to England or warehoused. held without the governor’s consent. 56 57
  • 30. CHAPTER 3: THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYA Quartering Act required local au- posed a genuine dilemma for the began the collection of military sup-that the Massachusetts coloniststhorities to find suitable quarters for delegates. They would have to give plies and the mobilization of troops;were collecting powder and militaryBritish troops, in private homes if an appearance of firm unanimity and fanned public opinion into rev- stores at the town of Concord, 32necessary. Instead of subduing and to induce the British government olutionary ardor. kilometers away, Gage sent a strongisolating Massachusetts, as Parlia- to make concessions. But they also Many of those opposed to British detail to confiscate these munitions.ment intended, these acts rallied its would have to avoid any show of encroachment on American rights After a night of marching, thesister colonies to its aid. The Que- radicalism or spirit of independence nonetheless favored discussion and British troops reached the village ofbec Act, passed at nearly the same that would alarm more moderate compromise as the proper solu- Lexington on April 19, 1775, and sawtime, extended the boundaries of Americans. tion. This group included Crown- a grim band of 77 Minutemen — sothe province of Quebec south to the A cautious keynote speech, fol- appointed officers, Quakers, and named because they were said to beOhio River. In conformity with pre- lowed by a “resolve” that no obe- members of other religious sects ready to fight in a minute — throughvious French practice, it provided for dience was due the Coercive Acts, opposed to the use of violence, nu- the early morning mist. The Minute-trials without jury, did not establish ended with adoption of a set of merous merchants (especially in the men intended only a silent protest,a representative assembly, and gave resolutions affirming the right of middle colonies), and some discon- but Marine Major John Pitcairn, thethe Catholic Church semi-estab- the colonists to “life, liberty, and tented farmers and frontiersmen in leader of the British troops, yelled,lished status. By disregarding old property,” and the right of provin- the Southern colonies. “Disperse, you damned rebels! Youcharter claims to western lands, it cial legislatures to set “all cases of The king might well have ef- dogs, run!” The leader of the Min-threatened to block colonial expan- taxation and internal polity.” The fected an alliance with these moder- utemen, Captain John Parker, toldsion to the North and Northwest; its most important action taken by the ates and, by timely concessions, so his troops not to fire unless firedrecognition of the Roman Catholic Congress, however, was the forma- strengthened their position that the at first. The Americans were with-Church outraged the Protestant tion of a “Continental Association” revolutionaries would have found it drawing when someone fired a shot,sects that dominated every colony. to reestablish the trade boycott. It set which led the British troops to fire difficult to proceed with hostilities.Though the Quebec Act had not up a system of committees to inspect But George III had no intention of at the Minutemen. The British thenbeen passed as a punitive measure, customs entries, publish the names making concessions. In September charged with bayonets, leaving eightAmericans associated it with the Co- of merchants who violated the agree- 1774, scorning a petition by Phila- dead and 10 wounded. In the often-ercive Acts, and all became known ments, confiscate their imports, and delphia Quakers, he wrote, “The die quoted phrase of 19th century poetas the “Five Intolerable Acts.” encourage frugality, economy, and is now cast, the Colonies must eitherRalph Waldo Emerson, this was “the At the suggestion of the Vir- industry. submit or triumph.” This action iso- shot heard round the world.”ginia House of Burgesses, colonial The Continental Association im- lated Loyalists who were appalled The British pushed on to Con-representatives met in Philadelphia mediately assumed the leadership and frightened by the course of cord. The Americans had taken awayon September 5, 1774, “to consult in the colonies, spurring new local events following the Coercive Acts. most of the munitions, but they de-upon the present unhappy state organizations to end what remained stroyed whatever was left. In theof the Colonies.” Delegates to this of royal authority. Led by the pro-in- THE REVOLUTION BEGINS meantime, American forces in themeeting, known as the First Con- dependence leaders, they drew their G countryside had mobilized to harasstinental Congress, were chosen by support not only from the less well- eneral Thomas Gage, an amiable the British on their long return toprovincial congresses or popular to-do, but from many members of English gentleman with an Ameri- Boston. All along the road, behindconventions. Only Georgia failed to the professional class (especially can-born wife, commanded the stone walls, hillocks, and houses,send a delegate; the total number of lawyers), most of the planters of the garrison at Boston, where political militiamen from “every Middlesex55 was large enough for diversity of Southern colonies, and a number activity had almost wholly replaced village and farm” made targets ofopinion, but small enough for genu- of merchants. They intimidated the trade. Gage’s main duty in the colo- the bright red coats of the Britishine debate and effective action. The hesitant into joining the popular nies had been to enforce the Coer- soldiers. By the time Gage’s wearydivision of opinion in the colonies movement and punished the hostile; cive Acts. When news reached him detachment stumbled into Boston, 58 59
  • 31. CHAPTER 3: THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYit had suffered more than 250 killed would fight for the British. Instead, There still remained the task, the consent of the governed,and wounded. The Americans lost his proclamation drove to the rebel however, of gaining each colony’s — That whenever any Form of93 men. side many Virginians who would approval of a formal declaration. On Government becomes destructive The Second Continental Con- otherwise have remained Loyalist. June 7, Richard Henry Lee of Vir- of these ends, it is the Right of thegress met in Philadelphia, Penn- The governor of North Carolina, ginia introduced a resolution in the People to alter or to abolish it,sylvania, on May 10. The Congress Josiah Martin, also urged North Second Continental Congress, de- and to institute new Government,voted to go to war, inducting the Carolinians to remain loyal to the claring, “That these United Colonies laying its foundation on suchcolonial militias into continental Crown. When 1,500 men answered are, and of right ought to be, free principles and organizing itsservice. It appointed Colonel George Martin’s call, they were defeated by and independent states. ...” Imme- powers in such form, as to themWashington of Virginia as their revolutionary armies before British diately, a committee of five, headed shall seem most likely to effect theircommander-in-chief on June 15. troops could arrive to help. by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Safety and Happiness.Within two days, the Americans had British warships continued down was appointed to draft a document Jefferson linked Locke’s principlesincurred high casualties at Bunker the coast to Charleston, South Caro- for a vote. directly to the situation in the colo-Hill just outside Boston. Congress lina, and opened fire on the city in Largely Jefferson’s work, the Dec- nies. To fight for American indepen-also ordered American expeditions early June 1776. But South Caro- laration of Independence, adopted dence was to fight for a governmentto march northward into Canada by linians had time to prepare, and July 4, 1776, not only announced based on popular consent in placefall. Capturing Montreal, they failed repulsed the British by the end of the birth of a new nation, but also of a government by a king who hadin a winter assault on Quebec, and the month. They would not return set forth a philosophy of human “combined with others to subjecteventually retreated to New York. South for more than two years. freedom that would become a dy- us to a jurisdiction foreign to our Despite the outbreak of armed namic force throughout the entire constitution, and unacknowledgedconflict, the idea of complete sepa- COMMON SENSE AND world. The Declaration drew upon by our laws. ...” Only a governmentration from England was still repug- INDEPENDENCE French and English Enlightenment based on popular consent could se- Inradical politicalThomas Paine,nant to many members of the Con- political philosophy, but one influ- cure natural rights to life, liberty,tinental Congress. In July, it adopted January 1776, ence in particular stands out: John and the pursuit of happiness. Thus,the Olive Branch Petition, begging a theorist and Locke’s Second Treatise on Govern- to fight for American independencethe king to prevent further hostile writer who had come to America ment. Locke took conceptions of the was to fight on behalf of one’s ownactions until some sort of agreement from England in 1774, published a traditional rights of Englishmen and natural rights.could be worked out. King George 50-page pamphlet, Common Sense. universalized them into the natu-rejected it; instead, on August 23, Within three months, it sold 100,000 ral rights of all humankind. The DEFEATS AND VICTORIES Although the Americans suffered1775, he issued a proclamation de- copies. Paine attacked the idea of a Declaration’s familiar opening pas-claring the colonies to be in a state hereditary monarchy, declaring that sage echoes Locke’s social-contractof rebellion. one honest man was worth more to theory of government: severe setbacks for months after Britain had expected the South- society than “all the crowned ruf- We hold these truths to be self- independence was declared, theirern colonies to remain loyal, in part fians that ever lived.” He presented evident, that all men are created tenacity and perseverance eventu-because of their reliance on slavery. the alternatives — continued sub- equal, that they are endowed ally paid off. During August 1776,Many in the Southern colonies mission to a tyrannical king and by their Creator with certain in the Battle of Long Island in Newfeared that a rebellion against the an outworn government, or liberty unalienable Rights, that among York, Washington’s position be-mother country would also trigger and happiness as a self-sufficient, these are Life, Liberty and the came untenable, and he executed aa slave uprising. In November 1775, independent republic. Circulated pursuit of Happiness. — That to masterly retreat in small boats fromLord Dunmore, the governor of Vir- throughout the colonies, Common secure these rights, Governments Brooklyn to the Manhattan shore.ginia, tried to capitalize on that fear Sense helped to crystallize a decision are instituted among Men, British General William Howe twiceby offering freedom to all slaves who for separation. deriving their just powers from hesitated and allowed the Americans 60 61
  • 32. CHAPTER 3: THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYto escape. By November, however, turning point in the war. British privilege. However, the Crown lent soon broadened the conflict. In JuneHowe had captured Fort Washing- General John Burgoyne, moving its support to the colonies for geo- 1778 British ships fired on Frenchton on Manhattan Island. New York south from Canada, attempted to political rather than ideological vessels, and the two countries wentCity would remain under British invade New York and New England reasons: The French government to war. In 1779 Spain, hoping to re-control until the end of the war. via Lake Champlain and the Hud- had been eager for reprisal against acquire territories taken by Britain That December, Washington’s son River. He had too much heavy Britain ever since France’s defeat in in the Seven Years’ War, enteredforces were near collapse, as sup- equipment to negotiate the wooded 1763. To further the American cause, the conflict on the side of France,plies and promised aid failed to and marshy terrain. On August 6, Benjamin Franklin was sent to Paris but not as an ally of the Americans.materialize. Howe again missed his at Oriskany, New York, a band of in 1776. His wit, guile, and intellect In 1780 Britain declared war on thechance to crush the Americans by Loyalists and Native Americans un- soon made their presence felt in the Dutch, who had continued to tradedeciding to wait until spring to re- der Burgoyne’s command ran into a French capital, and played a major with the Americans. The combina-sume fighting. On Christmas Day, mobile and seasoned American force role in winning French assistance. tion of these European powers, withDecember 25, 1776, Washington that managed to halt their advance. France began providing aid to the France in the lead, was a far greatercrossed the Delaware River, north A few days later at Bennington, Ver- colonies in May 1776, when it sent 14 threat to Britain than the Americanof Trenton, New Jersey. In the early- mont, more of Burgoyne’s forces, ships with war supplies to America. colonies standing alone.morning hours of December 26, his seeking much-needed supplies, were In fact, most of the gunpowder usedtroops surprised the British garrison pushed back by American troops. by the American armies came from THE BRITISH MOVE SOUTH W the still believing that mostthere, taking more than 900 prison- Moving to the west side of the France. After Britain’s defeat at Sara-ers. A week later, on January 3, 1777, Hudson River, Burgoyne’s army toga, France saw an opportunity to ith French now involved,Washington attacked the British at advanced on Albany. The Ameri- seriously weaken its ancient enemy the British,Princeton, regaining most of the cans were waiting for him. Led by and restore the balance of power that Southerners were Loyalists, steppedterritory formally occupied by the Benedict Arnold — who would had been upset by the Seven Years’ up their efforts in the SouthernBritish. The victories at Trenton and later betray the Americans at West War (called the French and Indian colonies. A campaign began in latePrinceton revived flagging Ameri- Point, New York — the colonials War in the American colonies). On 1778, with the capture of Savannah,can spirits. twice repulsed the British. Having February 6, 1778, the colonies and Georgia. Shortly thereafter, British In September 1777, however, by this time incurred heavy losses, France signed a Treaty of Amity and troops and naval forces convergedHowe defeated the American army Burgoyne fell back to Saratoga, New Commerce, in which France recog- on Charleston, South Carolina, theat Brandywine in Pennsylvania and York, where a vastly superior Ameri- nized the United States and offered principal Southern port. They man-occupied Philadelphia, forcing the can force under General Horatio trade concessions. They also signed aged to bottle up American forces onContinental Congress to flee. Wash- Gates surrounded the British troops. a Treaty of Alliance, which stipu- the Charleston peninsula. On Mayington had to endure the bitterly On October 17, 1777, Burgoyne sur- lated that if France entered the war, 12, 1780, General Benjamin Lincolncold winter of 1777-1778 at Valley rendered his entire army — six gen- neither country would lay down its surrendered the city and its 5,000Forge, Pennsylvania, lacking ad- erals, 300 other officers, and 5,500 arms until the colonies won their troops, in the greatest American de-equate food, clothing, and supplies. enlisted personnel. independence, that neither would feat of the war.Farmers and merchants exchanged conclude peace with Britain without But the reversal in fortune onlytheir goods for British gold and sil- FRANCO-AMERICAN the consent of the other, and that emboldened the American rebels.ver rather than for dubious paper ALLIANCE each guaranteed the other’s posses- South Carolinians began roamingmoney issued by the Continental In France,cause was high: The sions in America. This was the only the countryside, attacking BritishCongress and the states. enthusiasm for the bilateral defense treaty signed by supply lines. In July, American Gen- Valley Forge was the lowest ebb American the United States or its predecessors eral Horatio Gates, who had assem-for Washington’s Continental Army, French intellectual world was it- until 1949. bled a replacement force of untrainedbut elsewhere 1777 proved to be the self stirring against feudalism and The Franco-American alliance militiamen, rushed to Camden, 62 63
  • 33. CHAPTER 3: THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONSouth Carolina, to confront British 1781, after being trapped at York-forces led by General Charles Corn-wallis. But Gates’s makeshift army town near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Cornwallis surrendered his The American Revolution had a significance farintelligentsia throughout the continent. It attracted the attention of a political beyond the North Americanpanicked and ran when confronted army of 8,000 British soldiers. European continent. Idealistic notables such as Thaddeus Kosciusko, Friedrichby the British regulars. Cornwallis’s Although Cornwallis’s defeat von Steuben, and the Marquis de Lafayette joined its ranks to affirm liberaltroops met the Americans several did not immediately end the war ideas they hoped to transfer to their own nations. Its success strengthened themore times, but the most signifi- — which would drag on inconclu- concept of natural rights throughout the Western world and furthered the En-cant battle took place at Cowpens, sively for almost two more years — a lightenment rationalist critique of an old order built around hereditary monar-South Carolina, in early 1781, where new British government decided to chy and an established church. In a very real sense, it was a precursor to thethe Americans soundly defeated the pursue peace negotiations in Paris in French Revolution, but it lacked the French Revolution’s violence and chaosBritish. After an exhausting but early 1782, with the American side because it had occurred in a society that was already fundamentally liberal.unproductive chase through North represented by Benjamin Franklin, The ideas of the Revolution have been most often depicted as a triumphCarolina, Cornwallis set his sights John Adams, and John Jay. On April of the social contract/natural rights theories of John Locke. Correct so far as iton Virginia. 15, 1783, Congress approved the fi- goes, this characterization passes too quickly over the continuing importance nal treaty. Signed on September 3, of Calvinist dissenting Protestantism, which from the Pilgrims and Puritans on VICTORY AND the Treaty of Paris acknowledged had also stood for the ideals of the social contract and the self-governing com- INDEPENDENCE the independence, freedom, and munity. Lockean intellectuals and the Protestant clergy were both importantIn July 1780 to America an expe- sovereignty of the 13 former colo- advocates of compatible strains of liberalism that had flourished in the British France’s King Louis nies, now states. The new United North American colonies.XVI had sent States stretched west to the Missis- Scholars have also argued that another persuasion contributed to theditionary force of 6,000 men under sippi River, north to Canada, and Revolution: “republicanism.” Republicanism, they assert, did not deny thethe Comte Jean de Rochambeau. south to Florida, which was returned existence of natural rights but subordinated them to the belief that the main-In addition, the French fleet ha- to Spain. The fledgling colonies that tenance of a free republic required a strong sense of communal responsibilityrassed British shipping and blocked Richard Henry Lee had spoken of and the cultivation of self-denying virtue among its leaders. The assertion ofreinforcement and resupply of Brit- more than seven years before had individual rights, even the pursuit of individual happiness, seemed egoistic byish forces in Virginia. French and finally become “free and indepen- contrast. For a time republicanism threatened to displace natural rights as theAmerican armies and navies, total- dent states.” major theme of the Revolution. Most historians today, however, concede thating 18,000 men, parried with Corn- The task of knitting together a the distinction was much overdrawn. Most individuals who thought about suchwallis all through the summer and nation remained. 9 things in the 18th century envisioned the two ideas more as different sides ofinto the fall. Finally, on October 19, the same intellectual coin. Revolution usually entails social upheaval and violence on a wide scale. By these criteria, the American Revolution was relatively mild. About 100,000 Loyalists left the new United States. Some thousands were members of old elites who had suffered expropriation of their property and been expelled; others were simply common people faithful to their King. The majority of those who went into exile did so voluntarily. The Revolution did open up and further liberalize an already liberal society. In New York and the Carolinas, large Loyalist estates were divided among small farmers. Liberal assumptions became the official norm of American political culture — whether in the dis- establishment of the Anglican Church, the principle of elected national and state executives, or the wide dissemination of the idea of individual freedom. Yet the structure of society changed little. Revolution or not, most people re- mained secure in their life, liberty, and property.  64 65
  • 34. 4 CHAPTER THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT George Washington addressing the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, 1787.66
  • 35. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “Every man, and science, and the right of the majority to reform or alter the government. nia), office-holders were required to own a certain amount of property. every body of men on Earth, Other states enlarged the list of liberties to freedom of speech, of as- THE ARTICLES OF possesses the right of sembly, and of petition. Their con- CONFEDERATION T stitutions frequently included such self-government.” provisions as the right to bear arms, to a writ of habeas corpus, to inviola- he struggle with England had done much to change colonial at- bility of domicile, and to equal pro- titudes. Local assemblies had re- tection under the law. Moreover, all jected the Albany Plan of Union in Drafter of the Declaration of Independence prescribed a three-branch structure 1754, refusing to surrender even the Thomas Jefferson, 1790 of government —executive, legisla- smallest part of their autonomy to tive, and judiciary — each checked any other body, even one they them- and balanced by the others. selves had elected. But in the course Pennsylvania’s constitution was of the Revolution, mutual aid had the most radical. In that state, Phila- proved effective, and the fear of re- delphia artisans, Scots-Irish fron- linquishing individual authority had tiersmen, and German-speaking lessened to a large degree. farmers had taken control. The pro- John Dickinson produced the vincial congress adopted a constitu- “Articles of Confederation and Per- STATE CONSTITUTIONS solid foundation of colonial experi- tion that permitted every male tax- petual Union” in 1776. The Conti-T ence and English practice. But each payer and his sons to vote, required nental Congress adopted them in he success of the Revolution gave was also animated by the spirit of rotation in office (no one could serve November 1777, and they went intoAmericans the opportunity to give republicanism, an ideal that had as a representative more than four effect in 1781, having been ratified bylegal form to their ideals as expressed long been praised by Enlightenment years out of every seven), and set up all the states. Reflecting the fragilityin the Declaration of Independence, philosophers. a single-chamber legislature. of a nascent sense of nationhood,and to remedy some of their griev- Naturally, the first objective of The state constitutions had some the Articles provided only for a veryances through state constitutions. the framers of the state constitutions glaring limitations, particularly by loose union. The national govern-As early as May 10, 1776, Congress was to secure those “unalienable more recent standards. Constitu- ment lacked the authority to set uphad passed a resolution advising rights” whose violation had caused tions established to guarantee people tariffs, to regulate commerce, and tothe colonies to form new govern- the former colonies to repudiate their natural rights did not secure levy taxes. It possessed scant controlments “such as shall best conduce their connection with Britain. Thus, for everyone the most fundamental of international relations: A numberto the happiness and safety of their each constitution began with a dec- natural right — equality. The colo- of states had begun their own nego-constituents.” Some of them had laration or bill of rights. Virginia’s, nies south of Pennsylvania excluded tiations with foreign countries. Ninealready done so, and within a year which served as a model for all the their slave populations from their states had their own armies, severalafter the Declaration of Indepen- others, included a declaration of inalienable rights as human beings. their own navies. In the absence ofdence, all but three had drawn up principles: popular sovereignty, ro- Women had no political rights. No a sound common currency, the newconstitutions. tation in office, freedom of elections, state went so far as to permit univer- nation conducted its commerce with The new constitutions showed and an enumeration of fundamental sal male suffrage, and even in those a curious hodgepodge of coins and athe impact of democratic ideas. liberties: moderate bail and humane states that permitted all taxpayers to bewildering variety of state and na-None made any drastic break with punishment, speedy trial by jury, vote (Delaware, North Carolina, and tional paper bills, all fast depreciat-the past, since all were built on the freedom of the press and of con- Georgia, in addition to Pennsylva- ing in value. 68 69
  • 36. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY Economic difficulties after the reinforcements from Boston and Appalachians. To those without would be formed as the territory waswar prompted calls for change. The routed the remaining Shaysites, such claims this rich territorial settled. Whenever any one of themend of the war had a severe effect on whose leader escaped to Vermont. prize seemed unfairly apportioned. had 60,000 free inhabitants, it wasmerchants who supplied the armies The government captured 14 rebels Maryland, speaking for the latter to be admitted to the Union “onof both sides and who had lost the and sentenced them to death, but ul- group, introduced a resolution that an equal footing with the originaladvantages deriving from par- timately pardoned some and let the the western lands be considered states in all respects.” The ordinanceticipation in the British mercantile others off with short prison terms. common property to be parceled guaranteed civil rights and liberties,system. The states gave preference After the defeat of the rebellion, by the Congress into free and in- encouraged education, and prohib-to American goods in their tariff a newly elected legislature, whose dependent governments. This idea ited slavery or other forms of invol-policies, but these were inconsistent, majority sympathized with the reb- was not received enthusiastically. untary servitude.leading to the demand for a stronger els, met some of their demands for Nonetheless, in 1780 New York led The new policy repudiated thecentral government to implement a debt relief. the way by ceding its claims. In 1784 time-honored concept that coloniesuniform policy. Virginia, which held the grandest existed for the benefit of the mother Farmers probably suffered the THE PROBLEM OF EXPANSION claims, relinquished all land north country, were politically subordi- W the Statesofagain Revolution,most from economic difficul- of the Ohio River. Other states nate, and peopled by social inferiors.ties following the Revolution. The ith end the ceded their claims, and it became Instead, it established the principlesupply of farm produce exceeded the United had to face apparent that Congress would come that colonies (“territories”) were andemand; unrest centered chiefly the old unsolved Western ques- into possession of all the lands north extension of the nation and entitled,among farmer-debtors who wanted tion, the problem of expansion, of the Ohio River and west of the Al- not as a privilege but as a right, to allstrong remedies to avoid foreclosure with its complications of land, fur legheny Mountains. This common the benefits of equality.on their property and imprison- trade, Indians, settlement, and lo- possession of millions of hectaresment for debt. Courts were clogged cal government. Lured by the rich- was the most tangible evidence yet CONSTITUTIONALwith suits for payment filed by their est land yet found in the country, of nationality and unity, and gave a CONVENTION By the time the American leaderscreditors. All through the summer pioneers poured over the Appala- certain substance to the idea of na-of 1786, popular conventions and chian Mountains and beyond. By tional sovereignty. At the same time, Northwest Ordi-informal gatherings in several states 1775 the far-flung outposts scat- these vast territories were a problem nance was enacted,demanded reform in the state ad- tered along the waterways had tens that required solution. were in the midst of drafting a newministrations. of thousands of settlers. Separated The Confederation Congress es- and stronger constitution to replace That autumn, mobs of farmers in by mountain ranges and hundreds tablished a system of limited self- the Articles of Confederation. TheirMassachusetts under the leadership of kilometers from the centers of government for this new national presiding officer, George Washing-of a former army captain, Daniel political authority in the East, the Northwest Territory. The Northwest ton, had written accurately that theShays, began forcibly to prevent inhabitants established their own Ordinance of 1787 provided for its states were united only by a “rope ofthe county courts from sitting and governments. Settlers from all the organization, initially as a single sand.” Disputes between Marylandpassing further judgments for debt, Tidewater states pressed on into district, ruled by a governor and and Virginia over navigation onpending the next state election. the fertile river valleys, hardwood judges appointed by the Congress. the Potomac River led to a confer-In January 1787 a ragtag army of forests, and rolling prairies of the When this territory had 5,000 free ence of representatives of five states1,200 farmers moved toward the interior. By 1790 the population of male inhabitants of voting age, it at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786.federal arsenal at Springfield. The the trans-Appalachian region num- was to be entitled to a legislature One of the delegates, Alexanderrebels, armed chiefly with staves bered well over 120,000. of two chambers, itself electing the Hamilton of New York, convincedand pitchforks, were repulsed by a Before the war, several colonies lower house. In addition, it could at his colleagues that commerce wassmall state militia force; General had laid extensive and often over- that time send a nonvoting delegate bound up with large political andBenjamin Lincoln then arrived with lapping claims to land beyond the to Congress. Three to five states economic questions. What was re- 70 71
  • 37. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYquired was a fundamental rethink- Massachusetts sent Rufus King among other things, to coin money, representation in proportion to theing of the Confederation. and Elbridge Gerry, young men of to regulate commerce, to declare population of the states in one house The Annapolis conference issued ability and experience. Roger Sher- war, and to make peace. of Congress, the House of Represen-a call for all the states to appoint man, shoemaker turned judge, was tatives, and equal representation inrepresentatives to a convention to be one of the representatives from DEBATE AND COMPROMISE the other, the Senate. Theld the following spring in Philadel- Connecticut. From New York came The alignment of large againstphia. The Continental Congress was Alexander Hamilton, who had pro- he 18th-century statesmen who small states then dissolved. Butat first indignant over this bold step, posed the meeting. Absent from met in Philadelphia were adherents almost every succeeding questionbut it acquiesced after Washington the Convention were Thomas Jef- of Montesquieu’s concept of the raised new divisions, to be resolvedgave the project his backing and was ferson, who was serving as minister balance of power in politics. This only by new compromises. North-elected a delegate. During the next representing the United States in principle was supported by colonial erners wanted slaves counted whenfall and winter, elections were held France, and John Adams, serving in experience and strengthened by the determining each state’s tax share,in all states but Rhode Island. the same capacity in Great Britain. writings of John Locke, with which but not in determining the number A remarkable gathering of no- Youth predominated among the 55 most of the delegates were familiar. of seats a state would have in thetables assembled at the Federal Con- delegates — the average age was 42. These influences led to the convic- House of Representatives. Under avention in May 1787. The state legis- Congress had authorized the tion that three equal and coordinate compromise reached with little dis-latures sent leaders with experience Convention merely to draft amend- branches of government should be sent, tax levies and House member-in colonial and state governments, in ments to the Articles of Confedera- established. Legislative, executive, ship would be apportioned accord-Congress, on the bench, and in the tion but, as Madison later wrote, the and judicial powers were to be so ing to the number of free inhabitantsarmy. Washington, regarded as the delegates, “with a manly confidence harmoniously balanced that no plus three-fifths of the’s first citizen because of his in their country,” simply threw the one could ever gain control. The Certain members, such as Sher-integrity and his military leadership Articles aside and went ahead with delegates agreed that the legislative man and Elbridge Gerry, still smart-during the Revolution, was chosen the building of a wholly new form branch, like the colonial legislatures ing from Shays’s Rebellion, fearedas presiding officer. of government. and the British Parliament, should that the mass of people lacked suf- Prominent among the more active They recognized that the para- consist of two houses. ficient wisdom to govern themselvesmembers were two Pennsylvanians: mount need was to reconcile two On these points there was una- and thus wished no branch of theGouverneur Morris, who clearly saw different powers — the power of nimity within the assembly. But federal government to be elected di-the need for national government, local control, which was already sharp differences also arose. Repre- rectly by the people. Others thoughtand James Wilson, who labored being exercised by the 13 semi-in- sentatives of the small states — New the national government should beindefatigably for the national idea. dependent states, and the power of Jersey, for instance — objected to given as broad a popular base asAlso elected by Pennsylvania was a central government. They adopted changes that would reduce their in- possible. Some delegates wished toBenjamin Franklin, nearing the end the principle that the functions and fluence in the national government exclude the growing West from theof an extraordinary career of public powers of the national government by basing representation upon pop- opportunity of statehood; othersservice and scientific achievement. — being new, general, and inclu- ulation rather than upon statehood, championed the equality principleFrom Virginia came James Madison, sive — had to be carefully defined as was the case under the Articles of established in the Northwest Ordi-a practical young statesman, a thor- and stated, while all other functions Confederation. nance of 1787.ough student of politics and history, and powers were to be understood as On the other hand, representa- There was no serious differenceand, according to a colleague, “from belonging to the states. But realizing tives of large states, like Virginia, on such national economic ques-a spirit of industry and application ... that the central government had to argued for proportionate represen- tions as paper money, laws concern-the best-informed man on any point have real power, the delegates also tation. This debate threatened to go ing contract obligations, or the rolein debate.” He would be recognized generally accepted the fact that the on endlessly until Roger Sherman of women, who were excluded fromas the “Father of the Constitution.” government should be authorized, came forward with arguments for politics. But there was a need for 72 73
  • 38. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYbalancing sectional economic in- system with separate legislative, come to naught, for the states paid Debate continues to this dayterests; for settling arguments as to executive, and judiciary branches, no attention to them. What was to about the motives of those whothe powers, term, and selection of each checked by the others. Thus save the new government from the wrote the Constitution. In 1913 his-the chief executive; and for solving congressional enactments were not same fate? torian Charles Beard, in An Econom-problems involving the tenure of to become law until approved by At the outset, most delegates fur- ic Interpretation of the Constitution,judges and the kind of courts to be the president. And the president nished a single answer — the use of argued that the Founding Fathersestablished. was to submit the most important force. But it was quickly seen that the represented emerging commer- Laboring through a hot Philadel- of his appointments and all his trea- application of force upon the states cial-capitalist interests that neededphia summer, the convention finally ties to the Senate for confirmation. would destroy the Union. The deci- a strong national government. Heachieved a draft incorporating in The president, in turn, could be im- sion was that the government should also believed many may have beena brief document the organization peached and removed by Congress. not act upon the states but upon the motivated by personal holdings ofof the most complex government The judiciary was to hear all cases people within the states, and should large amounts of depreciated gov-yet devised, one that would be su- arising under federal laws and the legislate for and upon all the indi- ernment securities. However, Jamespreme within a clearly defined and Constitution; in effect, the courts vidual residents of the country. As Madison, principal drafter of thelimited sphere. It would have full were empowered to interpret both the keystone of the Constitution, the Constitution, held no bonds andpower to levy taxes, borrow money, the fundamental and the statute convention adopted two brief but was a Virginia planter. Conversely,establish uniform duties and excise law. But members of the judiciary, highly significant statements: some opponents of the Constitu-taxes, coin money, regulate inter- appointed by the president and con- Congress shall have power ... tion owned large amounts of bondsstate commerce, fix weights and firmed by the Senate, could also be to make all Laws which shall be and securities. Economic interestsmeasures, grant patents and copy- impeached by Congress. necessary and proper for carrying influenced the course of the debate,rights, set up post offices, and build To protect the Constitution from into Execution the ... Powers but so did state, sectional, and ideo-post roads. It also was authorized to hasty alteration, Article V stipulated vested by this Constitution in the logical interests. Equally importantraise and maintain an army and that amendments to the Constitu- Government of the United States. was the idealism of the, manage Native American af- tion be proposed either by two- ... (Article I, Section 7) Products of the Enlightenment, thefairs, conduct foreign policy, and thirds of both houses of Congress or This Constitution, and the Founding Fathers designed a gov-wage war. It could pass laws for by two-thirds of the states, meeting Laws of the United States which ernment that they believed wouldnaturalizing foreigners and control- in convention. The proposals were to shall be made in Pursuance promote individual liberty andling public lands; it could admit new be ratified by one of two methods: thereof; and all Treaties made, or public virtue. The ideals embodiedstates on a basis of absolute equality either by the legislatures of three- which shall be made, under the in the U.S. Constitution remain anwith the old. The power to pass all fourths of the states, or by conven- Authority of the United States, essential element of the Americannecessary and proper laws for ex- tion in three-fourths of the states, shall be the supreme Law of the national identity.ecuting these clearly defined pow- with the Congress proposing the Land; and the Judges in everyers rendered the federal government method to be used. State shall be bound thereby, RATIFICATION ANDable to meet the needs of later gen- Finally, the convention faced any Thing in the Constitution or THE BILL OF RIGHTSerations and of a greatly expanded the most important problem of all: On September 17, 1787, finished Laws of any State to the Contrarybody politic. How should the powers given to notwithstanding. (Article VI) after 16 The principle of separation of the new government be enforced? Thus the laws of the United States weeks of deliberation, thepowers had already been given a fair Under the Articles of Confedera- became enforceable in its own na- Constitution was signed by 39 oftrial in most state constitutions and tion, the national government had tional courts, through its own judges the 42 delegates present. Franklin,had proved sound. Accordingly, the possessed — on paper — signifi- and marshals, as well as in the state pointing to the half-sun painted inconvention set up a governmental cant powers, which, in practice, had courts through the state judges and brilliant gold on the back of Wash- state law officers. ington’s chair, said: 74 75
  • 39. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY I have often in the course of the In Virginia, the Antifederalists of Virginia’s Declaration of Rights Constitution. Although a number of session ... looked at that [chair] attacked the proposed new govern- of 1776, was one of three delegates the subsequent amendments revised behind the president, without ment by challenging the opening to the Constitutional Convention the federal government’s structure being able to tell whether it was phrase of the Constitution: “We who had refused to sign the final and operations, most followed the rising or setting; but now, at the People of the United States.” document because it did not enu- precedent established by the Bill length, I have the happiness to Without using the individual state merate individual rights. Together of Rights and expanded individual know that it is a rising, and not a names in the Constitution, the del- with Patrick Henry, he campaigned rights and freedoms. setting, sun. egates argued, the states would not vigorously against ratification of the The convention was over; the retain their separate rights or pow- Constitution by Virginia. Indeed, PRESIDENT WASHINGTON OneConfederation of thetoCongressmembers “adjourned to the City ers. Virginia Antifederalists were led five states, including Massachusetts,Tavern, dined together, and took by Patrick Henry, who became the ratified the Constitution on the con- of the last actsa cordial leave of each other.” Yet chief spokesman for back-country dition that such amendments be of the was arrangea crucial part of the struggle for a farmers who feared the powers of added immediately. for the first presidential election, set-more perfect union remained to the new central government. Wa- When the first Congress con- ting March 4, 1789, as the date thatbe faced. The consent of popularly vering delegates were persuaded by vened in New York City in Septem- the new government would comeelected state conventions was still a proposal that the Virginia con- ber 1789, the calls for amendments into being. One name was on every-required before the document could vention recommend a bill of rights, protecting individual rights were one’s lips for the new chief of state,become effective. and Antifederalists joined with the virtually unanimous. Congress George Washington. He was unani- The convention had decided that Federalists to ratify the Constitution quickly adopted 12 such amend- mously chosen president and tookthe Constitution would take effect on June 25. ments; by December 1791, enough the oath of office at his inaugurationupon ratification by conventions in In New York, Alexander Ham- states had ratified 10 amendments on April 30, 1789. In words spokennine of the 13 states. By June 1788 ilton, John Jay, and James Madison to make them part of the Constitu- by every president since, Washing-the required nine states had ratified pushed for the ratification of the tion. Collectively, they are known ton pledged to execute the duties ofthe Constitution, but the large states Constitution in a series of essays as the Bill of Rights. Among their the presidency faithfully and, to theof Virginia and New York had not. known as The Federalist Papers. provisions: freedom of speech, press, best of his ability, to “preserve, pro-Most people felt that without their The essays, published in New York religion, and the right to assemble tect, and defend the Constitution ofsupport the Constitution would nev- newspapers, provided a now-classic peacefully, protest, and demand the United States.”er be honored. To many, the docu- argument for a central federal gov- changes (First Amendment); protec- When Washington took office,ment seemed full of dangers: Would ernment, with separate executive, tion against unreasonable searches, the new Constitution enjoyed nei-not the strong central government legislative, and judicial branches that seizures of property, and arrest ther tradition nor the full backing ofthat it established tyrannize them, checked and balanced one another. (Fourth Amendment); due process organized public opinion. The newoppress them with heavy taxes, and With The Federalist Papers influenc- of law in all criminal cases (Fifth government had to create its owndrag them into wars? ing the New York delegates, the Con- Amendment); right to a fair and machinery and legislate a system of Differing views on these ques- stitution was ratified on July 26. speedy trial (Sixth Amendment); taxation that would support it. Untiltions brought into existence two Antipathy toward a strong cen- protection against cruel and unusual a judiciary could be established, lawsparties, the Federalists, who favored tral government was only one punishment (Eighth Amendment); could not be enforced. The army wasa strong central government, and the concern among those opposed to and provision that the people retain small. The navy had ceased to exist.Antifederalists, who preferred a loose the Constitution; of equal concern additional rights not listed in the Congress quickly created theassociation of separate states. Impas- to many was the fear that the Constitution (Ninth Amendment). departments of State and Treasury,sioned arguments on both sides were Constitution did not protect individ- Since the adoption of the Bill with Thomas Jefferson and Alex-voiced by the press, the legislatures, ual rights and freedoms sufficiently. of Rights, only 17 more amend- ander Hamilton as their respectiveand the state conventions. Virginian George Mason, author ments have been added to the secretaries. Departments of War 76 77
  • 40. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYand Justice were also created. Since At this critical juncture in the credit and a stable currency. Openly nancial institution and operatedWashington preferred to make de- country’s growth, Washington’s wise distrustful of the latent radicalism branches in different parts of thecisions only after consulting those leadership was crucial. He organized of the masses, they could nonethe- country. Hamilton sponsored a na-men whose judgment he valued, a national government, developed less credibly appeal to workers and tional mint, and argued in favor ofthe American presidential Cabinet policies for settlement of territories artisans. Their political stronghold tariffs, saying that temporary pro-came into existence, consisting of previously held by Britain and Spain, was in the New England states. See- tection of new firms could help fos-the heads of all the departments that stabilized the northwestern frontier, ing England as in many respects an ter the development of competitiveCongress might create. Simultane- and oversaw the admission of three example the United States should try national industries. These measuresously, Congress provided for a fed- new states: Vermont (1791), Ken- to emulate, they favored good rela- — placing the credit of the federaleral judiciary — a Supreme Court, tucky (1792), and Tennessee (1796). tions with their mother country. government on a firm foundationwith one chief justice and five as- Finally, in his Farewell Address, he Although Alexander Hamilton and giving it all the revenues itsociate justices, three circuit courts, warned the nation to “steer clear of was never able to muster the popular needed — encouraged commerceand 13 district courts. permanent alliances with any por- appeal to stand successfully for elec- and industry, and created a solid Meanwhile, the country was tion of the foreign world.” This ad- tive office, he was far and away the phalanx of interests firmly behindgrowing steadily and immigration vice influenced American attitudes Federalists’ main generator of ideol- the national government.from Europe was increasing. Ameri- toward the rest of the world for gen- ogy and public policy. He brought to The Republicans, led by Thomascans were moving westward: New erations to come. public life a love of efficiency, order, Jefferson, spoke primarily for agri-Englanders and Pennsylvanians into and organization. In response to the cultural interests and values. TheyOhio; Virginians and Carolinians HAMILTON VS. JEFFERSON call of the House of Representatives distrusted bankers, cared little for Ainto Kentucky and Tennessee. Good for a plan for the “adequate support commerce and manufacturing, andfarms were to be had for small sums; conflict took shape in the 1790s of public credit,” he laid down and believed that freedom and democra-labor was in strong demand. The between America’s first political supported principles not only of the cy flourished best in a rural societyrich valley stretches of upper New parties. Indeed, the Federalists, led public economy, but of effective gov- composed of self-sufficient farm-York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia by Alexander Hamilton, and the ernment. Hamilton pointed out that ers. They felt little need for a strongsoon became great wheat-growing Republicans (also called Demo- the United States must have credit central government; in fact, theyareas. cratic-Republicans), led by Thomas for industrial development, com- tended to see it as a potential source Although many items were still Jefferson, were the first political mercial activity, and the operations of oppression. Thus they favoredhomemade, the Industrial Revolu- parties in the Western world. Un- of government, and that its obliga- states’ rights. They were strongest intion was dawning in the United like loose political groupings in the tions must have the complete faith the South.States. Massachusetts and Rhode British House of Commons or in and support of the people. Hamilton’s great aim was moreIsland were laying the foundation of the American colonies before the There were many who wished efficient organization, whereas Jef-important textile industries; Con- Revolution, both had reasonably to repudiate the Confederation’s ferson once said, “I am not a friendnecticut was beginning to turn out consistent and principled platforms, national debt or pay only part of it. to a very energetic government.”tinware and clocks; New York, New relatively stable popular followings, Hamilton insisted upon full pay- Hamilton feared anarchy andJersey, and Pennsylvania were pro- and continuing organizations. ment and also upon a plan by which thought in terms of order; Jeffersonducing paper, glass, and iron. Ship- The Federalists in the main rep- the federal government took over feared tyranny and thought in termsping had grown to such an extent resented the interests of trade and the unpaid debts of the states in- of freedom. Where Hamilton sawthat on the seas the United States manufacturing, which they saw as curred during the Revolution. He England as an example, Jefferson,was second only to Britain. Even be- forces of progress in the world. They also secured congressional legisla- who had been minister to France infore 1790, American ships were trav- believed these could be advanced tion for a Bank of the United States. the early stages of the French Revo-eling to China to sell furs and bring only by a strong central government Modeled after the Bank of England, lution, looked to the overthrow ofback tea, spices, and silk. capable of establishing sound public it acted as the nation’s central fi- the French monarchy as vindication 78 79
  • 41. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYof the liberal ideals of the Enlighten- CITIZEN GENET AND 1778 treaty that had made American ing issue of British “impressment”ment. Against Hamilton’s instinc- FOREIGN POLICY independence possible by proclaim- of American sailors into the Royal Athe new one of the first taskstive conservatism, he projected an ing the United States to be “friendly Navy, placed severe limitations oneloquent democratic radicalism. lthough and impartial toward the belligerent American trade with the West In- An early clash between them, of government was to powers.” When Genet arrived, he dies, and accepted the British viewwhich occurred shortly after Jeffer- strengthen the domestic economy was cheered by many citizens, but that food and naval stores, as well asson took office as secretary of state, and make the nation financially treated with cool formality by the war materiel, were contraband sub-led to a new and profoundly impor- secure, the United States could not government. Angered, he violated ject to seizure if bound for enemytant interpretation of the Constitu- ignore foreign affairs. The cor- a promise not to outfit a captured ports on neutral ships.tion. When Hamilton introduced nerstones of Washington’s foreign British ship as a privateer (privately American diplomat Charleshis bill to establish a national bank, policy were to preserve peace, to owned warships commissioned to Pinckney was more successful inJefferson, speaking for those who give the country time to recover prey on ships of enemy nations). dealing with Spain. In 1795, he ne-believed in states’ rights, argued that from its wounds, and to permit the Genet then threatened to take his gotiated an important treaty settlingthe Constitution expressly enumer- slow work of national integration to cause directly to the American peo- the Florida border on Americanated all the powers belonging to the continue. Events in Europe threat- ple, over the head of the government. terms and giving Americans accessfederal government and reserved all ened these goals. Many Americans Shortly afterward, the United States to the port of New Orleans. All theother powers to the states. Nowhere watched the French Revolution with requested his recall by the French same, the Jay Treaty with the Brit-was the federal government empow- keen interest and sympathy. In April government. ish reflected a continuing Americanered to set up a bank. 1793, news came that France had The Genet incident strained weakness vis-a-vis a world super- Hamilton responded that because declared war on Great Britain and American relations with France at power. Deeply unpopular, it wasof the mass of necessary detail, a Spain, and that a new French envoy, a time when those with Great Brit- vocally supported only by Federal-vast body of powers had to be Edmond Charles Genet — Citizen ain were far from satisfactory. Brit- ists who valued cultural and eco-implied by general clauses, and one Genet — was coming to the United ish troops still occupied forts in the nomic ties with Britain. Washingtonof these authorized Congress to States. West, property carried off by British backed it as the best bargain avail-“make all laws which shall be nec- When the revolution in France soldiers during the Revolution had able, and, after a heated debate, theessary and proper” for carrying out led to the execution of King Louis not been restored or paid for, and the Senate approved it.other powers specifically granted. XVI in January 1793, Britain, Spain, British Navy was seizing American Citizen Genet’s antics and Jay’sThe Constitution authorized the and Holland became involved in ships bound for French ports. The Treaty demonstrated both the diffi-national government to levy and war with France. According to the two countries seemed to be drifting culties faced by a small weak nationcollect taxes, pay debts, and bor- Franco-American Treaty of Alliance toward war. Washington sent John caught between two great powersrow money. A national bank would of 1778, the United States and France Jay, first chief justice of the Supreme and the wide gap in outlook betweenmaterially help in performing these were perpetual allies, and the Unit- Court, to London as a special envoy. Federalists and Republicans. To thefunctions efficiently. Congress, ed States was obliged to help France Jay negotiated a treaty that secured Federalists, Republican backers oftherefore, was entitled, under its im- defend the West Indies. However, withdrawal of British soldiers from the increasingly violent and radicalplied powers, to create such a bank. the United States, militarily and western forts but allowed the British French Revolution were dangerousWashington and the Congress ac- economically a very weak country, to continue the fur trade with the radicals (“Jacobins”); to the Repub-cepted Hamilton’s view — and set was in no position to become in- Indians in the Northwest. London licans, advocates of amity with Eng-an important precedent for an ex- volved in another war with major agreed to pay damages for American land were monarchists who wouldpansive interpretation of the federal European powers. ships and cargoes seized in 1793 and subvert the natural rights of Ameri-government’s authority. On April 22, 1793, Washington 1794, but made no commitments on cans. The Federalists connected vir- effectively abrogated the terms of the possible future seizures. Moreover, tue and national development with the treaty failed to address the fester- commerce; the Republicans saw 80 81
  • 42. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYAmerica’s destiny as that of a vast tles with the French, war seemed December 1798. Extreme declara- and ceremony of the presidency. Inagrarian republic. The politics of inevitable. In this crisis, Adams tion of states’ rights, the resolutions line with Republican ideology, hetheir conflicting positions became rejected the guidance of Hamilton, asserted that states could “inter- sharply cut military expenditures.increasingly vehement. who wanted war, and reopened ne- pose” their views on federal actions Believing America to be a haven gotiations with France. Napoleon, and “nullify” them. The doctrine for the oppressed, he secured a lib- ADAMS AND JEFFERSON who had just come to power, re- of nullification would be used later eral naturalization law. By the endW to serve for 1797, firmly ashington retired in ceived them cordially. The danger of conflict subsided with the nego- for the Southern states’ resistance to protective tariffs, and, more omi- of his second term, his far-sighted secretary of the treasury, Albertdeclining more than tiation of the Convention of 1800, nously, slavery. Gallatin, had reduced the nationaleight years as the nation’s head. which formally released the United By 1800 the American people debt to less than $560 million.Thomas Jefferson of Virginia (Re- States from its 1778 defense alliance were ready for a change. Under Widely popular, Jefferson won re-publican) and John Adams (Feder- with France. However, reflecting Washington and Adams, the Fed- election as president easily.alist) vied to succeed him. Adams American weakness, France refused eralists had established a strong gov-won a narrow election victory. From to pay $20 million in compensation ernment, but sometimes failing to LOUISIANA AND BRITAIN One of Jefferson’sAt the end of thethe beginning, however, he was at for American ships taken by the honor the principle that the Ameri-the head of a party and an adminis- French Navy. can government must be responsive acts doubledtration divided between his backers Hostility to France had led Con- to the will of the people, they had area of the country. theand those of his rival, Hamilton. gress to pass the Alien and Sedition followed policies that alienated large Seven Years’ War, France had ceded Adams faced serious internation- Acts, which had severe repercussions groups. For example, in 1798 they its territory west of the Mississippial difficulties. France, angered by for American civil liberties. The had enacted a tax on houses, land, River to Spain. Access to the portJay’s treaty with Britain, adopted its Naturalization Act, which changed and slaves, affecting every property of New Orleans near its mouth wasdefinition of contraband and began the requirement for citizenship owner in the country. vital for the shipment of Americanto seize American ships headed for from five to 14 years, was targeted Jefferson had steadily gathered products from the Ohio and Missis-Britain. By 1797 France had snatched at Irish and French immigrants behind him a great mass of small sippi river valleys. Shortly after Jef-300 American ships and broken suspected of supporting the Repub- farmers, shopkeepers, and other ferson became president, Napoleonoff diplomatic relations with the licans. The Alien Act, operative for workers. He won a close victory in forced a weak Spanish governmentUnited States. When Adams sent two years only, gave the president a contested election. Jefferson en- to cede this great tract, the Louisianathree commissioners to Paris to the power to expel or imprison joyed extraordinary favor because of Territory, back to France. The movenegotiate, agents of Foreign Minis- aliens in time of war. The Sedition his appeal to American idealism. In filled Americans with apprehensionter Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Act proscribed writing, speaking, his inaugural address, the first such and indignation. French plans for(whom Adams labeled X, Y, and or publishing anything of “a false, speech in the new capital of Wash- a huge colonial empire just west ofZ in his report to Congress) in- scandalous, and malicious” nature ington, D.C., he promised “a wise the United States seriously threat-formed the Americans that negotia- against the president or Congress. and frugal government” that would ened the future development of thetions could only begin if the United The few convictions won under it preserve order among the inhabit- United States. Jefferson asserted thatStates loaned France $12 million created martyrs to the cause of civil ants but leave people “otherwise free if France took possession of Louisi-and bribed officials of the French liberties and aroused support for the to regulate their own pursuits of in- ana, “from that moment we mustgovernment. American hostility to Republicans. dustry, and improvement.” marry ourselves to the British fleetFrance rose to an excited pitch. The The acts met with resistance. Jef- Jefferson’s mere presence in the and nation.”so-called XYZ Affair led to the en- ferson and Madison sponsored the White House encouraged demo- Napoleon, however, lost interestlistment of troops and the strength- passage of the Kentucky and Vir- cratic procedures. He preached after the French were expelled fromening of the fledgling U.S. Navy. ginia Resolutions by the legislatures and practiced democratic simplic- Haiti by a slave revolt. Knowing that In 1799, after a series of sea bat- of these two states in November and ity, eschewing much of the pomp another war with Great Britain was 82 83
  • 43. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYimpending, he resolved to fill his When Jefferson issued a procla- settlers had suffered from attacks of militia, volunteers, and regularstreasury and put Louisiana beyond mation ordering British warships by Indians whom they believed had from Kentucky with the object ofthe reach of Britain by selling it to to leave U.S. territorial waters, the been incited by British agents in reconquering Detroit. On Septemberthe United States. His offer present- British reacted by impressing more Canada. In turn, many Americans 12, while he was still in upper Ohio,ed Jefferson with a dilemma: The sailors. Jefferson then decided to rely favored conquest of Canada and the news reached him that CommodoreConstitution conferred no explicit on economic pressure; in December elimination of British influence in Oliver Hazard Perry had annihilatedpower to purchase territory. At first 1807 Congress passed the Embargo North America, as well as vengeance the British fleet on Lake Erie. Har-the president wanted to propose an Act, forbidding all foreign com- for impressment and commercial rison occupied Detroit and pushedamendment, but delay might lead merce. Ironically, the law required repression. By 1812, war fervor was into Canada, defeating the fleeingNapoleon to change his mind. Ad- strong police authority that vastly dominant. On June 18, the United British and their Indian allies onvised that the power to purchase increased the powers of the national States declared war on Britain. the Thames River. The entire regionterritory was inherent in the power government. Economically, it was now came under American make treaties, Jefferson relented, disastrous. In a single year Ameri- THE WAR OF 1812 A year later Commodore Thomas Tsaying that “the good sense of our can exports fell to one-fifth of their Macdonough won a point-blankcountry will correct the evil of loose former volume. Shipping interests he nation went to war bitterly gun duel with a British flotilla onconstruction when it shall produce were almost ruined by the measure; divided. While the South and West Lake Champlain in upper Newill effects.” discontent rose in New England and favored the conflict, New York and York. Deprived of naval support, a The United States obtained the New York. Agricultural interests New England opposed it because British invasion force of 10,000 men“Louisiana Purchase” for $15 mil- suffered heavily also. Prices dropped it interfered with their commerce. retreated to Canada. Nevertheless,lion in 1803. It contained more drastically when the Southern and The U.S. military was weak. The the British fleet harassed the East-than 2,600,000 square kilometers Western farmers could not export army had fewer than 7,000 regular ern seaboard with orders to “destroyas well as the port of New Orleans. their surplus grain, cotton, meat, soldiers, distributed in widely scat- and lay waste.” On the night of Au-The nation had gained a sweep of and tobacco. tered posts along the coast, near the gust 24, 1814, an expeditionary forcerich plains, mountains, forests, and The embargo failed to starve Canadian border, and in the remote routed American militia, marchedriver systems that within 80 years Great Britain into a change of pol- interior. The state militias were to Washington, D.C., and left thewould become its heartland — and icy. As the grumbling at home in- poorly trained and undisciplined. city in flames. President James Mad-a breadbasket for the world. creased, Jefferson turned to a milder Hostilities began with an inva- ison fled to Virginia. As Jefferson began his second measure, which partially conciliated sion of Canada, which, if properly British and American nego-term in 1805, he declared American domestic shipping interests. In early timed and executed, would have tiators conducted talks in Europe.neutrality in the struggle between 1809 he signed the Non-Intercourse brought united action against Mon- The British envoys decided to con-Great Britain and France. Although Act permitting commerce with all treal. Instead, the entire campaign cede, however, when they learnedboth sides sought to restrict neutral countries except Britain or France miscarried and ended with the Brit- of Macdonough’s victory on Lakeshipping to the other, British control and their dependencies. ish occupation of Detroit. The U.S. Champlain. Faced with the deple-of the seas made its interdiction and James Madison succeeded Jeffer- Navy, however, scored successes. tion of the British treasury due inseizure much more serious than son as president in 1809. Relations In addition, American privateers, large part to the heavy costs of theany actions by Napoleonic France. with Great Britain grew worse, and swarming the Atlantic, captured 500 Napoleonic Wars, the negotiatorsBritish naval commanders routinely the two countries moved rapidly to- British vessels during the fall and for Great Britain accepted the Treatysearched American ships, seized ves- ward war. The president laid before winter months of 1812 and 1813. of Ghent in December 1814. It pro-sels and cargoes, and took off sailors Congress a detailed report, showing The campaign of 1813 centered vided for the cessation of hostilities,believed to be British subjects. They several thousand instances in which on Lake Erie. General William the restoration of conquests, and aalso frequently impressed American the British had impressed American Henry Harrison — who would later commission to settle boundary dis-seamen into their service. citizens. In addition, northwestern become president — led an army putes. Unaware that a peace treaty 84 85
  • 44. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENINGhad been signed, the two sides con- England had managed to trade withtinued fighting into 1815 near NewOrleans, Louisiana. Led by General the enemy throughout the conflict, and some areas actually prospered By the end of the 18th century, many educated Americans no longer professed traditional Christian beliefs. In reaction to the secularism of the age,Andrew Jackson, the United States from this commerce. Nevertheless,scored the greatest land victory of the Federalists claimed that the war a religious revival spread westward in the first half of the 19th century.the war, ending for once and for all was ruining the economy. With a This “Second Great Awakening” consisted of several kinds of activity,any British hopes of reestablishing possibility of secession from the distinguished by locale and expression of religious commitment. In Newcontinental influence south of the Union in the background, the con- England, the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism.Canadian border. vention proposed a series of consti- In western New York, the spirit of revival encouraged the emergence of new While the British and Ameri- tutional amendments that would denominations. In the Appalachian region of Kentucky and Tennessee, thecans were negotiating a settlement, protect New England interests. In-Federalist delegates selected by the stead, the end of the war, punctuated revival strengthened the Methodists and the Baptists, and spawned a new formlegislatures of Massachusetts, Rhode by the smashing victory at New Or- of religious expression — the camp meeting.Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and leans, stamped the Federalists with a In contrast to the Great Awakening of the 1730s, the revivals in theNew Hampshire gathered in Hart- stigma of disloyalty from which they East were notable for the absence of hysteria and open emotion. Rather,ford, Connecticut, to express oppo- never recovered. 9 unbelievers were awed by the “respectful silence” of those bearing witnesssition to “Mr. Madison’s war.” New to their faith. The evangelical enthusiasm in New England gave rise to interdenominational missionary societies, formed to evangelize the West. Members of these societies not only acted as apostles for the faith, but as educators, civic leaders, and exponents of Eastern, urban culture. Publication and education societies promoted Christian education. Most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. Social activism inspired by the revival gave rise to abolition of slavery groups and the Society for the Promotion of Temperance, as well as to efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. Western New York, from Lake Ontario to the Adirondack Mountains, had been the scene of so many religious revivals in the past that it was known as the “Burned-Over District.” Here, the dominant figure was Charles Grandison Finney, a lawyer who had experienced a religious epiphany and set out to preach the Gospel. His revivals were characterized by careful planning, showmanship, and advertising. Finney preached in the Burned-Over District throughout the 1820s and the early 1830s, before moving to Ohio in 1835 to take a chair in theology at Oberlin College, of which he subsequently became president. Two other important religious denominations in America — the Mormons and the Seventh Day Adventists — also got their start in the Burned- Over District. 86 87
  • 45. CHAPTER 4: THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT Andrew Jackson, president from 1829 to 1837. Charismatic, forceful, and passionate, Jackson forged an effective political coalition within the Democratic Party with Westerners, farmers, and working people. In the Appalachian region, the revival took on characteristics similarto the Great Awakening of the previous century. But here, the center of therevival was the camp meeting, a religious service of several days’ length, fora group that was obliged to take shelter on the spot because of the distancefrom home. Pioneers in thinly populated areas looked to the camp meetingas a refuge from the lonely life on the frontier. The sheer exhilaration ofparticipating in a religious revival with hundreds and perhaps thousandsof people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with theseevents. Probably the largest camp meeting was at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, inAugust 1801; between 10,000 and 25,000 people attended. The great revival quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee, andsouthern Ohio, with the Methodists and the Baptists its prime beneficiaries.Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. TheMethodists had a very efficient organization that depended on ministers —known as circuit riders — who sought out people in remote frontier locations.The circuit riders came from among the common people and possessed arapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. The Baptists hadno formal church organization. Their farmer-preachers were people whoreceived “the call” from God, studied the Bible, and founded a church, whichthen ordained them. Other candidates for the ministry emerged from thesechurches, and established a presence farther into the wilderness. Using such TRANSFORMINGmethods, the Baptists became dominant throughout the border states andmost of the South. The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound impact on Americanhistory. The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relativeto that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period — Anglicans, A NATI O NPresbyterians, and Congregationalists. The growing differences A PICTURE PROFILEwithin American Protestantism reflected the growth and diversity of an The United States transformed itself again in the 19th andexpanding nation.  early 20th centuries. A rural, agricultural nation became an industrial power whose backbone was steel and coal, railroads, and steam power. A young country once bound by the Mississippi River expanded across the North American continent, and on to overseas territories. A nation divided by the issue of slavery and tested by the trauma of civil war became a world power whose global influence was first felt in World War I. 88 89
  • 46. Henry Clay of Kentucky,although never president, was one of the most influential Americanpoliticians of the first half of the 19th century. Claybecame indispensable for his role in preserving the Union with the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and William Lloyd Garrison, whosethe Compromise of 1850. passionate denunciations of slavery Both pieces of legislation and eloquent defense of the rights resolved, for a time, of enslaved African Americans disputes over slavery in appeared in his weekly paper, the the territories. Liberator, from its first issue in 1831 to 1865, when the last issue appeared at the close of the Civil War. The great champions of women’s rights in the 19th century: Elizabeth Cady Stanton (seated) and Susan B. Anthony. Stanton helped organize the first women’s rights convention in 1848 Frederick Douglass, the nation’s leading in Seneca Falls, New York. African-American abolitionist of the In later years, she joined 19th century, escaped from slavery in Harriet Tubman, a former slave who rescued Anthony in founding the 1838. His speech about his sufferings hundreds from slavery through the Underground National Woman Suffrage as a slave at the Massachusetts Anti- Railroad. The Underground Railroad was a vast Association. “I forged the Slavery Society’s annual convention network of people who helped fugitive slaves thunderbolts,” Stanton said in Nantucket launched his career as escape to the North and to Canada in the first of their partnership, “and she an outspoken lecturer, writer, and half of the 19th century. fired them.” publisher on the abolition of slavery and racial equality. 90 91
  • 47. Confederate dead along a stone wall during the Chancellorsville campaign, May 1863.Victorious at Chancellorsville, Southern forces advanced north into Pennsylvania, butwere defeated at the three-day battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the Civil Warand the largest battle ever fought in North America. More Americans died in the CivilWar (1861-65) than in any other conflict in U.S. history. 93
  • 48. Union General Ulysses S. Grant, who led Union forces to victory in the Civil War and became the 18th president of the United States. Despite heavy losses in several battles against his opponent, General Lee (below), Grant refused to retreat, leading President Lincoln to say to critics calling for his removal “I can’t spare this general. He fights.”Encampment of Union troops from New York in Alexandria, Virginia,just across the Potomac River from the capital of Washington. Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Military historians to this day study his tactics and Grant’s in battles such as Vicksburg, Chancellorsville, and the Wilderness. 94 95
  • 49. Andrew Carnegie, business tycoon and philanthropist. Born in Scotland of a poorEngraving of the first African-American members elected to the U.S. Congress during family, Carnegie immigrated to the United States and made his fortune by buildingthe Reconstruction Era, following the Civil War. Seated at left is H.R. Revels, senator the country’s largest iron and steel manufacturing corporation. Believing that thefrom Mississippi. The others were members of the House of Representatives, from wealthy had an obligation to give back to society, he endowed public libraries acrossthe states of Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, and Georgia. the United States. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), better known by his pen name of Mark Twain, Although practically is perhaps the most widely unknown during her read and enjoyed American lifetime, Emily Dickinson writer and humorist. In his (1830-1886) is now seen as Adventures of Huckleberry one of the most brilliant Finn and other works, Twain and original poets America developed a style based on has ever produced. vigorous, realistic, colloquial American speech. 96 97
  • 50. Sitting Bull, Sioux chief who led the last great battleof the Plains Indians against the U.S. Army, when hiswarriors defeated forces under the command ofGeneral George Custer at the Battle ofLittle Bighorn in 1876. Custer’s army on the march prior to Little Bighorn. The Plains Indians who defeated his army were resisting white intrusions into their sacred lands and U.S. government attempts to force them back onto South Dakota’s Great Sioux Reservation. 98 99
  • 51. Above, Oklahoma City in 1889, four weeks after the OklahomaTerritory was opened up for settlement. Settlers staked their claim,put up tents, and then swiftly began erecting board shacks andhouses — a pattern repeated throughout the West.Left, a vessel at the Gatun locks of the Panama Canal. The UnitedStates acquired the rights to build the canal in 1903 in a treaty withPanama, which had just rebelled and broken away from Colombia.Under the terms of the 1977 treaty, the canal reverted toPanamanian control on December 31, 1999. 101
  • 52. Left, opposite page, immigrants arriving at Ellis Island in New York City, principal gateway to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. From 1890 to 1921, almost 19 million people entered the United States as immigrants. Below, children working at the Indiana Glass Works in 1908. Enacting child labor laws was one of the principal goals of the Progressive movement in this era.102 103
  • 53. Mulberry Street in New York City, also known as“Little Italy,” in the early years of the 20th century. Newly arrived immigrant families, largely from Eastern and southern Europe in this period, often settled in densely populated urban enclaves. Typically, their children, or grandchildren, would disperse, moving to other cities or other parts of the country. 104 105
  • 54. Orville Wright, who built and flew the first heavier-than-air airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in 1903, with his brother Wilbur. Orville is shown here at the controls of a later model plane in 1909.Thomas Edison examines film used in the motion pictureprojector that he invented with George Eastman. The mostcelebrated of Edison’s hundreds of inventions was theincandescent light bulb. Alexander Graham Bell makes the first telephone call from New York City to Chicago in 1892. Bell, an immigrant from Scotland who settled in Boston, invented the telephone 16 years earlier, in 1876. 106 107
  • 55. American infantry forces in 1918, firing a 37 mm. gun, advance against Germanpositions in World War I. For the educated and well-to-do, the 1920s was the era of the “Lost Generation,” symbolized by writers like Ernest Hemingway, who left the United States for voluntaryThe “Big Four” at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, following the end of World War exile in Paris. It was also the “flapper era” of frivolity and excess in which young peopleI. They are, seated from left, Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister could reject the constraints and traditions of their elders. Top, flappers posing for theDavid Lloyd George of Great Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and camera at a 1920s-era party. Above, Henry Ford and his son stand with one of his earlyPresident Woodrow Wilson of the United States. Despite strenuous efforts, Wilson automobiles, and the 10 millionth Ford Model-T. The Model-T was the first car whosewas unable to persuade the U.S. Senate to agree to American participation in the new price and availability made car ownership possible for large numbers of people.League of Nations established in the aftermath of the war. 108 109
  • 56. 5 CHAPTER WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES Horse-drawn combine harvesting wheat in the Midwest, 19th century.110
  • 57. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “Go West, young man, cated a national system of roads and canals to link them with Eastern cit- Maryland (1819), he boldly upheld the Hamiltonian theory that the and grow up with ies and ports, and to open frontier lands for settlement. However, they Constitution by implication gives the government powers beyond the country.” were unsuccessful in pressing their demands for a federal role in inter- those expressly stated. nal improvement because of oppo- EXTENSION OF SLAVERY S sition from New England and the Newspaper editor Horace Greeley, 1851 South. Roads and canals remained lavery, which up to now had re- the province of the states until the ceived little public attention, began passage of the Federal Aid Road Act to assume much greater importance of 1916. as a national issue. In the early years The position of the federal gov- of the republic, when the Northern ernment at this time was greatly states were providing for immedi- strengthened by several Supreme ate or gradual emancipation of the Court decisions. A committed Fed- slaves, many leaders had supposed eralist, John Marshall of Virginia that slavery would die out. In 1786 became chief justice in 1801 and George Washington wrote that he held office until his death in 1835. devoutly wished some plan might BUILDING UNITY was as essential as political inde- The court — weak before his ad- be adopted “by which slavery mayT pendence. To foster self-sufficiency, ministration — was transformed be abolished by slow, sure, and im- he War of 1812 was, in a sense, congressional leaders Henry Clay of into a powerful tribunal, occupying perceptible degrees.” Virginians Jef-a second war of independence that Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of a position co-equal to the Congress ferson, Madison, and Monroe andconfirmed once and for all the South Carolina urged a policy of pro- and the president. In a succession other leading Southern statesmenAmerican break with England. With tectionism — imposition of restric- of historic decisions, Marshall es- made similar statements.its conclusion, many of the serious tions on imported goods to foster the tablished the power of the Supreme The Northwest Ordinance of 1787difficulties that the young repub- development of American industry. Court and strengthened the national had banned slavery in the Northwestlic had faced since the Revolution The time was propitious for rais- government. Territory. As late as 1808, when thedisappeared. National union under ing the customs tariff. The shepherds Marshall was the first in a long international slave trade was abol-the Constitution brought a balance of Vermont and Ohio wanted pro- line of Supreme Court justices ished, there were many Southern-between liberty and order. With a tection against an influx of English whose decisions have molded the ers who thought that slavery wouldlow national debt and a continent wool. In Kentucky, a new industry meaning and application of the soon end. The expectation provedawaiting exploration, the prospect of of weaving local hemp into cotton Constitution. When he finished false, for during the next generation,peace, prosperity, and social prog- bagging was threatened by the Scot- his long service, the court had de- the South became solidly unitedress opened before the nation. tish bagging industry. Pittsburgh, cided nearly 50 cases clearly involv- behind the institution of slavery as Commerce cemented national Pennsylvania, already a flourishing ing constitutional issues. In one of new economic factors made slaveryunity. The privations of war con- center of iron smelting, was eager to Marshall’s most famous opinions far more profitable than it had beenvinced many of the importance of challenge British and Swedish iron — Marbury v. Madison (1803) — he before 1790.protecting the manufacturers of suppliers. The tariff enacted in 1816 decisively established the right of the Chief among these was the rise ofAmerica until they could stand alone imposed duties high enough to give Supreme Court to review the consti- a great cotton-growing industry inagainst foreign competition. Eco- manufacturers real protection. tutionality of any law of Congress or the South, stimulated by the intro-nomic independence, many argued, In addition, Westerners advo- of a state legislature. In McCulloch v. duction of new types of cotton and 112 113
  • 58. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYby Eli Whitney’s invention in 1793 of In 1819 Missouri, which had most of Hispanic America — from to Latin America, but Secretary ofthe cotton gin, which separated the 10,000 slaves, applied to enter the Argentina and Chile in the south to State John Quincy Adams convincedseeds from cotton. At the same time, Union. Northerners rallied to op- Mexico in the north — had won in- Monroe to act unilaterally: “It wouldthe Industrial Revolution, which pose Missouri’s entry except as a dependence. be more candid, as well as more dig-made textile manufacturing a large- free state, and a storm of protest The people of the United States nified, to avow our principles ex-scale operation, vastly increased the swept the country. For a time Con- took a deep interest in what seemed plicitly to Russia and France, than todemand for raw cotton. And the gress was deadlocked, but Henry a repetition of their own experience come in as a cock-boat in the wakeopening of new lands in the West Clay arranged the so-called Mis- in breaking away from European of the British man-of-war.”after 1812 greatly extended the area souri Compromise: Missouri was rule. The Latin American indepen- In December 1823, with theavailable for cotton cultivation. Cot- admitted as a slave state at the same dence movements confirmed their knowledge that the British navyton culture moved rapidly from the time Maine came in as a free state. own belief in self-government. In would defend Latin America fromTidewater states on the East Coast In addition, Congress banned slav- 1822 President James Monroe, under the Holy Alliance and France, Presi-through much of the lower South ery from the territory acquired by powerful public pressure, received dent Monroe took the occasion ofto the delta region of the Mississippi the Louisiana Purchase north of authority to recognize the new his annual message to Congressand eventually to Texas. Missouri’s southern boundary. At countries of Latin America and soon to pronounce what would become Sugar cane, another labor-in- the time, this provision appeared to exchanged ministers with them. He known as the Monroe Doctrinetensive crop, also contributed to be a victory for the Southern states thereby confirmed their status as — the refusal to tolerate any furtherslavery’s extension in the South. because it was thought unlikely that genuinely independent countries, extension of European dominationThe rich, hot lands of southeastern this “Great American Desert” would entirely separated from their former in the Americas:Louisiana proved ideal for growing ever be settled. The controversy was European connections. The American continents ... aresugar cane profitably. By 1830 the temporarily resolved, but Thomas At just this point, Russia, Prussia, henceforth not to be considered asstate was supplying the nation with Jefferson wrote to a friend that “this and Austria formed an association, subjects for future colonization byabout half its sugar supply. Finally, momentous question, like a fire bell the Holy Alliance, to protect them- any European powers.tobacco growers moved westward, in the night, awakened and filled me selves against revolution. By inter- We should consider any attempttaking slavery with them. with terror. I considered it at once as vening in countries where popular on their part to extend their As the free society of the North the knell of the Union.” movements threatened monarchies, [political] system to any portionand the slave society of the South the alliance — joined by post-Na- of this hemisphere, as dangerous tospread westward, it seemed politi- LATIN AMERICA AND THE poleonic France — hoped to prevent our peace and safety.cally expedient to maintain a rough MONROE DOCTRINE the spread of revolution. This policy With the existing colonies or Dequality among the new states was the antithesis of the American dependencies of any Europeancarved out of western territories. In uring the opening decades of principle of self-determination. power we have not interfered,1818, when Illinois was admitted to the 19th century, Central and South As long as the Holy Alliance con- and shall not interfere. Butthe Union, 10 states permitted slav- America turned to revolution. The fined its activities to the Old World, with the governments who haveery and 11 states prohibited it; but idea of liberty had stirred the people it aroused no anxiety in the United declared their independence,balance was restored after Alabama of Latin America from the time the States. But when the alliance an- and maintained it, and whosewas admitted as a slave state. Popula- English colonies gained their free- nounced its intention of restoring to independence we have ...tion was growing faster in the North, dom. Napoleon’s conquest of Spain Spain its former colonies, Americans acknowledged, we could not viewwhich permitted Northern states to and Portugal in 1808 provided the became very concerned. Britain, to any interposition for the purpose ofhave a clear majority in the House signal for Latin Americans to rise which Latin American trade had be- oppressing them, or controlling, inof Representatives. However, equal- in revolt. By 1822, ably led by Simón come of great importance, resolved to any other manner, their destiny, byity between the North and the South Bolívar, Francisco Miranda, José de block any such action. London urged any European power in any otherwas maintained in the Senate. San Martín and Miguel de Hidalgo, joint Anglo-American guarantees light than as the manifestation of 114 115
  • 59. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY an unfriendly disposition towards legiance played important roles in paign, they accused the president of 1828 act that they called the Tariff the United States. determining the outcome of the a “corrupt bargain” for naming Clay of Abominations. In their view, all The Monroe Doctrine expressed election. Adams won the electoral secretary of state. In the election ofits benefits of protection went toa spirit of solidarity with the newly votes from New England and most 1828, Jackson defeated Adams by an Northern manufacturers, leavingindependent republics of Latin of New York; Clay won Kentucky, overwhelming electoral majority. agricultural South Carolina poorer.America. These nations in turn rec- Ohio, and Missouri; Jackson won Jackson — Tennessee politician, In 1828, the state’s leading politicianognized their political affinity with the Southeast, Illinois, Indiana, the fighter in wars against Native Amer- — and Jackson’s vice president untilthe United States by basing their new Carolinas, Pennsylvania, Maryland, icans on the Southern frontier, and his resignation in 1832 — John C.constitutions, in many instances, on and New Jersey; and Crawford won hero of the Battle of New Orleans Calhoun had declared in his Souththe North American model. Virginia, Georgia, and Delaware. during the War of 1812 — drew Carolina Exposition and Protest that No candidate gained a majority in his support from the “common states had the right to nullify oppres- FACTIONALISM AND the Electoral College, so, according people.” He came to the presidency sive national legislation. POLITICAL PARTIES to the provisions of the Constitu- on a rising tide of enthusiasm for In 1832, Congress passed andDomestically, the was termed the tion, the election was thrown into popular democracy. The election of Jackson signed a bill that revised presidency of the House of Representatives, where 1828 was a significant benchmark the 1828 tariff downward, but it wasMonroe (1817-1825) Clay was the most influential figure. in the trend toward broader voter not enough to satisfy most South“era of good feelings.” The phrase ac- He supported Adams, who gained participation. By then most states Carolinians. The state adopted anknowledged the political triumph of the presidency. had either enacted universal white Ordinance of Nullification, whichthe Republican Party over the Feder- During Adams’s administration, male suffrage or minimized prop- declared both the tariffs of 1828 andalist Party, which had collapsed as a new party alignments appeared. erty requirements. In 1824 members 1832 null and void within state bor-national force. All the same, this was Adams’s followers, some of whom of the Electoral College in six statesders. Its legislature also passed lawsa period of vigorous factional and were former Federalists, took the were still selected by the state legis- to enforce the ordinance, includingregional conflict. name of “National Republicans” latures. By 1828 presidential elec- authorization for raising a military The end of the Federalists led to a as emblematic of their support of tors were chosen by popular vote in force and appropriations for arms.brief period of factional politics and a federal government that would every state but Delaware and South Nullification was a long-establishedbrought disarray to the practice of take a strong role in developing an Carolina. These developments were theme of protest against perceivedchoosing presidential nominees by expanding nation. Though he gov- the products of a widespread sense excesses by the federal government.congressional party caucuses. For erned honestly and efficiently, Ad- that the people should rule and that Jefferson and Madison had proposeda time, state legislatures nominated ams was not a popular president. government by traditional elites had it in the Kentucky and Virginia Res-candidates. In 1824 Tennessee and He failed in his effort to institute a come to an end. olutions of 1798, to protest the AlienPennsylvania chose Andrew Jack- national system of roads and canals. and Sedition Acts. The Hartfordson, with South Carolina Senator His coldly intellectual temperament NULLIFICATION CRISIS Convention of 1814 had invoked it TJohn C. Calhoun as his running did not win friends. Jackson, by con- to protest the War of 1812. Nevermate. Kentucky selected Speaker of trast, had enormous popular appeal oward the end of his first term before, however, had a state actuallythe House Henry Clay; Massachu- and a strong political organization. in office, Jackson was forced to con- attempted nullification. The youngsetts, Secretary of State John Quincy His followers coalesced to establish front the state of South Carolina, nation faced its most dangerousAdams, son of the second president, the Democratic Party, claimed di- the most important of the emerg- crisis yet.John Adams. A congressional cau- rect lineage from the Democratic- ing Deep South cotton states, on the In response to South Carolina’scus, widely derided as undemocrat- Republican Party of Jefferson, and issue of the protective tariff. Busi- threat, Jackson sent seven smallic, picked Secretary of the Treasury in general advocated the principles ness and farming interests in the naval vessels and a man-of-war toWilliam Crawford. of small, decentralized government. state had hoped that the president Charleston in November 1832. On Personality and sectional al- Mounting a strong anti-Adams cam- would use his power to modify the December 10, he issued a resound- 116 117
  • 60. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYing proclamation against the nulli- THE BANK FIGHT ating great confusion and fueling called the central bank a “monster” Although the nullificationwar, itfiers. South Carolina, the president inflation. It became increasingly and coasted to an easy election vic-declared, stood on “the brink of crisis clear that state banks could not pro- tory over Henry Clay.insurrection and treason,” and he possessed the seeds of civil vide the country with a reliable cur- The president interpreted his tri-appealed to the people of the state was not as critical a political issue rency. In 1816 a second Bank of the umph as a popular mandate to crushto reassert their allegiance to the as a bitter struggle over the contin- United States, similar to the first, the central bank irrevocably. In Sep-Union. He also let it be known that, ued existence of the nation’s central was again chartered for 20 years. tember 1833 he ordered an end toif necessary, he personally would lead bank, the second Bank of the United From its inception, the second bank deposits of government money inthe U.S. Army to enforce the law. States. The first bank, established in was unpopular in the newer states the bank, and gradual withdrawals When the question of tariff duties 1791 under Alexander Hamilton’s and territories, especially with state of the money already in its custody.again came before Congress, Jack- guidance, had been chartered for and local bankers who resented its The government deposited its fundsson’s political rival, Senator Henry a 20-year period. Though the gov- virtual monopoly over the country’s in selected state banks, characterizedClay, a great advocate of protection ernment held some of its stock, the credit and currency, but also with as “pet banks” by the opposition.but also a devoted Unionist, spon- bank, like the Bank of England and less prosperous people everywhere, For the next generation thesored a compromise measure. Clay’s other central banks of the time, was who believed that it represented the United States would get by on atariff bill, quickly passed in 1833, a private corporation with profits interests of the wealthy few. relatively unregulated state bankingspecified that all duties in excess of passing to its stockholders. Its public On the whole, the bank was system, which helped fuel westward20 percent of the value of the goods functions were to act as a depository well managed and rendered a valu- expansion through cheap credit butimported were to be reduced year by for government receipts, to make able service; but Jackson long had kept the nation vulnerable to peri-year, so that by 1842 the duties on short-term loans to the government, shared the Republican distrust of odic panics. During the Civil War,all articles would reach the level of and above all to establish a sound the financial establishment. Elected the United States initiated a systemthe moderate tariff of 1816. At the currency by refusing to accept at face as a tribune of the people, he sensed of national charters for local andsame time, Congress passed a Force value notes (paper money) issued by that the bank’s aristocratic man- regional banks, but the nation re-Act, authorizing the president to use state-chartered banks in excess of ager, Nicholas Biddle, was an easy turned to a central bank only withmilitary power to enforce the laws. their ability to redeem. target. When the bank’s support- the establishment of the Federal Re- South Carolina had expected the To the Northeastern financial ers in Congress pushed through an serve system in of other Southern states, and commercial establishment, the early renewal of its charter, Jacksonbut instead found itself isolated. central bank was a needed enforcer responded with a stinging veto that WHIGS, DEMOCRATS, AND(Its most likely ally, the state gov- of prudent monetary policy, but denounced monopoly and special KNOW-NOTHINGS Jernment of Georgia, wanted, and from the beginning it was resented privilege. The effort to override thegot, U.S. military force to remove by Southerners and Westerners veto failed. ackson’s political opponents, unit-Native American tribes from the who believed their prosperity and In the presidential campaign that ed by little more than a commonstate.) Eventually, South Carolina regional development depended followed, the bank question revealed opposition to him, eventually co-rescinded its action. Both sides, nev- upon ample money and credit. The a fundamental division. Established alesced into a common party calledertheless, claimed victory. Jackson Republican Party of Jefferson and merchant, manufacturing, and the Whigs, a British term signifyinghad strongly defended the Union. Madison doubted its constitutional- financial interests favored sound opposition to Jackson’s “monarchialBut South Carolina, by its show of ity. When its charter expired in 1811, money. Regional bankers and en- rule.” Although they organized soonresistance, had obtained many of it was not renewed. trepreneurs on the make wanted an after the election campaign of 1832,its demands and had demonstrated For the next few years, the bank- increased money supply and lower it was more than a decade beforethat a single state could force its will ing business was in the hands of interest rates. Other debtor classes, they reconciled their differenceson Congress. state-chartered banks, which issued especially farmers, shared those sen- and were able to draw up a platform. currency in excessive amounts, cre- timents. Jackson and his supporters Largely through the magnetism of 118 119
  • 61. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYHenry Clay and Daniel Webster, the tively that, if a president died, the trol of legislatures in New York and was especially effective. The pub-Whigs’ most brilliant statesmen, the vice president would assume the of- Massachusetts; by then, about 90 lic school system became commonparty solidified its membership. But fice with full powers for the balance U.S. congressmen were linked to the throughout the North. In otherin the 1836 election, the Whigs were of his term. party. That was its high point. Soon parts of the country, however, thestill too divided to unite behind a Americans found themselves di- after, the gathering crisis between battle for public education contin-single man. New York’s Martin Van vided in other, more complex ways. North and South over the extension ued for years.Buren, Jackson’s vice president, won The large number of Catholic im- of slavery fatally divided the party, Another influential social move-the contest. migrants in the first half of the 19th consuming it along with the old ment that emerged during this pe- An economic depression and the century, primarily Irish and Ger- debates between Whigs and Demo- riod was the opposition to the salelarger-than-life personality of his man, triggered a backlash among crats that had dominated American and use of alcohol, or the temper-predecessor obscured Van Buren’s native-born Protestant Americans. politics in the second quarter of the ance movement. It stemmed frommerits. His public acts aroused no Immigrants brought strange new 19th century. a variety of concerns and motives:enthusiasm, for he lacked the com- customs and religious practices to religious beliefs, the effect of alco-pelling qualities of leadership and American shores. They competed STIRRINGS OF REFORM hol on the work force, the violence Tthe dramatic flair that had attended with the native-born for jobs in and suffering women and childrenJackson’s every move. The election cities along the Eastern seaboard. he democratic upheaval in poli- experienced at the hands of heavyof 1840 found the country afflicted The coming of universal white male tics exemplified by Jackson’s elec- drinkers. In 1826 Boston ministerswith hard times and low wages — suffrage in the 1820s and 1830s tion was merely one phase of the organized the Society for the Pro-and the Democrats on the defensive. increased their political clout. Dis- long American quest for greater motion of Temperance. Seven years The Whig candidate for presi- placed patrician politicians blamed rights and opportunities for all citi- later, in Philadelphia, the societydent was William Henry Harrison the immigrants for their fall from zens. Another was the beginning of convened a national convention,of Ohio, vastly popular as a hero power. The Catholic Church’s failure labor organization, primarily among which formed the American Tem-of conflicts with Native Americans to support the temperance move- skilled and semiskilled workers. In perance Union. The union called forand the War of 1812. He was pro- ment gave rise to charges that Rome 1835 labor forces in Philadelphia, the prohibition of all alcoholic bev-moted, like Jackson, as a represen- was trying to subvert the United Pennsylvania, succeeded in reducing erages, and pressed state legislaturestative of the democratic West. His States through alcohol. the old “dark-to-dark” workday to to ban their production and sale.vice presidential candidate was John The most important of the nativ- a 10-hour day. By 1860, the new Thirteen states had done so by 1855,Tyler — a Virginian whose views on ist organizations that sprang up in work day had become law in sev- although the laws were subsequentlystates’ rights and a low tariff were this period was a secret society, the eral of the states and was a generally challenged in court. They survivedpopular in the South. Harrison won Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, accepted standard. only in northern New England, buta sweeping victory. founded in 1849. When its members The spread of suffrage had al- between 1830 and 1860 the temper- Within a month of his inaugura- refused to identify themselves, they ready led to a new concept of edu- ance movement reduced Americans’tion, however, the 68-year-old Har- were swiftly labeled the “Know- cation. Clear-sighted statesmen ev- per capita consumption of alcohol.rison died, and Tyler became presi- Nothings.” In a few years, they be- erywhere understood that universal Other reformers addressed thedent. Tyler’s beliefs differed sharply came a national organization with suffrage required a tutored, literate problems of prisons and care for thefrom those of Clay and Webster, still considerable political power. electorate. Workingmen’s organiza- insane. Efforts were made to turnthe most influential men in Con- The Know-Nothings advocated tions demanded free, tax-supported prisons, which stressed punishment,gress. The result was an open break an extension in the period required schools open to all children. Gradu- into penitentiaries where the guiltybetween the new president and the for naturalized citizenship from five ally, in one state after another, leg- would undergo rehabilitation. Inparty that had elected him. The to 21 years. They sought to exclude islation was enacted to provide for Massachusetts, Dorothea Dix led aTyler presidency would accomplish the foreign-born and Catholics from such free instruction. The leadership struggle to improve conditions forlittle other than to establish defini- public office. In 1855 they won con- of Horace Mann in Massachusetts insane persons, who were kept con- 120 121
  • 62. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYfined in wretched almshouses and Seneca Falls, New York. Delegates the National Woman Suffrage Asso- were created — Indiana, Illinois,prisons. After winning improve- drew up a “Declaration of Senti- ciation (NWSA), to promote a con- and Maine (which were free states),ments in Massachusetts, she took ments,” demanding equality with stitutional amendment for women’s and Mississippi, Alabama, and Mis-her campaign to the South, where men before the law, the right to vote, right to the vote. These two would souri (slave states). The first frontiernine states established hospitals for and equal opportunities in educa- become the women’s movement’s had been tied closely to Europe, thethe insane between 1845 and 1852. tion and employment. The resolu- most outspoken advocates. Describ- second to the coastal settlements, tions passed unanimously with the ing their partnership, Cady Stanton but the Mississippi Valley was inde- WOMEN’S RIGHTS exception of the one for women’s would say, “I forged the thunderbolts pendent and its people looked westS suffrage, which won a majority only and she fired them.” rather than east. uch social reforms brought many after an impassioned speech in favor Frontier settlers were a variedwomen to a realization of their own by Frederick Douglass, the black WESTWARD group. One English traveler de- Tunequal position in society. From abolitionist. scribed them as “a daring, hardycolonial times, unmarried women At Seneca Falls, Cady Stanton he frontier did much to shape race of men, who live in miserablehad enjoyed many of the same legal gained national prominence as an American life. Conditions along cabins. ... They are unpolished butrights as men, although custom re- eloquent writer and speaker for the entire Atlantic seaboard stimu- hospitable, kind to strangers, hon-quired that they marry early. With women’s rights. She had realized lated migration to the newer regions. est, and trustworthy. They raise amatrimony, women virtually lost early on that without the right to From New England, where the soil little Indian corn, pumpkins, hogs,their separate identities in the eyes vote, women would never be equal was incapable of producing high and sometimes have a cow or two.of the law. Women were not permit- with men. Taking the abolitionist yields of grain, came a steady stream ... But the rifle is their principalted to vote. Their education in the William Lloyd Garrison as her mod- of men and women who left their means of support.” Dexterous with17th and 18th centuries was limited el, she saw that the key to success lay coastal farms and villages to take the ax, snare, and fishing line, theselargely to reading, writing, music, in changing public opinion, and not advantage of the rich interior land men blazed the trails, built the firstdancing, and needlework. in party action. Seneca Falls became of the continent. In the backcoun- log cabins, and confronted Native The awakening of women began the catalyst for future change. Soon try settlements of the Carolinas and American tribes, whose land theywith the visit to America of Frances other women’s rights conventions Virginia, people handicapped by the occupied.Wright, a Scottish lecturer and jour- were held, and other women would lack of roads and canals giving ac- As more and more settlers pene-nalist, who publicly promoted wom- come to the forefront of the move- cess to coastal markets and resent- trated the wilderness, many becameen’s rights throughout the United ment for their political and social ful of the political dominance of the farmers as well as hunters. A com-States during the 1820s. At a time equality. Tidewater planters also moved west- fortable log house with glass win-when women were often forbidden In 1848 also, Ernestine Rose, a ward. By 1800 the Mississippi and dows, a chimney, and partitionedto speak in public places, Wright not Polish immigrant, was instrumental Ohio River valleys were becoming a rooms replaced the cabin; the wellonly spoke out, but shocked audi- in getting a law passed in the state great frontier region. “Hi-o, away we replaced the spring. Industriousences by her views advocating the of New York that allowed married go, floating down the river on the O- settlers would rapidly clear theirrights of women to seek information women to keep their property in hi-o,” became the song of thousands land of timber, burning the woodon birth control and divorce. By the their own name. Among the first of migrants. for potash and letting the stumps1840s an American women’s rights laws in the nation of this kind, the The westward flow of population decay. They grew their own grain,movement emerged. Its foremost Married Women’s Property Act en- in the early 19th century led to the vegetables, and fruit; ranged theleader was Elizabeth Cady Stanton. couraged other state legislatures to division of old territories and the woods for deer, wild turkeys, and In 1848 Cady Stanton and her enact similar laws. drawing of new boundaries. As new honey; fished the nearby streams;colleague Lucretia Mott organized In 1869 Elizabeth Cady Stanton states were admitted, the political looked after cattle and hogs. Landa women’s rights convention — the and another leading women’s rights map stabilized east of the Mississippi speculators bought large tracts of thefirst in the history of the world — at activist, Susan B. Anthony, founded River. From 1816 to 1821, six states cheap land and, if land values rose, 122 123
  • 63. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYsold their holdings and moved still did not pass Missouri into the tury, the most prominent figure In 1834 a special Native Americanfarther west, making way for others. vast Western territory acquired in associated with these conflicts was territory was set up in what is now Doctors, lawyers, storekeepers, the Louisiana Purchase until after Andrew Jackson, the first “Western- Oklahoma. In all, the tribes signededitors, preachers, mechanics, and 1840. In 1819, in return for assum- er” to occupy the White House. In 94 treaties during Jackson’s twopoliticians soon followed the farm- ing the claims of American citizens the midst of the War of 1812, Jack- terms, ceding millions of hectaresers. The farmers were the sturdy to the amount of $5 million, the son, then in charge of the Tennessee to the federal government and re-base, however. Where they settled, United States obtained from Spain militia, was sent into southern Ala- moving dozens of tribes from theirthey intended to stay and hoped both Florida and Spain’s rights to bama, where he ruthlessly put down ancestral homelands.their children would remain after the Oregon country in the Far West. an uprising of Creek Indians. The The most terrible chapter in thisthem. They built large barns and In the meantime, the Far West had Creeks soon ceded two-thirds of unhappy history concerned thebrick or frame houses. They brought become a field of great activity in their land to the United States. Jack- Cherokees, whose lands in westernimproved livestock, plowed the land the fur trade, which was to have son later routed bands of Seminoles North Carolina and Georgia hadskillfully, and sowed productive significance far beyond the value from their sanctuaries in Spanish- been guaranteed by treaty sinceseed. Some erected flour mills, saw- of the skins. As in the first days of owned Florida. 1791. Among the most progressivemills, and distilleries. They laid out French exploration in the Mississippi In the 1820s, President Monroe’s of the eastern tribes, the Cherokeesgood highways, and built churches Valley, the trader was a pathfinder secretary of war, John C. Calhoun, nevertheless were sure to be dis-and schools. Incredible transforma- for the settlers beyond the Missis- pursued a policy of removing the re- placed when gold was discovered ontions were accomplished in a few sippi. The French and Scots-Irish maining tribes from the old South- their land in 1829. Forced to makeyears. In 1830, for example, Chicago, trappers, exploring the great rivers west and resettling them beyond the a long and cruel trek to OklahomaIllinois, was merely an unpromis- and their tributaries and discover- Mississippi. Jackson continued this in 1838, the tribe lost many of itsing trading village with a fort; but ing the passes through the Rocky policy as president. In 1830 Congress numbers from disease and priva-long before some of its original set- and Sierra Mountains, made pos- passed the Indian Removal Act, pro- tion on what became known as thetlers had died, it had become one sible the overland migration of the viding funds to transport the east- “Trail of Tears.” 9of the largest and richest cities in 1840s and the later occupation of ern tribes beyond the Mississippi.the nation. the interior of the nation. Farms were easy to acquire. Gov- Overall, the growth of the nationernment land after 1820 could be was enormous: Population grewbought for $1.25 for about half a from 7.25 million to more than 23hectare, and after the 1862 Home- million from 1812 to 1852, and thestead Act, could be claimed by land available for settlement in-merely occupying and improving creased by almost the size of West-it. In addition, tools for working ern Europe — from 4.4 million tothe land were easily available. It was 7.8 million square kilometers. Stilla time when, in a phrase coined by unresolved, however, were the ba-Indiana newspaperman John Soule sic conflicts rooted in sectionaland popularized by New York Tri- differences that, by the decade ofbune editor Horace Greeley, young the 1860s, would explode into civilmen could “go west and grow with war. Inevitably, too, this westwardthe country.” expansion brought settlers into con- Except for a migration into Mex- flict with the original inhabitants ofican-owned Texas, the westward the land: the Native Americans.march of the agricultural frontier In the first part of the 19th cen- 124 125
  • 64. CHAPTER 5: WESTWARD EXPANSION AND REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY THE FRONTIER, “THE WEST,” AND THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCEThe frontier — the point at which settled territory met unoccupied land— began at Jamestown and Plymouth Rock. It moved in a westward directionfor nearly 300 years through densely forested wilderness and barren plainsuntil the decennial census of 1890 revealed that at last the United States nolonger possessed a discernible line of settlement. At the time it seemed to many that a long period had come to an end— one in which the country had grown from a few struggling outposts ofEnglish civilization to a huge independent nation with an identity of its own.It was easy to believe that the experience of settlement and post-settlementdevelopment, constantly repeated as a people conquered a continent, had beenthe defining factor in the nation’s development. In 1893, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner, expressing a widely heldsentiment, declared that the frontier had made the United States more than an United States of America, showing territorial expansion from 1803 to 1898.extension of Europe. It had created a nation with a culture that was perhapscoarser than Europe’s, but also more pragmatic, energetic, individualistic, anddemocratic. The existence of large areas of “free land” had created a nation ofproperty holders and had provided a “safety valve” for discontent in cities andmore settled areas. His analysis implied that an America without a frontierwould trend ominously toward what were seen as the European ills of strati-fied social systems, class conflict, and diminished opportunity. After more than a hundred years scholars still debate the significance ofthe frontier in American history. Few believe it was quite as all-important asTurner suggested; its absence does not appear to have led to dire consequenc-es. Some have gone farther, rejecting the Turner argument as a romantic glo-rification of a bloody, brutal process — marked by a war of conquest againstMexico, near-genocidal treatment of Native American tribes, and environmen-tal despoliation. The common experience of the frontier, they argue, was oneof hardship and failure. Yet it remains hard to believe that three centuries of westward movementhad no impact on the national character and suggestive that intelligent foreignobservers, such as the French intellectual, Alexis de Tocqueville, were fasci-nated by the American West. Indeed, the last area of frontier settlement, thevast area stretching north from Texas to the Canadian border, which Ameri-cans today commonly call “the West,” still seems characterized by ideals ofindividualism, democracy, and opportunity that are more palpable than in therest of the nation. It is perhaps also revealing that many people in other lands,when hearing the word “American,” so often identify it with a symbol of thatfinal frontier — the “cowboy.”  126 127
  • 65. 6 CHAPTER SECTIONAL CONFLICT Slave family picking cotton near Savannah, Georgia, in the early 1860s.128
  • 66. CHAPTER 6: SECTIONAL CONFLICT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY A house divided against In everything of which it has made a boast — excepting its education of The South, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River and beyond, itself cannot stand. I believe the people, and its care for poor chil- dren — it sinks immeasurably below featured an economy centered on agriculture. Tobacco was important this government cannot the level I had placed it upon.” Dickens was not alone. America in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. In South Carolina, rice endure permanently in the 19th century, as throughout its history, generated expectations and was an abundant crop. The climate and soil of Louisiana encouraged half-slave and half-free. passions that often conflicted with the cultivation of sugar. But cotton a reality at once more mundane and eventually became the dominant more complex. The young nation’s commodity and the one with which size and diversity defied easy gener- the South was identified. By 1850 the Senatorial candidate Abraham Lincoln, 1858 alization and invited contradiction: American South grew more than 80 America was both a freedom-loving percent of the world’s cotton. Slaves and slave-holding society, a nation cultivated all these crops. of expansive and primitive frontiers, The Midwest, with its bound- a society with cities built on growing less prairies and swiftly growing commerce and industrialization. population, flourished. Europe and the older settled parts of America TWO AMERICAS whether such rough equality could LANDS OF PROMISE demanded its wheat and meat prod-N B survive in the face of a growing fac- ucts. The introduction of labor-sav- o visitor to the United States left tory system that threatened to create y 1850 the national territory ing implements — notably the Mc-a more enduring record of his trav- divisions between industrial workers stretched over forest, plain, and Cormick reaper (a machine to cutels and observations than the French and a new business elite. mountain. Within its far-flung lim- and harvest grain) — made possiblewriter and political theorist Alexis Other travelers marveled at the its dwelt 23 million people in a Union an unparalleled increase in grainde Tocqueville, whose Democracy growth and vitality of the country, comprising 31 states. In the East, in- production. The nation’s wheatin America, first published in 1835, where they could see “everywhere dustry boomed. In the Midwest and crops swelled from some 35 millionremains one of the most trenchant the most unequivocal proofs of the South, agriculture flourished. hectoliters in 1850 to nearly 61 mil-and insightful analyses of Ameri- prosperity and rapid progress in ag- After 1849 the gold mines of Cali- lion in 1860, more than half growncan social and political practices. riculture, commerce, and great pub- fornia poured their precious ore into in the Midwest.Tocqueville was far too shrewd an lic works.” But such optimistic views the channels of trade. An important stimulus to theobserver to be uncritical about the of the American experiment were New England and the Middle country’s prosperity was the greatUnited States, but his verdict was by no means universal. One skep- Atlantic states were the main cen- improvement in transportation fa-fundamentally positive. “The gov- tic was the English novelist Charles ters of manufacturing, commerce, cilities; from 1850 to 1857 the Ap-ernment of a democracy brings the Dickens, who first visited the United and finance. Principal products of palachian Mountain barrier wasnotion of political rights to the level States in 1841-42. “This is not the these areas were textiles, lumber, pierced by five railway trunk linesof the humblest citizens,” he wrote, Republic I came to see,” he wrote clothing, machinery, leather, and linking the Midwest and the North-“just as the dissemination of wealth in a letter. “This is not the Republic woolen goods. The maritime trade east. These links established thebrings the notion of property within of my imagination. ... The more I had reached the height of its pros- economic interests that would un-the reach of all men.” Nonetheless, think of its youth and strength, the perity; vessels flying the American dergird the political alliance of theTocqueville was only one in the first poorer and more trifling in a thou- flag plied the oceans, distributing Union from 1861 to 1865. The Southof a long line of thinkers to worry sand respects, it appears in my eyes. wares of all nations. lagged behind. It was not until the 130 131
  • 67. CHAPTER 6: SECTIONAL CONFLICT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYlate 1850s that a continuous line ran 1.5 million white families. Fifty supervision over his slaves, and when Congress abolished the slavethrough the mountains connecting percent of these slave owners owned employed professional overseers trade with Africa. Thereafter, oppo-the lower Mississippi River area with no more than five slaves. Twelve per- charged with exacting from slaves sition came largely from the Quak-the southern Atlantic seaboard. cent owned 20 or more slaves, the a maximum amount of work. In ers, who kept up a mild but ineffec- number defined as turning a farmer such circumstances, slavery could tual protest. Meanwhile, the cottonSLAVERY AND SECTIONALISM into a planter. Three-quarters of become a system of brutality and gin and westward expansion intoOne overriding issue exacerbated Southern white families, including coercion in which beatings and the the Mississippi delta region created the “poor whites,” those on the low- breakup of families through the sale an increasing demand for slaves.the regional and economic differ- est rung of Southern society, owned of individuals were commonplace. The abolitionist movement thatences between North and South: no slaves. In other settings, however, it could emerged in the early 1830s wasslavery. Resenting the large profits It is easy to understand the inter- be much milder. combative, uncompromising, andamassed by Northern businessmen est of the planters in slave holding. In the end, however, the most insistent upon an immediate endfrom marketing the cotton crop, But the yeomen and poor whites trenchant criticism of slavery was to slavery. This approach found amany Southerners attributed the supported the institution of slavery not the behavior of individual mas- leader in William Lloyd Garrison,backwardness of their own section as well. They feared that, if freed, ters and overseers. Systematically a young man from Massachusetts,to Northern aggrandizement. Many blacks would compete with them treating African-American laborers who combined the heroism of aNortherners, on the other hand, de- economically and challenge their as if they were domestic animals, martyr with the crusading zeal ofclared that slavery — the “peculiar higher social status. Southern whites slavery, the abolitionists pointed a demagogue. On January 1, 1831,institution” that the South regarded defended slavery not simply on the out, violated every human being’s Garrison produced the first issue ofas essential to its economy — was basis of economic necessity but out inalienable right to be free. his newspaper, The Liberator, whichlargely responsible for the region’s of a visceral dedication to white bore the announcement: “I shallrelative financial and industrial supremacy. THE ABOLITIONISTS strenuously contend for the imme- Ibackwardness. As they fought the weight of diate enfranchisement of our slave As far back as the Missouri Com- Northern opinion, political lead- n national politics, Southern- population. ... On this subject, I dopromise in 1819, sectional lines had ers of the South, the professional ers chiefly sought protection and not wish to think, or speak, or write,been steadily hardening on the classes, and most of the clergy now enlargement of the interests repre- with moderation. ... I am in earnestslavery question. In the North, sen- no longer apologized for slavery but sented by the cotton/slavery system. — I will not equivocate — I will nottiment for outright abolition grew championed it. Southern publicists They sought territorial expansion excuse — I will not retreat a singleincreasingly powerful. Southerners insisted, for example, that the rela- because the wastefulness of culti- inch — AND I WILL BE HEARD.”in general felt little guilt about slav- tionship between capital and labor vating a single crop, cotton, rapidly Garrison’s sensational methodsery and defended it vehemently. In was more humane under the slavery exhausted the soil, increasing the awakened Northerners to the evilsome seaboard areas, slavery by 1850 system than under the wage system need for new fertile lands. Moreover, in an institution many had longwas well over 200 years old; it was an of the North. new territory would establish a basis come to regard as unchangeable. Heintegral part of the basic economy of Before 1830 the old patriarchal for additional slave states to offset sought to hold up to public gaze thethe region. system of plantation government, the admission of new free states. most repulsive aspects of slavery and Although the 1860 census showed with its personal supervision of the Antislavery Northerners saw in the to castigate slave holders as torturersthat there were nearly four million slaves by their owners or masters, Southern view a conspiracy for pro- and traffickers in human life. Heslaves out of a total population of was still characteristic. Gradually, slavery aggrandizement. In the 1830s recognized no rights of the mas-12.3 million in the 15 slave states, however, with the introduction of their opposition became fierce. ters, acknowledged no compromise,only a minority of Southern whites large-scale cotton production in An earlier antislavery movement, tolerated no delay. Other abolition-owned slaves. There were some the lower South, the master gradu- an offshoot of the American Revolu- ists, unwilling to subscribe to his385,000 slave owners out of about ally ceased to exercise close personal tion, had won its last victory in 1808 law-defying tactics, held that reform 132 133
  • 68. CHAPTER 6: SECTIONAL CONFLICT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYshould be accomplished by legal and 1836 the House voted to table such its border with Mexico was the Rio forces, mainly among the Whigs,peaceful means. Garrison was joined petitions automatically, thus effec- Grande; Mexico argued that the attacked Polk’s expansion as a pro-by another powerful voice, that of tively killing them. Former President border stood far to the north along slavery plot.Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave John Quincy Adams, elected to the the Nueces River. Meanwhile, set- With the conclusion of the Mexi-who galvanized Northern audiences. House of Representatives in 1830, tlers were flooding into the territo- can War, the United States gainedTheodore Dwight Weld and many fought this so-called gag rule as a ries of New Mexico and California. a vast new territory of 1.36 millionother abolitionists crusaded against violation of the First Amendment, Many Americans claimed that the square kilometers encompassing theslavery in the states of the old North- finally winning its repeal in 1844. United States had a “manifest des- present-day states of New Mexico,west Territory with evangelical zeal. tiny” to expand westward to the Nevada, California, Utah, most of One activity of the movement in- TEXAS AND WAR WITH Pacific Ocean. Arizona, and portions of Coloradovolved helping slaves escape to safe MEXICO U.S. attempts to purchase from and Wyoming. The nation also Trefuges in the North or over the bor- Mexico the New Mexico and Cali- faced a revival of the most explosiveder into Canada. The “Underground hroughout the 1820s, Ameri- fornia territories failed. In 1846, question in American politics of theRailroad,” an elaborate network of cans settled in the vast territory of after a clash of Mexican and U.S. time: Would the new territories besecret routes, was firmly established Texas, often with land grants from troops along the Rio Grande, the slave or free?in the 1830s in all parts of the North. the Mexican government. However, United States declared war. Ameri-In Ohio alone, from 1830 to 1860, as their numbers soon alarmed the can troops occupied the lightly THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 Umany as 40,000 fugitive slaves were authorities, who prohibited further populated territory of New Mexico,helped to freedom. The number of immigration in 1830. In 1834 Gen- then supported a revolt of settlers ntil 1845, it had seemed likelylocal antislavery societies increased eral Antonio López de Santa Anna in California. A U.S. force under that slavery would be confined to theat such a rate that by 1838 there were established a dictatorship in Mex- Zachary Taylor invaded Mexico, areas where it already existed. It hadabout 1,350 with a membership of ico, and the following year Texans winning victories at Monterrey and been given limits by the Missouriperhaps 250,000. revolted. Santa Anna defeated the Buena Vista, but failing to bring the Compromise in 1820 and had no op- Most Northerners nonetheless ei- American rebels at the celebrated Mexicans to the negotiating table. In portunity to overstep them. The newther held themselves aloof from the siege of the Alamo in early 1836, March 1847, a U.S. Army command- territories made renewed expansionabolitionist movement or actively but Texans under Sam Houston ed by Winfield Scott landed near of slavery a real likelihood.opposed it. In 1837, for example, a destroyed the Mexican Army and Veracruz on Mexico’s east coast, and Many Northerners believed thatmob attacked and killed the anti- captured Santa Anna a month later fought its way to Mexico City. The if not allowed to spread, slaveryslavery editor Elijah P. Lovejoy in at the Battle of San Jacinto, ensuring United States dictated the Treaty would ultimately decline and die.Alton, Illinois. Still, Southern re- Texan independence. of Guadalupe Hidalgo in which To justify their opposition to addingpression of free speech allowed the For almost a decade, Texas re- Mexico ceded what would become new slave states, they pointed to theabolitionists to link the slavery is- mained an independent republic, the American Southwest region and statements of Washington and Jef-sue with the cause of civil liberties largely because its annexation as a California for $15 million. ferson, and to the Ordinance of 1787,for whites. In 1835 an angry mob huge new slave state would disrupt The war was a training ground which forbade the extension of slav-destroyed abolitionist literature in the increasingly precarious balance for American officers who would ery into the Northwest. Texas, whichthe Charleston, South Carolina, post of political power in the United later fight on both sides in the Civil already permitted slavery, naturallyoffice. When the postmaster-general States. In 1845, President James K. War. It was also politically divisive. entered the Union as a slave state.stated he would not enforce delivery Polk, narrowly elected on a platform Polk, in a simultaneous facedown But the California, New Mexico,of abolitionist material, bitter de- of westward expansion, brought the with Great Britain, had achieved and Utah territories did not havebates ensued in Congress. Abolition- Republic of Texas into the Union. British recognition of American slavery. From the beginning, thereists flooded Congress with petitions Polk’s move was the first gambit in sovereignty in the Pacific Northwest were strongly conflicting opinionscalling for action against slavery. In a larger design. Texas claimed that to the 49th parallel. Still, antislavery on whether they should. 134 135
  • 69. CHAPTER 6: SECTIONAL CONFLICT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY Southerners urged that all the ments, advanced a complicated and It ate away at the country’s two great state would then have three free-soillands acquired from Mexico should carefully balanced plan. His old political parties, the Whigs and the neighbors (Illinois, Iowa, and Kan-be thrown open to slave holders. Massachusetts rival, Daniel Webster, Democrats, destroying the first and sas) and might be forced to becomeAntislavery Northerners demanded supported it. Illinois Democratic irrevocably dividing the second. It a free state as well. Their congressio-that all the new regions be closed Senator Stephen A. Douglas, the produced weak presidents whose nal delegation, backed by Southern-to slavery. One group of moder- leading advocate of popular sov- irresolution mirrored that of their ers, blocked all efforts to organizeates suggested that the Missouri ereignty, did much of the work in parties. It eventually discredited the region.Compromise line be extended to guiding it through Congress. even the Supreme Court. At this point, Stephen A. Doug-the Pacific with free states north of The Compromise of 1850 con- The moral fervor of abolition- las enraged all free-soil and slave states to the south. An- tained the following provisions: (1) ist feeling grew steadily. In 1852, Douglas argued that the Compro-other group proposed that the ques- California was admitted to the Union Harriet Beecher Stowe published mise of 1850, having left Utah andtion be left to “popular sovereignty.” as a free state; (2) the remainder of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a novel pro- New Mexico free to resolve the slav-The government should permit set- the Mexican cession was divided into voked by the passage of the Fugitive ery issue for themselves, supersededtlers to enter the new territory with the two territories of New Mexico and Slave Law. More than 300,000 cop- the Missouri Compromise. His planor without slaves as they pleased. Utah and organized without mention ies were sold the first year. Presses called for two territories, KansasWhen the time came to organize the of slavery; (3) the claim of Texas to a ran day and night to keep up with and Nebraska. It permitted settlersregion into states, the people them- portion of New Mexico was satisfied the demand. Although sentimental to carry slaves into them and even-selves could decide. by a payment of $10 million; (4) new and full of stereotypes, Uncle Tom’s tually to determine whether they Despite the vitality of the aboli- legislation (the Fugitive Slave Act) Cabin portrayed with undeniable should enter the Union as free ortionist movement, most Northerners was passed to apprehend runaway force the cruelty of slavery and pos- slave states.were unwilling to challenge the exis- slaves and return them to their mas- ited a fundamental conflict between Douglas’s opponents accused himtence of slavery in the South. Many, ters; and (5) the buying and selling of free and slave societies. It inspired of currying favor with the South inhowever, were against its expansion. slaves (but not slavery) was abolished widespread enthusiasm for the an- order to gain the presidency in 1856.In 1848 nearly 300,000 men voted in the District of Columbia. tislavery cause, appealing as it did The free-soil movement, which hadfor the candidates of a new Free Soil The country breathed a sigh of to basic human emotions — in- seemed to be in decline, reemergedParty, which declared that the best relief. For the next three years, the dignation at injustice and pity for with greater momentum than ever.policy was “to limit, localize, and compromise seemed to settle nearly the helpless individuals exposed to Yet in May 1854, Douglas’s plan indiscourage slavery.” In the immedi- all differences. The new Fugitive ruthless exploitation. the form of the Kansas-Nebraskaate aftermath of the war with Mex- Slave Law, however, was an imme- In 1854 the issue of slavery in Act passed Congress to be signed byico, however, popular sovereignty diate source of tension. It deeply the territories was renewed and the President Franklin Pierce. Southernhad considerable appeal. offended many Northerners, who quarrel became more bitter. The re- enthusiasts celebrated with cannon In January 1848 the discovery refused to have any part in catching gion that now comprises Kansas and fire. But when Douglas subsequentlyof gold in California precipitated slaves. Some actively and violently Nebraska was being rapidly settled, visited Chicago to speak in his owna headlong rush of settlers, more obstructed its enforcement. The Un- increasing pressure for the establish- defense, the ships in the harbor low-than 80,000 in the single year of derground Railroad became more ment of territorial, and eventually, ered their flags to half-mast, the1849. Congress had to determine the efficient and daring than ever. state governments. church bells tolled for an hour, and astatus of this new region quickly in Under terms of the Missouri crowd of 10,000 hooted so loudly thatorder to establish an organized gov- A DIVIDED NATION Compromise of 1820, the entire he could not make himself heard.ernment. The venerable Kentucky D region was closed to slavery. Domi- The immediate results of Douglas’sSenator Henry Clay, who twice uring the 1850s, the issue of slav- nant slave-holding elements in ill-starred measure were momen-before in times of crisis had come ery severed the political bonds that Missouri objected to letting Kansas tous. The Whig Party, which hadforward with compromise arrange- had held the United States together. become a free territory, for their straddled the question of slavery ex- 136 137
  • 70. CHAPTER 6: SECTIONAL CONFLICT OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYpansion, sank to its death, and in its gress could not restrict the expan- be dissolved — I do not expect the were coming to accept his view thatstead a powerful new organization sion of slavery. This last assertion house to fall — but I do expect it he had been an instrument in thearose, the Republican Party, whose invalidated former compromises on will cease to be divided. hand of God.primary demand was that slavery slavery and made new ones impos- Lincoln and Douglas engagedbe excluded from all the territories. sible to craft. in a series of seven debates in the THE 1860 ELECTION In 1860 Abraham Lincoln PartyIn 1856, it nominated John Fremont, The Dred Scott decision stirred ensuing months of 1858. Senatorwhose expeditions into the Far West fierce resentment throughout the Douglas, known as the “Little Gi- the Republicanhad won him renown. Fremont lost North. Never before had the Court ant,” had an enviable reputation as nominated as itsthe election, but the new party swept been so bitterly condemned. For an orator, but he met his match in candidate for president. The Repub-a great part of the North. Such free- Southern Democrats, the decision Lincoln, who eloquently challenged lican platform declared that slaverysoil leaders as Salmon P. Chase and was a great victory, since it gave ju- Douglas’s concept of popular sov- could spread no farther, promised aWilliam Seward exerted greater in- dicial sanction to their justification ereignty. In the end, Douglas won tariff for the protection of industry,fluence than ever. Along with them of slavery throughout the territories. the election by a small margin, but and pledged the enactment of a lawappeared a tall, lanky Illinois attor- Lincoln had achieved stature as a granting free homesteads to settlersney, Abraham Lincoln. LINCOLN, DOUGLAS, AND national figure. who would help in the opening of Meanwhile, the flow of both BROWN By then events were spinning out the West. Southern Democrats, un- Abraham Lincolnevil. Aslong re-Southern slave holders and antislav- of control. On the night of October willing in the wake of the Dred Scottery families into Kansas resulted in had 16, 1859, John Brown, an antislavery case to accept Douglas’s populararmed conflict. Soon the territory garded slavery as an early as fanatic who had captured and killed sovereignty, split from the party andwas being called “bleeding Kansas.” 1854 in a widely publicized speech, five proslavery settlers in Kansas nominated Vice President John C.The Supreme Court made things he declared that all national leg- three years before, led a band of fol- Breckenridge of Kentucky for presi-worse with its infamous 1857 Dred islation should be framed on the lowers in an attack on the federal dent. Stephen A. Douglas was theScott decision. principle that slavery was to be re- arsenal at Harper’s Ferry (in what nominee of northern Democrats. Scott was a Missouri slave who, stricted and eventually abolished. is now West Virginia). Brown’s goal Diehard Whigs from the bordersome 20 years earlier, had been He contended also that the principle was to use the weapons seized to states, formed into the Constitu-taken by his master to live in Illinois of popular sovereignty was false, for lead a slave uprising. After two days tional Union Party, nominated Johnand the Wisconsin Territory; in both slavery in the western territories was of fighting, Brown and his surviving C. Bell of Tennessee.places, slavery was banned. Return- the concern not only of the local in- men were taken prisoner by a force Lincoln and Douglas competeding to Missouri and becoming dis- habitants but of the United States as of U.S. Marines commanded by in the North, Breckenridge andcontented with his life there, Scott a whole. Colonel Robert E. Lee. Bell in the South. Lincoln won onlysued for liberation on the ground of In 1858 Lincoln opposed Stephen Brown’s attempt confirmed the 39 percent of the popular vote, buthis residence on free soil. A majority A. Douglas for election to the U.S. worst fears of many Southerners. had a clear majority of 180 electoralof the Supreme Court — dominated Senate from Illinois. In the first Antislavery activists, on the other votes, carrying all 18 free states. Bellby Southerners — decided that Scott paragraph of his opening campaign hand, generally hailed Brown as a won Tennessee, Kentucky, and Vir-lacked standing in court because he speech, on June 17, Lincoln struck martyr to a great cause. Virginia ginia; Breckenridge took the otherwas not a citizen; that the laws of a the keynote of American history for put Brown on trial for conspiracy, slave states except for Missouri,free state (Illinois) had no effect on the seven years to follow: treason, and murder. On December which was won by Douglas. Despitehis status because he was the resi- A house divided against itself 2, 1859, he was hanged. Although his poor showing, Douglas traileddent of a slave state (Missouri); and cannot stand. I believe this most Northerners had initially con- only Lincoln in the popular vote. 9that slave holders had the right to government cannot endure demned him, increasing numberstake their “property” anywhere in permanently half-slave and half-the federal territories. Thus, Con- free. I do not expect the Union to 138 139
  • 71. 7 CHAPTER THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION President Abraham Lincoln (center), at a Union Army encampment in October 1862, following the battle of Antietam.140
  • 72. CHAPTER 7: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY That this nation five presidents. With Virginia went Colonel Robert E. Lee, who declined stripped away any illusions that vic- tory would be quick or easy. It also under God the command of the Union Army out of loyalty to his native state. established a pattern, at least in the Eastern United States, of bloody shall have a Between the enlarged Confed- eracy and the free-soil North lay Southern victories that never trans- lated into a decisive military advan- new birth of freedom. the border slave states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, tage for the Confederacy. In contrast to its military failures which, despite some sympathy with in the East, the Union was able to se- the South, would remain loyal to cure battlefield victories in the West President Abraham Lincoln, November 19, 1863 the Union. and slow strategic success at sea. Each side entered the war with Most of the Navy, at the war’s begin- high hopes for an early victory. In ning, was in Union hands, but it was material resources the North enjoyed scattered and weak. Secretary of the a decided advantage. Twenty-three Navy Gideon Welles took prompt states with a population of 22 mil- measures to strengthen it. Lincoln lion were arrayed against 11 states then proclaimed a blockade of the inhabited by nine million, including Southern coasts. Although the ef- SECESSION AND CIVIL WAR tion of the bonds of union, but the slaves. The industrial superiority of fect of the blockade was negligibleLincoln’s victoryNovemberpresi- South turned a deaf ear. On April the North exceeded even its prepon- at first, by 1863 it almost completely in the 12, Confederate guns opened fire on derance in population, providing it prevented shipments of cotton todential election of 1860 the federal garrison at Fort Sumter with abundant facilities for manu- Europe and blocked the importa-made South Carolina’s secession in the Charleston, South Carolina, facturing arms and ammunition, tion of sorely needed munitions,from the Union December 20 a harbor. A war had begun in which clothing, and other supplies. It had a clothing, and medical supplies toforegone conclusion. The state had more Americans would die than in greatly superior railway network. the South.long been waiting for an event that any other conflict before or since. The South nonetheless had cer- A brilliant Union naval com-would unite the South against the In the seven states that had se- tain advantages. The most impor- mander, David Farragut, conductedantislavery forces. By February 1, ceded, the people responded posi- tant was geography; the South was two remarkable operations. In April1861, five more Southern states had tively to the Confederate action fighting a defensive war on its own 1862, he took a fleet into the mouthseceded. On February 8, the six and the leadership of Confederate territory. It could establish its inde- of the Mississippi River and forcedstates signed a provisional consti- President Jefferson Davis. Both pendence simply by beating off the the surrender of the largest city intution for the Confederate States of sides now tensely awaited the action Northern armies. The South also the South, New Orleans, Louisiana.America. The remaining Southern of the slave states that thus far had had a stronger military tradition, In August 1864, with the cry, “Damnstates as yet remained in the Union, remained loyal. Virginia seceded on and possessed the more experienced the torpedoes! Full speed ahead,” healthough Texas had begun to move April 17; Arkansas, Tennessee, and military leaders. led a force past the fortified entranceon its secession. North Carolina followed quickly. of Mobile Bay, Alabama, captured Less than a month later, March 4, No state left the Union with WESTERN ADVANCE, a Confederate ironclad vessel, and1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn greater reluctance than Virginia. EASTERN STALEMATE sealed off the port. Tin as president of the United States. Her statesmen had a leading part in In the Mississippi Valley, theIn his inaugural address, he declared the winning of the Revolution and he first large battle of the war, at Union forces won an almost unin-the Confederacy “legally void.” His the framing of the Constitution, and Bull Run, Virginia (also known as terrupted series of victories. Theyspeech closed with a plea for restora- she had provided the nation with First Manassas) near Washington, began by breaking a long Confeder- 142 143
  • 73. CHAPTER 7: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYate line in Tennessee, thus making responded tentatively, despite learn- also authorized the recruitment of gave him his chance, Lee struckit possible to occupy almost all the ing that Lee had split his army and African Americans into the Union northward into Pennsylvania at thewestern part of the state. When the was heavily outnumbered. The Army, a move abolitionist leaders beginning of July 1863, almost reach-important Mississippi River port of Union and Confederate Armies met such as Frederick Douglass had been ing the state capital at Harrisburg. AMemphis was taken, Union troops at Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, urging since the beginning of armed strong Union force intercepted himadvanced some 320 kilometers into Maryland, on September 17, 1862, in conflict. Union forces already had at Gettysburg, where, in a titanicthe heart of the Confederacy. With the bloodiest single day of the war: been sheltering escaped slaves as three-day battle — the largest of thethe tenacious General Ulysses S. More than 4,000 died on both sides “contraband of war,” but following Civil War — the Confederates madeGrant in command, they withstood and 18,000 were wounded. Despite the Emancipation Proclamation, the a valiant effort to break the Uniona sudden Confederate counterattack his numerical advantage, however, Union Army recruited and trained lines. They failed, and on July 4 Lee’sat Shiloh, on the bluffs overlooking McClellan failed to break Lee’s lines regiments of African-American army, after crippling losses, retreat-the Tennessee River. Those killed or press the attack, and Lee was able soldiers that fought with distinc- ed behind the Potomac.and wounded at Shiloh numbered to retreat across the Potomac with tion in battles from Virginia to the More than 3,000 Union soldiersmore than 10,000 on each side, a ca- his army intact. As a result, Lincoln Mississippi. About 178,000 African and almost 4,000 Confederates diedsualty rate that Americans had never fired McClellan. Americans served in the U.S. Col- at Gettysburg; wounded and miss-before experienced. But it was only Although Antietam was incon- ored Troops, and 29,500 served in ing totaled more than 20,000 onthe beginning of the carnage. clusive in military terms, its con- the Union Navy. each side. On November 19, 1863, In Virginia, by contrast, Union sequences were nonetheless mo- Lincoln dedicated a new national Despite the political gains repre-troops continued to meet one de- mentous. Great Britain and France, sented by the Emancipation Procla- cemetery there with perhaps thefeat after another in a succession of both on the verge of recognizing mation, however, the North’s mili- most famous address in U.S. history.bloody attempts to capture Rich- the Confederacy, delayed their deci- tary prospects in the East remained He concluded his brief remarks withmond, the Confederate capital. The sion, and the South never received bleak as Lee’s Army of Northern Vir-these words:Confederates enjoyed strong defense the diplomatic recognition and the ginia continued to maul the Union ... we here highly resolve that thesepositions afforded by numerous economic aid from Europe that it Army of the Potomac, first at Fred- dead shall not have died in vain —streams cutting the road between desperately sought. ericksburg, Virginia, in December that this nation, under God, shallWashington and Richmond. Their Antietam also gave Lincoln the 1862 and then at Chancellorsville have a new birth of freedom —two best generals, Robert E. Lee and opening he needed to issue the in May 1863. But Chancellorsville, and that government of the people,Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson, preliminary Emancipation Procla- although one of Lee’s most brilliant by the people, for the people, shallboth far surpassed in ability their mation, which declared that as of military victories, was also one of hisnot perish from the earth.early Union counterparts. In 1862 January 1, 1863, all slaves in states re- most costly. His most valued lieuten- On the Mississippi, Union con-Union commander George McClel- belling against the Union were free. ant, General “Stonewall” Jackson, trol had been blocked at Vicksburg,lan made a slow, excessively cautious In practical terms, the proclamation was mistakenly shot and killed by where the Confederates had stronglyattempt to seize Richmond. But in had little immediate impact; it freed his own men. fortified themselves on bluffs toothe Seven Days’ Battles between June slaves only in the Confederate states, high for naval attack. In early 186325 and July 1, the Union troops were while leaving slavery intact in the GETTYSBURG TO Grant began to move below anddriven steadily backward, both sides border states. Politically, however, it APPOMATTOX around Vicksburg, subjecting it tosuffering terrible losses. After another Confederate vic- meant that in addition to preserving the Union, the abolition of slavery Y a six-week siege. On July 4, he cap- et none of the Confederate vic- tured the town, together with thetory at the Second Battle of Bull was now a declared objective of the tories was decisive. The Union sim- strongest Confederate Army in theRun (or Second Manassas), Lee Union war effort. ply mustered new armies and tried West. The river was now entirely incrossed the Potomac River and in- The final Emancipation Proc- again. Believing that the North’s Union hands. The Confederacy wasvaded Maryland. McClellan again lamation, issued January 1, 1863, crushing defeat at Chancellorsville broken in two, and it became almost 144 145
  • 74. CHAPTER 7: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYimpossible to bring supplies from From the coast, Sherman marched warmth and generosity. In 1864 he Never before that startled AprilTexas and Arkansas. northward; by February 1865, he had been elected for a second term morning did such multitudes of The Northern victories at Vicks- had taken Charleston, South Caro- as president, defeating his Demo- men shed tears for the death ofburg and Gettysburg in July 1863 lina, where the first shots of the cratic opponent, George McClellan, one they had never seen, as if withmarked the turning point of the war, Civil War had been fired. Sherman, the general he had dismissed after him a friendly presence had beenalthough the bloodshed continued more than any other Union general, Antietam. Lincoln’s second inaugu- taken from their lives, leavingunabated for more than a year-and- understood that destroying the will ral address closed with these words: them colder and darker. Nevera-half. and morale of the South was as im- With malice toward none; with was funeral panegyric so eloquent Lincoln brought Grant east and portant as defeating its armies. charity for all; with firmness in as the silent look of sympathymade him commander-in-chief Grant, meanwhile, lay siege to Pe- the right, as God gives us to see which strangers exchanged whenof all Union forces. In May 1864 tersburg, Virginia, for nine months, the right, let us strive on to finish they met that day. Their commonGrant advanced deep into Virginia before Lee, in March 1865, knew that the work we are in; to bind up the manhood had lost a kinsman.and met Lee’s Confederate Army he had to abandon both Petersburg nation’s wounds; to care for him The first great task confrontingin the three-day Battle of the Wil- and the Confederate capital of Rich- who shall have borne the battle, the victorious North — now underderness. Losses on both sides were mond in an attempt to retreat south. and for his widow, and his orphan the leadership of Lincoln’s vice presi-heavy, but unlike other Union com- But it was too late. On April 9, 1865, — to do all which may achieve dent, Andrew Johnson, a Southernermanders, Grant refused to retreat. surrounded by huge Union armies, and cherish a just, and a lasting who remained loyal to the UnionInstead, he attempted to outflank Lee surrendered to Grant at Appo- peace, among ourselves, and with — was to determine the status ofLee, stretching the Confederate lines mattox Courthouse. Although scat- all nations. the states that had seceded. Lincolnand pounding away with artillery tered fighting continued elsewhere Three weeks later, two days after had already set the stage. In his view,and infantry attacks. “I propose to for several months, the Civil War Lee’s surrender, Lincoln delivered the people of the Southern statesfight it out along this line if it takes was over. his last public address, in which he had never legally seceded; they hadall summer,” the Union commander The terms of surrender at Ap- unfolded a generous reconstruc- been misled by some disloyal citi-said at Spotsylvania, during five days pomattox were magnanimous, and tion policy. On April 14, 1865, the zens into a defiance of federal au-of bloody trench warfare that char- on his return from his meeting with president held what was to be his thority. And since the war was theacterized fighting on the eastern Lee, Grant quieted the noisy demon- last Cabinet meeting. That evening act of individuals, the federal gov-front for almost a year. strations of his soldiers by reminding — with his wife and a young couple ernment would have to deal with In the West, Union forces gained them: “The rebels are our country- who were his guests — he attended these individuals and not withcontrol of Tennessee in the fall of men again.” The war for Southern a performance at Ford’s Theater. the states. Thus, in 1863 Lincoln1863 with victories at Chattanooga independence had become the “lost There, as he sat in the presidential proclaimed that if in any state 10and nearby Lookout Mountain, cause,” whose hero, Robert E. Lee, box, he was assassinated by John percent of the voters of record inopening the way for General Wil- had won wide admiration through Wilkes Booth, a Virginia actor em- 1860 would form a government loyalliam T. Sherman to invade Georgia. the brilliance of his leadership and bittered by the South’s defeat. Booth to the U.S. Constitution and wouldSherman outmaneuvered several his greatness in defeat. was killed in a shootout some days acknowledge obedience to the lawssmaller Confederate armies, oc- later in a barn in the Virginia coun- of the Congress and the proclama-cupied the state capital of Atlanta, WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE tryside. His accomplices were cap- tions of the president, he would rec-then marched to the Atlantic coast,systematically destroying railroads, F or the North, the war produced tured and later executed. Lincoln died in a downstairs ognize the government so created as the state’s legal government.factories, warehouses, and other a still greater hero in Abraham Lin- bedroom of a house across the street Congress rejected this plan. Manyfacilities in his path. His men, cut coln — a man eager, above all else, from Ford’s Theater on the morning Republicans feared it would simplyoff from their normal supply lines, to weld the Union together again, of April 15. Poet James Russell Low- entrench former rebels in power;ravaged the countryside for food. not by force and repression but by ell wrote: they challenged Lincoln’s right to 146 147
  • 75. CHAPTER 7: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYdeal with the rebel states without and ratify the 13th Amendment. This repudiated the Dred Scott rul- that established civil governments,consultation. Some members of By the end of 1865, this process was ing, which had denied slaves their ratified the 14th Amendment, andCongress advocated severe punish- completed, with a few exceptions. right of citizenship. adopted African-American suffrage.ment for all the seceded states; oth- All the Southern state legislatures, Supporters of the Confederacy whoers simply felt the war would have RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION with the exception of Tennessee, had not taken oaths of loyalty to the Both Lincoln and Johnsonwouldbeen in vain if the old Southern es- refused to ratify the amendment, United States generally could nottablishment was restored to power. had some voting against it unanimously. vote. The 14th Amendment was rati-Yet even before the war was wholly foreseen that the Congress In addition, Southern state legisla- fied in 1868. The 15th Amendment,over, new governments had been set have the right to deny Southern tures passed “codes” to regulate the passed by Congress the followingup in Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, legislators seats in the U.S. Senate or African-American freedmen. The year and ratified in 1870 by state leg-and Louisiana. House of Representatives, under the codes differed from state to state, islatures, provided that “The right of To deal with one of its major clause of the Constitution that says, but some provisions were common. citizens of the United States to voteconcerns — the condition of for- “Each house shall be the judge of the African Americans were required to shall not be denied or abridged bymer slaves — Congress established ... qualifications of its own mem- enter into annual labor contracts, the United States or any state on ac-the Freedmen’s Bureau in March bers.” This came to pass when, under with penalties imposed in case of count of race, color, or previous con-1865 to act as guardian over African the leadership of Thaddeus Stevens, violation; dependent children were dition of servitude.”Americans and guide them toward those congressmen called “Radical subject to compulsory apprentice- The Radical Republicans inself-support. And in December of Republicans,” who were wary of a ship and corporal punishments by Congress were infuriated by Presi-that year, Congress ratified the 13th quick and easy “reconstruction,” re- masters; vagrants could be sold into dent Johnson’s vetoes (even thoughAmendment to the U.S. Constitu- fused to seat newly elected Southern private service if they could not pay they were overridden) of legisla-tion, which abolished slavery. senators and representatives. Within severe fines. tion protecting newly freed African Throughout the summer of 1865 the next few months, Congress pro- Many Northerners interpreted Americans and punishing formerJohnson proceeded to carry out Lin- ceeded to work out a plan for the the Southern response as an attempt Confederate leaders by deprivingcoln’s reconstruction program, with reconstruction of the South quite to reestablish slavery and repudi- them of the right to hold office.minor modifications. By presidential different from the one Lincoln had ate the hard-won Union victory in Congressional antipathy to Johnsonproclamation he appointed a gover- started and Johnson had continued. the Civil War. It did not help that was so great that, for the first timenor for each of the former Confeder- Wide public support gradu- Johnson, although a Unionist, was in American history, impeachmentate states and freely restored political ally developed for those members of a Southern Democrat with an ad- proceedings were instituted to re-rights to many Southerners through Congress who believed that African diction to intemperate rhetoric and move the president from office.use of presidential pardons. Americans should be given full citi- an aversion to political compromise. Johnson’s main offense was his In due time conventions were zenship. By July 1866, Congress had Republicans swept the congressional opposition to punitive congressionalheld in each of the former Confed- passed a civil rights bill and set up elections of 1866. Firmly in power, policies and the violent language heerate states to repeal the ordinances a new Freedmen’s Bureau — both the Radicals imposed their own vi- used in criticizing them. The mostof secession, repudiate the war debt, designed to prevent racial discrimi- sion of Reconstruction. serious legal charge his enemiesand draft new state constitutions. nation by Southern legislatures. In the Reconstruction Act of could level against him was that,Eventually a native Unionist became Following this, the Congress passed March 1867, Congress, ignoring the despite the Tenure of Office Actgovernor in each state with authority a 14th Amendment to the Constitu- governments that had been estab- (which required Senate approval forto convoke a convention of loyal vot- tion, stating that “all persons born or lished in the Southern states, divided the removal of any officeholder theers. Johnson called upon each con- naturalized in the United States, and the South into five military districts, Senate had previously confirmed),vention to invalidate the secession, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, each administered by a Union gener- he had removed from his Cabinetabolish slavery, repudiate all debts are citizens of the United States and al. Escape from permanent military the secretary of war, a staunch sup-that went to aid the Confederacy, of the State wherein they reside.” government was open to those states porter of the Congress. When the 148 149
  • 76. CHAPTER 7: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYimpeachment trial was held in the Klan became more and more fre- Hayes kept his promise, tacitly aban- ly failed to address their economicSenate, it was proved that Johnson quent. Increasing disorder led to the doning federal responsibility for en- needs. The Freedmen’s Bureau waswas technically within his rights in passage of Enforcement Acts in 1870 forcing blacks’ civil rights. unable to provide former slavesremoving the Cabinet member. Even and 1871, severely punishing those The South was still a region dev- with political and economic op-more important, it was pointed out who attempted to deprive the Af- astated by war, burdened by debt portunity. Union military occupiersthat a dangerous precedent would be rican-American freedmen of their caused by misgovernment, and de- often could not even protect themset if the Congress were to remove a civil rights. moralized by a decade of racial war- from violence and intimidation.president because he disagreed with fare. Unfortunately, the pendulum Indeed, federal army officers andthe majority of its members. The THE END OF of national racial policy swung from agents of the Freedmen’s Bureaufinal vote was one short of the two- RECONSTRUCTION one extreme to the other. A fed- were often racists themselves. With- Asmore obvious thatbecame morethirds required for conviction. eral government that had supported out economic resources of their own, Johnson continued in office until time passed, it harsh penalties against Southern many Southern African Americanshis term expired in 1869, but Con- and the problems white leaders now tolerated new and were forced to become tenant farm-gress had established an ascendancy of the South were not being solved humiliating kinds of discrimination ers on land owned by their formerthat would endure for the rest of the by harsh laws and continuing rancor against African Americans. The last masters, caught in a cycle of povertycentury. The Republican victor in against former Confederates. More- quarter of the 19th century saw a that would continue well into thethe presidential election of 1868, for- over, some Southern Radical state profusion of “Jim Crow” laws in 20th century.mer Union general Ulysses S. Grant, governments with prominent Af- Southern states that segregated pub- Reconstruction-era governmentswould enforce the reconstruction rican-American officials appeared lic schools, forbade or limited Afri- did make genuine gains in rebuild-policies the Radicals had initiated. corrupt and inefficient. The nation can-American access to many public ing Southern states devastated by By June 1868, Congress had re- was quickly tiring of the attempt to facilities such as parks, restaurants, the war, and in expanding publicadmitted the majority of the for- impose racial democracy and liberal and hotels, and denied most blacks services, notably in establishingmer Confederate states back into values on the South with Union bay- the right to vote by imposing poll tax-supported, free public schoolsthe Union. In many of these re- onets. In May 1872, Congress passed taxes and arbitrary literacy tests. for African Americans and whites.constructed states, the majority of a general Amnesty Act, restoring full “Jim Crow” is a term derived from However, recalcitrant Southernersthe governors, representatives, and political rights to all but about 500 a song in an 1828 minstrel show seized upon instances of corruptionsenators were Northern men — so- former rebels. where a white man first performed (hardly unique to the South in thiscalled carpetbaggers — who had Gradually Southern states began in “blackface.” era) and exploited them to bringgone South after the war to make electing members of the Democratic Historians have tended to judge down radical regimes. The failuretheir political fortunes, often in Party into office, ousting carpetbag- Reconstruction harshly, as a murky of Reconstruction meant that thealliance with newly freed African ger governments and intimidating period of political conflict, corrup- struggle of African Americans forAmericans. In the legislatures of African Americans from voting or tion, and regression that failed to equality and freedom was deferredLouisiana and South Carolina, Af- attempting to hold public office. achieve its original high-minded until the 20th century — when itrican Americans actually gained a By 1876 the Republicans remained goals and collapsed into a sinkhole would become a national, not just amajority of the seats. in power in only three Southern of virulent racism. Slaves were grant- Southern issue. 9 Many Southern whites, their states. As part of the bargaining that ed freedom, but the North complete-political and social dominance resolved the disputed presidentialthreatened, turned to illegal means elections that year in favor of Ruth-to prevent African Americans from erford B. Hayes, the Republicansgaining equality. Violence against promised to withdraw federal troopsAfrican Americans by such extra- that had propped up the remaininglegal organizations as the Ku Klux Republican governments. In 1877 150 151
  • 77. CHAPTER 7: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY THE CIVIL WAR AND NEW PATTERNS OF AMERICAN POLITICS The Republicans prosecuted the war with little regard for civilThe controversies of the 1850s had destroyed the Whig Party, created the liberties. In September 1862, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and imposed martial law on those who interfered with recruitment or gaveRepublican Party, and divided the Democratic Party along regional lines. aid and comfort to the rebels. This breech of civil law, although constitution-The Civil War demonstrated that the Whigs were gone beyond recall and ally justified during times of crisis, gave the Democrats another opportunitythe Republicans on the scene to stay. It also laid the basis for a reunited to criticize Lincoln. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton enforced martial lawDemocratic Party. vigorously, and many thousands — most of them Southern sympathizers or The Republicans could seamlessly replace the Whigs throughout the Democrats — were arrested.North and West because they were far more than a free-soil/antislavery force. Despite the Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg in 1863,Most of their leaders had started as Whigs and continued the Whig interest Democratic “peace” candidates continued to play on the nation’s misfortunesin federally assisted national development. The need to manage a war did not and racial sensitivities. Indeed, the mood of the North was such that Lincolndeter them from also enacting a protective tariff (1861) to foster American was convinced he would lose his re-election bid in November 1864. Largelymanufacturing, the Homestead Act (1862) to encourage Western settlement, for that reason, the Republican Party renamed itself the Union Party andthe Morrill Act (1862) to establish “land grant” agricultural and techni- drafted the Tennessee Democrat Andrew Johnson to be Lincoln’s runningcal colleges, and a series of Pacific Railway Acts (1862-64) to underwrite a mate. Sherman’s victories in the South sealed the election for them.transcontinental railway line. These measures rallied support throughout the Lincoln’s assassination, the rise of Radical Republicanism, and Johnson’sUnion from groups to whom slavery was a secondary issue and ensured the blundering leadership all played into a postwar pattern of politics in whichparty’s continuance as the latest manifestation of a political creed that had the Republican Party suffered from overreaching in its efforts to remake thebeen advanced by Alexander Hamilton and Henry Clay. South, while the Democrats, through their criticism of Reconstruction, allied The war also laid the basis for Democratic reunification because themselves with the neo-Confederate Southern white majority. U.S. Grant’sNorthern opposition to it centered in the Democratic Party. As might be status as a national hero carried the Republicans through two presidentialexpected from the party of “popular sovereignty,” some Democrats believed elections, but as the South emerged from Reconstruction, it became apparentthat full-scale war to reinstate the Union was unjustified. This group came to that the country was nearly evenly divided between the two known as the Peace Democrats. Their more extreme elements were called The Republicans would be dominant in the industrial Northeast until“Copperheads.” the 1930s and strong in most of the rest of the country outside the South. Moreover, few Democrats, whether of the “war” or “peace” faction, However, their appeal as the party of strong government and national develop-believed the emancipation of the slaves was worth Northern blood. Opposition ment increasingly would be perceived as one of allegiance to big businessto emancipation had long been party policy. In 1862, for example, virtually and finance.every Democrat in Congress voted against eliminating slavery in the District When President Hayes ended Reconstruction, he hoped it would be pos-of Columbia and prohibiting it in the territories. sible to build the Republican Party in the South, using the old Whigs as a Much of this opposition came from the working poor, particularly Irish base and the appeal of regional development as a primary issue. By then, how-and German Catholic immigrants, who feared a massive migration of newly ever, Republicanism as the South’s white majority perceived it wasfreed African Americans to the North. They also resented the establish- identified with a hated African-American supremacy. For the next three-ment of a military draft (March 1863) that disproportionately affected them. quarters of a century, the South would be solidly Democratic. For much ofRace riots erupted in several Northern cities. The worst of these occurred in that time, the national Democratic Party would pay solemn deference to states’New York, July 13-16, 1863, precipitated by Democratic Governor Horatio rights while ignoring civil rights. The group that would suffer the most as aSeymour’s condemnation of military conscription. Federal troops, who just legacy of Reconstruction was the African Americans. days earlier had been engaged at Gettysburg, were sent to restore order. 152 153
  • 78. 8 CHAPTER GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION Building the transcontinental railroad, 1868.154
  • 79. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “Upon the ness was speeded by the invention of the typewriter in 1867, the adding in a telegraph office, then to one on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Before sacredness of property, machine in 1888, and the cash regis- ter in 1897. The linotype composing he was 30 years old he had made shrewd and farsighted investments, machine, invented in 1886, and rota- which by 1865 were concentrated civilization ry press and paper-folding machin- in iron. Within a few years, he had ery made it possible to print 240,000 organized or had stock in compa- itself depends.” eight-page newspapers in an hour. Thomas Edison’s incandescent lamp nies making iron bridges, rails, and locomotives. Ten years later, he built eventually lit millions of homes. The the nation’s largest steel mill on the Industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, 1889 talking machine, or phonograph, Monongahela River in Pennsylvania. was perfected by Edison, who, in He acquired control not only of new conjunction with George Eastman, mills, but also of coke and coal prop- also helped develop the motion erties, iron ore from Lake Superior, a picture. These and many other ap- fleet of steamers on the Great Lakes, plications of science and ingenuity a port town on Lake Erie, and a con- resulted in a new level of productiv- necting railroad. His business, alliedBetween two great wars — the Civil tory of the country; it dramatized in ity in almost every field. with a dozen others, commandedWar and the First World War — the a stroke the changes that had begun Concurrently, the nation’s basic favorable terms from railroads andUnited States of America came of to take place during the preceding 20 industry — iron and steel — forged shipping lines. Nothing comparable or 30 years. ...” War needs had enor-age. In a period of less than 50 years ahead, protected by a high tariff. The in industrial growth had ever beenit was transformed from a rural re- mously stimulated manufacturing, iron industry moved westward as ge- seen in America before.public to an urban nation. The fron-speeding an economic process based ologists discovered new ore deposits, Though Carnegie long dominat-tier vanished. Great factories and on the exploitation of iron, steam, notably the great Mesabi range at ed the industry, he never achieved and electric power, as well as thesteel mills, transcontinental railroad the head of Lake Superior, which a complete monopoly over the natu-lines, flourishing cities, and vast forward march of science and inven- became one of the largest produc- ral resources, transportation, andagricultural holdings marked the tion. In the years before 1860, 36,000 ers in the world. Easy and cheap to industrial plants involved in theland. With this economic growth patents were granted; in the next 30 mine, remarkably free of chemical making of steel. In the 1890s, newand affluence came corresponding years, 440,000 patents were issued, impurities, Mesabi ore could be pro- companies challenged his preemi-problems. Nationwide, a few busi- and in the first quarter of the 20th cessed into steel of superior quality nence. He would be persuaded tonesses came to dominate whole century, the number reached nearly at about one-tenth the previously merge his holdings into a new cor-industries, either independently or a million. prevailing cost. poration that would embrace mostin combination with others. Work- As early as 1844, Samuel F. B. of the important iron and steeling conditions were often poor. Morse had perfected electrical teleg- CARNEGIE AND THE properties in the nation.Cities grew so quickly they could raphy; soon afterward distant parts ERA OF STEEL Andrew for the great advances The United States ANDCorpora-not properly house or govern their of the continent were linked by a CORPORATIONS CITIESgrowing populations. network of poles and wires. In 1876 Carnegie was largely Alexander Graham Bell exhibited a responsible Steel TECHNOLOGY AND CHANGE telephone instrument; within half a in steel production. Carnegie, who tion, which resulted from this merg- T“ century, 16 million telephones would came to America from Scotland as er in 1901, illustrated a process under he Civil War,” says one writer, quicken the social and economic life a child of 12, progressed from bob- way for 30 years: the combination of“cut a wide gash through the his- of the nation. The growth of busi- bin boy in a cotton factory to a job independent industrial enterprises 156 157
  • 80. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYinto federated or centralized com- cottonseed oil, lead, sugar, tobacco, into towns and towns into cities al- meters from Chicago. Moreover, topanies. Started during the Civil War, and rubber. Soon aggressive indi- most overnight. In 1830 only one of avoid competition rival companiesthe trend gathered momentum after vidual businessmen began to mark every 15 Americans lived in commu- sometimes divided (“pooled”) thethe 1870s, as businessmen began to out industrial domains for them- nities of 8,000 or more; in 1860 the freight business according to a pre-fear that overproduction would lead selves. Four great meat packers, chief ratio was nearly one in every six; and arranged scheme that placed the to-to declining prices and falling prof- among them Philip Armour and in 1890 three in every 10. No single tal earnings in a common fund forits. They realized that if they could Gustavus Swift, established a beef city had as many as a million in- distribution.control both production and mar- trust. Cyrus McCormick achieved habitants in 1860; but 30 years later Popular resentment at these prac-kets, they could bring competing preeminence in the reaper business. New York had a million and a half; tices stimulated state efforts at regu-firms into a single organization. The A 1904 survey showed that more Chicago, Illinois, and Philadelphia, lation, but the problem was national“corporation” and the “trust” were than 5,000 previously independent Pennsylvania, each had over a mil- in character. Shippers demandeddeveloped to achieve these ends. concerns had been consolidated into lion. In these three decades, Phila- congressional action. In 1887 Presi- Corporations, making available a some 300 industrial trusts. delphia and Baltimore, Maryland, dent Grover Cleveland signed thedeep reservoir of capital and giving The trend toward amalgamation doubled in population; Kansas City, Interstate Commerce Act, whichbusiness enterprises permanent life extended to other fields, particularly Missouri, and Detroit, Michigan, forbade excessive charges, pools,and continuity of control, attracted transportation and communica- grew fourfold; Cleveland, Ohio, six- rebates, and rate discrimination.investors both by their anticipated tions. Western Union, dominant in fold; Chicago, tenfold. Minneapolis, It created an Interstate Commerceprofits and by their limited liability telegraphy, was followed by the Bell Minnesota, and Omaha, Nebraska, Commission (ICC) to oversee thein case of business failure. The trusts Telephone System and eventually by and many communities like them act, but gave it little enforcementwere in effect combinations of cor- the American Telephone and Tele- — hamlets when the Civil War be- power. In the first decades of its ex-porations whereby the stockholders graph Company. In the 1860s, Cor- gan — increased 50 times or more istence, virtually all the ICC’s effortsof each placed stocks in the hands of nelius Vanderbilt had consolidated in population. at regulation and rate reductionstrustees. (The “trust” as a method of 13 separate railroads into a single failed to pass judicial review.corporate consolidation soon gave 800-kilometer line connecting New RAILROADS, REGULATIONS, President Cleveland also op-way to the holding company, but the York City and Buffalo. During the AND THE TARIFF posed the protective tariff on foreign Rterm stuck.) Trusts made possible next decade he acquired lines to Chi- goods, which had come to be accept-large-scale combinations, central- cago, Illinois, and Detroit, Michigan, ailroads were especially impor- ed as permanent national policy un-ized control and administration, establishing the New York Central tant to the expanding nation, and der the Republican presidents whoand the pooling of patents. Their Railroad. Soon the major railroads their practices were often criticized. dominated the politics of the era.larger capital resources provided of the nation were organized into Rail lines extended cheaper freight Cleveland, a conservative Democrat,power to expand, to compete with trunk lines and systems directed by rates to large shippers by rebating a regarded tariff protection as an un-foreign business organizations, and a handful of men. portion of the charge, thus disadvan- warranted subsidy to big business,to drive hard bargains with labor, In this new industrial order, the taging small shippers. Freight rates giving the trusts pricing power towhich was beginning to organize city was the nerve center, bringing also frequently were not proportion- the disadvantage of ordinary Ameri-effectively. They could also exact to a focus all the nation’s dynamic ate to distance traveled; competition cans. Reflecting the interests of theirfavorable terms from railroads and economic forces: vast accumulations usually held down charges between Southern base, the Democrats hadexercise influence in politics. of capital, business, and financial in- cities with several rail connections. reverted to their pre-Civil War op- The Standard Oil Company, stitutions, spreading railroad yards, Rates tended to be high between position to protection and advocacyfounded by John D. Rockefeller, smoky factories, armies of manual points served by only one line. Thus of a “tariff for revenue only.”was one of the earliest and stron- and clerical workers. Villages, at- it cost less to ship goods 1,280 kilo- Cleveland, narrowly elected ingest corporations, and was followed tracting people from the countryside meters from Chicago to New York 1884, was unsuccessful in achievingrapidly by other combinations — in and from lands across the sea, grew than to places a few hundred kilo- tariff reform during his first term. 158 159
  • 81. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION The silhouette of one of the United States’ most revered Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson, stands in the shrine dedicated to his memory.He made the issue the keynote of his sistence to commercial agriculture. “I have sworn upon the altar of God, eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.”campaign for reelection, but Repub- Between 1860 and 1910, the numberlican candidate Benjamin Harrison, of farms in the United States tripled,a defender of protectionism, won in increasing from two million to sixa close race. In 1890, the Harrison million, while the area farmed moreadministration, fulfilling its cam- than doubled from 160 million topaign promises, achieved passage of 352 million hectares.the McKinley tariff, which increased Between 1860 and 1890, the pro-the already high rates. Blamed for duction of such basic commoditieshigh retail prices, the McKinley du- as wheat, corn, and cotton out-ties triggered widespread dissatisfac- stripped all previous figures in thetion, led to Republican losses in the United States. In the same period,1890 elections, and paved the way for the nation’s population more thanCleveland’s return to the presidency doubled, with the largest growth inin the 1892 election. the cities. But the American farmer During this period, public an- grew enough grain and cotton,tipathy toward the trusts increased. raised enough beef and pork, andThe nation’s gigantic corporations clipped enough wool not only towere subjected to bitter attack supply American workers and theirthrough the 1880s by reformers such families but also to create ever-in-as Henry George and Edward Bel- creasing surpluses.lamy. The Sherman Antitrust Act, Several factors accounted for thispassed in 1890, forbade all combina- extraordinary achievement. Onetions in restraint of interstate trade was the expansion into the West.and provided several methods of Another was a technological revo-enforcement with severe penalties. lution. The farmer of 1800, using aCouched in vague generalities, the hand sickle, could hope to cut a fifthlaw accomplished little immediately of a hectare of wheat a day. With theafter its passage. But a decade later, cradle, 30 years later, he might cutPresident Theodore Roosevelt would four-fifths. In 1840 Cyrus McCor-use it vigorously. mick performed a miracle by cutting M O N U M E NTS AN D MEMORIALS from two to two-and-a-half hect- REVOLUTION IN ares a day with the reaper, a machine AGRICULTURE he had been developing for nearly 10Despite theremained the industry, great gains in years. He headed west to the young prairie town of Chicago, where he A PICTURE PROFILEagriculture nation’s set up a factory — and by 1860 soldbasic occupation. The revolution a quarter of a million reapers. The monuments of American history span a continent in distance andin agriculture — paralleling that in Other farm machines were de- centuries in time. They range from a massive serpent-shaped moundmanufacturing after the Civil War veloped in rapid succession: the created by a long-gone Native-American culture to memorials in— involved a shift from hand labor automatic wire binder, the threshing contemporary Washington, D.C., and New York machine farming, and from sub- (Continued on page 177.) 160 161
  • 82. The snow-covered Old Granary cemetery in Boston, Massachusetts, is burial ground for,among other leading American patriots, victims of the Boston Massacre, three signers ofthe Declaration of Independence, and six governors of Massachusetts. Originally foundedby religious dissidents from England known as Puritans, Massachusetts was a leader in thestruggle for independence against England. It was the setting for the Boston Tea Party andthe first battles of the American Revolution — in Lexington and Concord. 163
  • 83. The historic room in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, where delegates draftedthe Constitution of the United States in the summer of 1787. The Constitution isthe supreme law of the land. It prescribes the form and authority of the federalgovernment, and ensures the fundamental freedoms and rights of the citizens of thecountry through the Bill of Rights. 165
  • 84. The Statue of Liberty, one of the United States’ most beloved monuments, stands 151 feet high at the entrance to New York harbor. A gift of friendship from the people Statues guard the majestic façade of the U.S. Supreme Court, the highest court of France to the United States, it was intended to be an impressive symbol of humanin the land. The words engraved on the lintel over the Greek pillars embody one liberty. It was certainly that for the millions of immigrants who came to the United of America’s founding principles: “Equal Justice Under Law.” States in the 19th and early 20th century, seeking freedom and a better life. 166 167
  • 85. Aerial view of the Great Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio. Carbontests of the effigy revealed that the creators of this 1,330-foot monument weremembers of the Native-American Fort Ancient Culture (A.D. 1000-1550). The Liberty Bell, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, an enduring symbol of American freedom. First rung on July 8, 1776, to celebrate the Two monuments to the central role Spain played in the exploration of what is now adoption of the Declaration the United States. Top, the Castillo de San Marcos, built 1672-1695 to guard St. of Independence, it cracked Augustine, Florida, the first permanent European settlement in the continental in 1836, during the funeral of United States. Above, fountain and mission remains of the San Juan Capistrano John Marshall, Chief Justice Mission, California, one of nine missions founded by Spanish Franciscan of the U.S. Supreme Court. missionaries led by Fray Junípero Serra in the 1770s. Serra led the Spanish colonization of what is today the state of California. 168
  • 86. The faces of four of the most admired American presidents were carved by Gutzon Borglum into the southeast face of Mount Rushmore in South Dakota, beginning in 1927. From left to right, they are: George Washington, commander of the Revolutionary Army and first president of the young nation; Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence; Theodore Roosevelt, who led the country toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy; and Abraham Lincoln, who led the country through the Civil War and freed the slaves. George Washington’s beloved home, Mount Vernon, by the Potomac River in Virginia, where he died on December 14, 1799, and is buried along with his wife Martha. Among other treasured items owned by the first president on display there, visitors can see one of the keys to the Bastille, a gift to Washington from the Marquis de Lafayette.170 171
  • 87. Six-year-old Mary Zheng straightens a flower placed at the Vietnam VeteransMemorial in Washington, D.C., April 30, 2000. The names of more than 58,000servicemen who died in the war or remain missing are etched on the “wall” part of thememorial, pictured here. This portion of the monument was designed by Maya Lin,then a student at Yale University. 172
  • 88. An autumnal view of Arlington Cemetery, Virginia, America’s largest and best-knownnational burial grounds. More than 260,000 people are buried at Arlington Cemetery,including veterans from all the nation’s wars. Fireworks celebrating the arrival of the Millennium illuminate two major monuments in Washington, D.C., the Lincoln Memorial on the left and the obelisk-shaped Washington Monument, center. The Lincoln Memorial’s north and south side chambers contain carved inscriptions of his Second Inaugural Address A mother and daughter viewing documents in the Exhibition Hall and his Gettysburg Address. The tallest structure in the nation’s capital, of the National Archives. The U.S. Constitution, the Declaration of the Washington Monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885. Independence, and the Bill of Rights are on display in this Washington, D.C., building. 175
  • 89. OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY machine, and the reaper-thresher or produced scores of new fruits and combine. Mechanical planters, cut- vegetables; in Wisconsin, Stephen ters, huskers, and shellers appeared, Babcock devised a test for determin- as did cream separators, manure ing the butterfat content of milk; at spreaders, potato planters, hay dri- Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, the ers, poultry incubators, and a hun- African-American scientist George dred other inventions. Washington Carver found hundreds Scarcely less important than ma- of new uses for the peanut, sweet po- chinery in the agricultural revolu- tato, and soybean. tion was science. In 1862 the Mor- In varying degrees, the explosion rill Land Grant College Act allotted in agricultural science and technol- public land to each state for the es- ogy affected farmers all over the tablishment of agricultural and in- world, raising yields, squeezing out dustrial colleges. These were to serve small producers, and driving migra- both as educational institutions and tion to industrial cities. Railroads as centers for research in scientific and steamships, moreover, began to farming. Congress subsequently pull regional markets into one large appropriated funds for the creation world market with prices instantly of agricultural experiment stations communicated by trans-Atlantic throughout the country and granted cable as well as ground wires. Good funds directly to the Department of news for urban consumers, falling Agriculture for research purposes. agricultural prices threatened the By the beginning of the new centu- livelihood of many American farm- ry, scientists throughout the United ers and touched off a wave of agrar- States were at work on a wide variety ian discontent. of agricultural projects. One of these scientists, Mark THE DIVIDED SOUTH Afterpushed hard to attract indus- Carleton, traveled for the Depart- ment of Agriculture to Russia. There Reconstruction, Southern he found and exported to his home- leaders land the rust- and drought-resistant try. States offered large inducements winter wheat that now accounts and cheap labor to investors to de- for more than half the U.S. wheat velop the steel, lumber, tobacco, and crop. Another scientist, Marion textile industries. Yet in 1900 the Dorset, conquered the dreaded hog region’s percentage of the nation’s cholera, while still another, George industrial base remained about whatTop, the World War II Memorial, opened in 2004, is the most recent addition tothe many national monuments in Washington, D.C. It honors the 16 million who Mohler, helped prevent hoof-and- it had been in 1860. Moreover, theserved in the armed forces of the United States, the more than 400,000 who died, mouth disease. From North Africa, price of this drive for industrializa-and all who supported the war effort from home. Above, the planned design for one researcher brought back Kaf- tion was high: Disease and childthe World Trade Center Memorial in New York City is depicted in this photograph fir corn; from Turkestan, another labor proliferated in Southern millof a model unveiled in late 2004. “Reflecting Absence” will preserve not only thememory of those who died in the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, but the imported the yellow-flowering al- towns. Thirty years after the Civilvisible remnants of the buildings destroyed that morning, too. falfa. Luther Burbank in California War, the South was still poor, over- 176 177
  • 90. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYwhelmingly agrarian, and economi- Faced with pervasive discrimina- Miners had ranged over the whole days. The continental rail networkcally dependent. Moreover, its race tion, many African Americans fol- of the mountain country, tunnel- grew steadily; by 1884 four greatrelations reflected not just the legacy lowed Booker T. Washington, who ing into the earth, establishing little lines linked the central Mississippiof slavery, but what was emerging as counseled them to focus on modest communities in Nevada, Montana, Valley area with the Pacific.the central theme of its history — a economic goals and to accept tem- and Colorado. Cattle ranchers, The first great rush of populationdetermination to enforce white su- porary social discrimination. Oth- taking advantage of the enormous to the Far West was drawn to thepremacy at any cost. ers, led by the African-American grasslands, had laid claim to the mountainous regions, where gold Intransigent white Southerners intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois, wanted huge expanse stretching from Texas was found in California in 1848,found ways to assert state control to challenge segregation through to the upper Missouri River. Sheep in Colorado and Nevada 10 yearsto maintain white dominance. Sev- political action. But with both ma- herders had found their way to the later, in Montana and Wyoming ineral Supreme Court decisions also jor parties uninterested in the issue valleys and mountain slopes. Farm- the 1860s, and in the Black Hills ofbolstered their efforts by upholding and scientific theory of the time ers sank their plows into the plains the Dakota country in the 1870s.traditional Southern views of the ap- generally accepting black inferior- and closed the gap between the East Miners opened up the country, es-propriate balance between national ity, calls for racial justice attracted and West. By 1890 the frontier line tablished communities, and laid theand state power. little support. had disappeared. foundations for more permanent In 1873 the Supreme Court found Settlement was spurred by the settlements. Eventually, however,that the 14th Amendment (citi- THE LAST FRONTIER Homestead Act of 1862, which though a few communities contin- In 1865 the western line generallyzenship rights not to be abridged) granted free farms of 64 hectares ued to be devoted almost exclusivelyconferred no new privileges or im- the frontier to citizens who would occupy and to mining, the real wealth of Mon-munities to protect African Ameri- followed limits of the improve the land. Unfortunately tana, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho,cans from state power. In 1883, states bordering the Mississippi Riv- for the would-be farmers, much of and California proved to be in thefurthermore, it ruled that the 14th er, but bulged outward beyond the the Great Plains was suited more for grass and soil. Cattle-raising, longAmendment did not prevent indi- eastern sections of Texas, Kansas, cattle ranching than farming, and an important industry in Texas,viduals, as opposed to states, from and Nebraska. Then, running north by 1880 nearly 22,400,000 hectares flourished after the Civil War, whenpracticing discrimination. And in and south for nearly 1,600 kilome- of “free” land was in the hands of enterprising men began to drivePlessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Court ters, loomed huge mountain ranges, cattlemen or the railroads. their Texas longhorn cattle northfound that “separate but equal” many rich in silver, gold, and other In 1862 Congress also voted a across the open public land. Feed-public accommodations for Afri- metals. To their west, plains and des- charter to the Union Pacific Rail- ing as they went, the cattle arrivedcan Americans, such as trains and erts stretched to the wooded coastal road, which pushed westward from at railway shipping points in Kan-restaurants, did not violate their ranges and the Pacific Ocean. Apart Council Bluffs, Iowa, using mostly sas, larger and fatter than when theyrights. Soon the principle of segre- from the settled districts in Cali- the labor of ex-soldiers and Irish im- started. The annual cattle drive be-gation by race extended into every fornia and scattered outposts, the migrants. At the same time, the Cen- came a regular event; for hundredsarea of Southern life, from railroads vast inland region was populated tral Pacific Railroad began to build of kilometers, trails were dotted withto restaurants, hotels, hospitals, and by Native Americans: among them eastward from Sacramento, Cali- herds moving northward.schools. Moreover, any area of life the Great Plains tribes — Sioux and fornia, relying heavily on Chinese Next, immense cattle ranchesthat was not segregated by law was Blackfoot, Pawnee and Cheyenne immigrant labor. The whole country appeared in Colorado, Wyoming,segregated by custom and practice. — and the Indian cultures of the was stirred as the two lines steadily Kansas, Nebraska, and the DakotaFurther curtailment of the right to Southwest, including Apache, Na- approached each other, finally meet- territory. Western cities flourishedvote followed. Periodic lynchings vajo, and Hopi. ing on May 10, 1869, at Promontory as centers for the slaughter andby mobs underscored the region’s A mere quarter-century later, Point in Utah. The months of labo- dressing of meat. The cattle boomdetermination to subjugate its Afri- virtually all this country had been rious travel hitherto separating the peaked in the mid-1880s. By then,can-American population. carved into states and territories. two oceans was now cut to about six not far behind the rancher creaked 178 179
  • 91. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYthe covered wagons of the farmers the Sioux were particularly skilled ing white population, the coming which time the owner won full titlebringing their families, their draft at high-speed mounted warfare. of the railroads, and the slaughter of and citizenship. Lands not thus dis-horses, cows, and pigs. Under the The Apaches were equally adept and the buffalo, almost exterminated in tributed, however, were offered forHomestead Act they staked their highly elusive, fighting in their envi- the decade after 1870 by the settlers’ sale to settlers. This policy, howeverclaims and fenced them with a new rons of desert and canyons. indiscriminate hunting. well-intentioned, proved disastrous,invention, barbed wire. Ranchers Conflicts with the Plains Indians The Apache wars in the South- since it allowed more plundering ofwere ousted from lands they had worsened after an incident where the west dragged on until Geronimo, Native-American lands. Moreover,roamed without legal title. Dakota (part of the Sioux nation), the last important chief, was cap- its assault on the communal orga- Ranching and the cattle drives declaring war against the U.S. gov- tured in 1886. nization of tribes caused furthergave American mythology its last ernment because of long-standing Government policy ever since disruption of traditional culture. Inicon of frontier culture — the cow- grievances, killed five white settlers. the Monroe administration had 1934 U.S. policy was reversed yetboy. The reality of cowboy life was Rebellions and attacks continued been to move the Native Ameri- again by the Indian Reorganizationone of grueling hardship. As de- through the Civil War. In 1876 the cans beyond the reach of the white Act, which attempted to protectpicted by writers like Zane Grey and last serious Sioux war erupted, when frontier. But inevitably the reserva- tribal and communal life on themovie actors such as John Wayne, the Dakota gold rush penetrated the tions had become smaller and more reservations.the cowboy was a powerful mytho- Black Hills. The Army was supposed crowded. Some Americans beganlogical figure, a bold, virtuous man to keep miners off Sioux hunting to protest the government’s treat- AMBIVALENT EMPIRE Tof action. Not until the late 20th grounds, but did little to protect the ment of Native Americans. Helencentury did a reaction set in. Histo- Sioux lands. When ordered to take Hunt Jackson, for example, an East- he last decades of the 19th centuryrians and filmmakers alike began to action against bands of Sioux hunt- erner living in the West, wrote A were a period of imperial expansiondepict “the Wild West” as a sordid ing on the range according to their Century of Dishonor (1881), which for the United States. The Americanplace, peopled by characters more treaty rights, however, it moved dramatized their plight and struck story took a different course fromapt to reflect the worst, rather than quickly and vigorously. a chord in the nation’s conscience. that of its European rivals, however,the best, in human nature. In 1876, after several indecisive Most reformers believed the Native because of the U.S. history of strug- encounters, Colonel George Custer, American should be assimilated into gle against European empires and its THE PLIGHT OF leading a small detachment of cav- the dominant culture. The federal unique democratic development. THE NATIVE AMERICANS alry encountered a vastly superior government even set up a school in The sources of American expan-A force of Sioux and their allies on the Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in an attempt sionism in the late 19th century s in the East, expansion into the Little Bighorn River. Custer and his to impose white values and beliefs were varied. Internationally, the pe-plains and mountains by miners, men were completely annihilated. on Native-American youths. (It was riod was one of imperialist frenzy, asranchers, and settlers led to increas- Nonetheless the Native-American at this school that Jim Thorpe, often European powers raced to carve uping conflicts with the Native Ameri- insurgency was soon suppressed. considered the best athlete the Unit- Africa and competed, along withcans of the West. Many tribes of Later, in 1890, a ghost dance ritual ed States has produced, gained fame Japan, for influence and trade inNative Americans — from the Utes on the Northern Sioux reservation in the early 20th century.) Asia. Many Americans, includingof the Great Basin to the Nez Perces at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, In 1887 the Dawes (General Al- influential figures such as Theodoreof Idaho — fought the whites at one led to an uprising and a last, tragic lotment) Act reversed U.S. Native- Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, andtime or another. But the Sioux of the encounter that ended in the death American policy, permitting the Elihu Root, felt that to safeguard itsNorthern Plains and the Apache of of nearly 300 Sioux men, women, president to divide up tribal land own interests, the United States hadthe Southwest provided the most and children. and parcel out 65 hectares of land to stake out spheres of economicsignificant opposition to frontier ad- Long before this, however, the to each head of a family. Such al- influence as well. That view wasvance. Led by such resourceful lead- way of life of the Plains Indians lotments were to be held in trust by seconded by a powerful naval lobby,ers as Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, had been destroyed by an expand- the government for 25 years, after which called for an expanded fleet 180 181
  • 92. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYand network of overseas ports as es- United States exercising control or lasted, not a single American reverse democratic self-government, a po-sential to the economic and political influence over islands in the Carib- of any importance occurred. A week litical system with which none ofsecurity of the nation. More gener- bean Sea and the Pacific. after the declaration of war, Com- them had any previous, the doctrine of “manifest des- By the 1890s, Cuba and Puerto modore George Dewey, commander In fact, the United States found itselftiny,” first used to justify America’s Rico were the only remnants of of the six-warship Asiatic Squadron in a colonial role. It maintained for-continental expansion, was now re- Spain’s once vast empire in the New then at Hong Kong, steamed to the mal administrative control in Puer-vived to assert that the United States World, and the Philippine Islands Philippines. Catching the entire to Rico and Guam, gave Cuba onlyhad a right and duty to extend its in- comprised the core of Spanish power Spanish fleet at anchor in Manila nominal independence, and harshlyfluence and civilization in the West- in the Pacific. The outbreak of war Bay, he destroyed it without losing suppressed an armed independenceern Hemisphere and the Caribbean, had three principal sources: popular an American life. movement in the Philippines. (Theas well as across the Pacific. hostility to autocratic Spanish rule Meanwhile, in Cuba, troops Philippines gained the right to elect At the same time, voices of anti- in Cuba; U.S. sympathy with the landed near Santiago, where, after both houses of its legislature inimperialism from diverse coalitions Cuban fight for independence; and a winning a rapid series of engage- 1916. In 1936 a largely autonomousof Northern Democrats and reform- new spirit of national assertiveness, ments, they fired on the port. Four Philippine Commonwealth was es-minded Republicans remained loud stimulated in part by a nationalistic armored Spanish cruisers steamed tablished. In 1946, after World Warand constant. As a result, the acqui- and sensationalist press. out of Santiago Bay to engage the II, the islands finally attained fullsition of a U.S. empire was piecemeal By 1895 Cuba’s growing restive- American navy and were reduced to independence.)and ambivalent. Colonial-minded ness had become a guerrilla war ruined hulks. U.S. involvement in the Pacificadministrations were often more of independence. Most Americans From Boston to San Francisco, area was not limited to the Philip-concerned with trade and economic were sympathetic with the Cubans, whistles blew and flags waved when pines. The year of the Spanish-issues than political control. but President Cleveland was deter- word came that Santiago had fallen. American War also saw the begin- The United States’ first venture mined to preserve neutrality. Three Newspapers dispatched correspon- ning of a new relationship withbeyond its continental borders was years later, however, during the ad- dents to Cuba and the Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands. Earlier con-the purchase of Alaska — sparsely ministration of William McKinley, who trumpeted the renown of the tact with Hawaii had been mainlypopulated by Inuit and other native the U.S. warship Maine, sent to Ha- nation’s new heroes. Chief among through missionaries and traders.peoples — from Russia in 1867. Most vana on a “courtesy visit” designed them were Commodore Dewey and After 1865, however, American in-Americans were either indifferent to to remind the Spanish of American Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, who vestors began to develop the islands’or indignant at this action by Secre- concern over the rough handling of had resigned as assistant secretary of resources — chiefly sugar cane andtary of State William Seward, whose the insurrection, blew up in the har- the navy to lead his volunteer regi- pineapples.critics called Alaska “Seward’s Folly” bor. More than 250 men were killed. ment, the “Rough Riders,” to service When the government of Queenand “Seward’s Icebox.” But 30 years The Maine was probably destroyed in Cuba. Spain soon sued for an end Liliuokalani announced its inten-later, when gold was discovered on by an accidental internal explosion, to the war. The peace treaty signed tion to end foreign influence in 1893,Alaska’s Klondike River, thousands but most Americans believed the on December 10, 1898, transferred American businessmen joined withof Americans headed north, and Spanish were responsible. Indigna- Cuba to the United States for tem- influential Hawaiians to deposemany of them settled in Alaska per- tion, intensified by sensationalized porary occupation preliminary to her. Backed by the American am-manently. When Alaska became the press coverage, swept across the the island’s independence. In addi- bassador to Hawaii and U.S. troops49th state in 1959, it replaced Texas country. McKinley tried to preserve tion, Spain ceded Puerto Rico and stationed there, the new governmentas geographically the largest state in the peace, but within a few months, Guam in lieu of war indemnity, and then asked to be annexed to thethe Union. believing delay futile, he recom- the Philippines for a U.S. payment of United States. President Cleveland, The Spanish-American War, mended armed intervention. $20 million. just beginning his second term, re-fought in 1898, marked a turn- The war with Spain was swift and Officially, U.S. policy encouraged jected annexation, leaving Hawaiiing point in U.S. history. It left the decisive. During the four months it the new territories to move toward nominally independent until the 182 183
  • 93. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYSpanish-American War, when, with ment. Large numbers of Puerto Ri- United States a perpetual lease to a of an ill-starred campaign to influ-the backing of President McKinley, cans have settled on the mainland, 16-kilometer-wide strip of land (the ence the Mexican revolution andCongress ratified an annexation to which they have free access and Panama Canal Zone) between the stop raids into American territory,treaty. In 1959 Hawaii would be- where they enjoy all the political and Atlantic and the Pacific, in return President Woodrow Wilson sentcome the 50th state. civil rights of any other citizen of the for $10 million and a yearly fee of 11,000 troops into the northern part To some extent, in Hawaii espe- United States. $250,000. Colombia later received of the country in a futile effort tocially, economic interests had a role $25 million as partial compensation. capture the elusive rebel and outlawin American expansion, but to influ- THE CANAL AND THE Seventy-five years later, Panama and Francisco “Pancho” Villa.ential policy makers such as Roos- AMERICAS the United States negotiated a new Exercising its role as the most Tevelt, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, treaty. It provided for Panamanian powerful — and most liberal — ofand Secretary of State John Hay, he war with Spain revived U.S. sovereignty in the Canal Zone and Western Hemisphere nations, theand to influential strategists such as interest in building a canal across transfer of the canal to Panama on United States also worked to estab-Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan, the the isthmus of Panama, uniting the December 31, 1999. lish an institutional basis for coop-main impetus was geostrategic. For two great oceans. The usefulness of The completion of the Panama eration among the nations of thethese people, the major dividend of such a canal for sea trade had long Canal in 1914, directed by Colonel Americas. In 1889 Secretary of Stateacquiring Hawaii was Pearl Harbor, been recognized by the major com- George W. Goethals, was a major James G. Blaine proposed that the 21which would become the major U.S. mercial nations of the world; the triumph of engineering. The simul- independent nations of the Westernnaval base in the central Pacific. French had begun digging one in taneous conquest of malaria and Hemisphere join in an organizationThe Philippines and Guam comple- the late 19th century but had been yellow fever made it possible and dedicated to the peaceful settlementmented other Pacific bases — Wake unable to overcome the engineering was one of the 20th century’s great of disputes and to closer economicIsland, Midway, and American Sa- difficulties. Having become a power feats in preventive medicine. bonds. The result was the Pan-moa. Puerto Rico was an important in both the Caribbean Sea and the Elsewhere in Latin America, the American Union, founded in 1890foothold in a Caribbean area that Pacific Ocean, the United States saw United States fell into a pattern of and known today as the Organiza-was becoming increasingly impor- a canal as both economically benefi- fitful intervention. Between 1900 tion of American States (OAS).tant as the United States contem- cial and a way of providing speedier and 1920, the United States carried The later administrations of Her-plated a Central American canal. transfer of warships from one ocean out sustained interventions in six bert Hoover (1929-33) and Franklin U.S. colonial policy tended to- to the other. Western Hemispheric nations — D. Roosevelt (1933-45) repudi-ward democratic self-government. At the turn of the century, what most notably Haiti, the Dominican ated the right of U.S. interventionAs it had done with the Philippines, is now Panama was the rebellious Republic, and Nicaragua. Washing- in Latin America. In particular,in 1917 the U.S. Congress granted northern province of Colombia. ton offered a variety of justifications Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor PolicyPuerto Ricans the right to elect all When the Colombian legislature in for these interventions: to establish of the 1930s, while not ending allof their legislators. The same law 1903 refused to ratify a treaty giv- political stability and democratic tensions between the United Statesalso made the island officially a U.S. ing the United States the right to government, to provide a favorable and Latin America, helped dissipateterritory and gave its people Ameri- build and manage a canal, a group environment for U.S. investment much of the ill-will engendered bycan citizenship. In 1950 Congress of impatient Panamanians, with the (often called dollar diplomacy), to earlier U.S. intervention and unilat-granted Puerto Rico complete free- support of U.S. Marines, rose in re- secure the sea lanes leading to the eral actions.dom to decide its future. In 1952, bellion and declared Panamanian Panama Canal, and even to preventthe citizens voted to reject either independence. The breakaway coun- European countries from forcibly UNITED STATES AND ASIAstatehood or total independence, N try was immediately recognized by collecting debts. The United Statesand chose instead a commonwealth President Theodore Roosevelt. had pressured the French into re- ewly established in the Philip-status that has endured despite the Under the terms of a treaty signed moving troops from Mexico in 1867. pines and firmly entrenched in Ha-efforts of a vocal separatist move- that November, Panama granted the Half a century later, however, as part waii at the turn of the century, the 184 185
  • 94. CHAPTER 8: GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY J. P. MORGAN AND FINANCE CAPITALISMUnited States had high hopes for a would oppose any disturbance ofvigorous trade with China. However,Japan and various European nations Chinese territorial or administra- tive rights and restated the Open The rise of American industry required more than great industrialists. Big industry required big amounts of capital; headlong economic growth requiredhad acquired established spheres Door policy. Once the rebellion was foreign investors. John Pierpont (J.P.) Morgan was the most important of theof influence there in the form of quelled, Hay protected China from American financiers who underwrote both requirements.naval bases, leased territories, mo- crushing indemnities. Primarily During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Morgan headed thenopolistic trade rights, and exclusive for the sake of American good will,concessions for investing in railway Great Britain, Germany, and lesser nation’s largest investment banking firm. It brokered American securities toconstruction and mining. colonial powers formally affirmed wealthy elites at home and abroad. Since foreigners needed assurance that Idealism in American foreign the Open Door policy and Chinese their investments were in a stable currency, Morgan had a strong interest inpolicy existed alongside the desire independence. In practice, they con- keeping the dollar tied to its legal value in gold. In the absence of an officialto compete with Europe’s impe- solidated their privileged positions U.S. central bank, he became the de facto manager of the task.rial powers in the Far East. The U.S. in the country. From the 1880s through the early 20th century, Morgan and Companygovernment thus insisted as a matter A few years later, President not only managed the securities that underwrote many important corporateof principle upon equality of com- Theodore Roosevelt mediated the consolidations, it actually originated some of them. The most stunning of thesemercial privileges for all nations. deadlocked Russo-Japanese War of was the U.S. Steel Corporation, which combined Carnegie Steel with severalIn September 1899, Secretary of 1904-05, in many respects a strug- other companies. Its corporate stock and bonds were sold to investors at theState John Hay advocated an “Open gle for power and influence in the then-unprecedented sum of $1.4 billion.Door” for all nations in China northern Chinese province of Man- Morgan originated, and made large profits from, numerous other merg-— that is, equality of trading oppor- churia. Roosevelt hoped the settle- ers. Acting as primary banker to numerous railroads, moreover, he effectivelytunities (including equal tariffs, har- ment would provide open-door muted competition among them. His organizational efforts brought stability tobor duties, and railway rates) in the opportunities for American busi- American industry by ending price wars to the disadvantage of farmers andareas Europeans controlled. Despite ness, but the former enemies and small manufacturers, who saw him as an oppressor. In 1901, when he estab-its idealistic component, the Open other imperial powers succeeded inDoor, in essence, was a diplomatic shutting the Americans out. Here lished the Northern Securities Company to control a group of major railroads,maneuver that sought the advan- as elsewhere, the United States was President Theodore Roosevelt authorized a successful Sherman Antitrust Acttages of colonialism while avoiding unwilling to deploy military force in suit to break up the merger.the stigma of its frank practice. It the service of economic imperialism. Acting as an unofficial central banker, Morgan took the lead in support-had limited success. The president could at least content ing the dollar during the economic depression of the mid-1890s by marketing With the Boxer Rebellion of himself with the award of the Nobel a large government bond issue that raised funds to replenish Treasury gold1900, the Chinese struck out against Peace Prize (1906). Despite gains for supplies. At the same time, his firm undertook a short-term guarantee of theforeigners. In June, insurgents seized Japan, moreover, U.S. relations with nation’s gold reserves. In 1907, he took the lead in organizing the New YorkBeijing and attacked the foreign le- the proud and newly assertive island financial community to prevent a potentially ruinous string of bankruptcies. Ingations there. Hay promptly an- nation would be intermittently diffi- the process, his own firm acquired a large independent steel company, whichnounced to the European powers cult through the early decades of the it amalgamated with U. S. Steel. President Roosevelt personally approved theand Japan that the United States 20th century. 9 action in order to avert a serious depression. By then, Morgan’s power was so great that most Americans instinctively distrusted and disliked him. With some exaggeration, reformers depicted him as the director of a “money trust” that controlled America. By the time of his death in 1913, the country was in the final stages of at last reestablishing a central bank, the Federal Reserve System, that would assume much of the re- sponsibility he had exercised unofficially.  186 187
  • 95. 9 CHAPTER DISCONTENT AND REFORM Suffragists march on Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., March 3, 1913.188
  • 96. CHAPTER 9: DISCONTENT AND REFORM OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “A great democracy will be of the South’s African-American farmers and 40 percent of its white Colored Farmers National Alliance, claimed over a million members. neither great nor a democracy ones lived under this debilitating system. Most were locked in a cycle Federating into two large North- ern and Southern blocs, the alli- if it is not progressive.” of debt, from which the only hope of escape was increased planting. This ances promoted elaborate economic programs to “unite the farmers of led to the over-production of cotton America for their protection against and tobacco, and thus to declining class legislation and the encroach- Former President Theodore Roosevelt, circa 1910 prices and the further exhaustion ments of concentrated capital.” of the soil. By 1890 the level of agrarian dis- The first organized effort to ad- tress, fueled by years of hardship and dress general agricultural problems hostility toward the McKinley tariff, was by the Patrons of Husbandry, a was at an all-time high. Working farmer’s group popularly known as with sympathetic Democrats in the the Grange movement. Launched South or small third parties in the in 1867 by employees of the U.S. West, the Farmers’ Alliances made Department of Agriculture, the a push for political power. A third Granges focused initially on social political party, the People’s (or Pop- activities to counter the isolation ulist) Party, emerged. Never before AGRARIAN DISTRESS AND Midwestern farmers were in- most farm families encountered. in American politics had there been THE RISE OF POPULISM creasingly restive over what they Women’s participation was actively anything like the Populist fervorIn spite of theircentury American considered excessive railroad encouraged. Spurred by the Panic that swept the prairies and cotton remarkable prog- freight rates to move their goods of 1873, the Grange soon grew to lands. The elections of 1890 broughtress, late-19th to market. They believed that the 20,000 chapters and one-and-a-half the new party into power in a dozenfarmers experienced recurring pe- protective tariff, a subsidy to big million members. Southern and Western states, andriods of hardship. Mechanical im- business, drove up the price of their The Granges set up their own sent a score of Populist senators andprovements greatly increased yield increasingly expensive equipment. marketing systems, stores, process- representatives to Congress.per hectare. The amount of land un- Squeezed by low market prices ing plants, factories, and coopera- The first Populist convention wasder cultivation grew rapidly through- and high costs, they resented ever- tives, but most ultimately failed. The in 1892. Delegates from farm, labor,out the second half of the century, heavier debt loads and the banks movement also enjoyed some politi- and reform organizations met inas the railroads and the gradual that held their mortgages. Even the cal success. During the 1870s, a few Omaha, Nebraska, determined todisplacement of the Plains Indians weather was hostile. During the late states passed “Granger laws,” limit- overturn a U.S. political system theyopened up new areas for western 1880s droughts devastated the west- ing railroad and warehouse fees. viewed as hopelessly corrupted bysettlement. A similar expansion of ern Great Plains and bankrupted By 1880 the Grange was in decline the industrial and financial trusts.agricultural lands in countries such thousands of settlers. and being replaced by the Farmers’ Their platform stated:as Canada, Argentina, and Australia In the South, the end of slavery Alliances, which were similar in We are met, in the midst of acompounded these problems in the brought major changes. Much ag- many respects but more overtly po- nation brought to the verge ofinternational market, where much ricultural land was now worked by litical. By 1890 the alliances, initially moral, political, and material ruin.of U.S. agricultural production was sharecroppers, tenants who gave autonomous state organizations, Corruption dominates the ballot-now sold. Everywhere, heavy sup- up to half of their crop to a land- had about 1.5 million members box, the legislatures, the Congress,ply pushed the price of agricultural owner for rent, seed, and essential from New York to California. A par- and touches even the ermine of thecommodities downward. supplies. An estimated 80 percent allel African-American group, the bench [courts]. ... From the same 190 191
  • 97. CHAPTER 9: DISCONTENT AND REFORM OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY prolific womb of governmental The financial panic of 1893 THE STRUGGLES OF LABOR 19th century and fostered huge T injustice we breed the two great heightened the tension of this de- concentrations of wealth and power classes — tramps and millionaires. bate. Bank failures abounded in the he life of a 19th-century Ameri- was backed by a judiciary that time South and Midwest; unemployment can industrial worker was hard. and again ruled against those who The pragmatic portion of their soared and crop prices fell badly. Even in good times wages were low, challenged the system. In this, theyplatform called for the nationaliza- The crisis and President Grover hours long, and working conditions were merely following the prevailingtion of the railroads; a low tariff; Cleveland’s defense of the gold stan- hazardous. Little of the wealth that philosophy of the times. Drawing onloans secured by non-perishable dard sharply divided the Democratic the growth of the nation had gener- a simplified understanding of Dar-crops stored in government-owned Party. Democrats who were silver ated went to its workers. Moreover, winian science, many social think-warehouses; and, most explosively, supporters went over to the Popu- women and children made up a high ers believed that both the growthcurrency inflation through Treasury lists as the presidential elections of percentage of the work force in some of large business at the expense ofpurchase and the unlimited coinage 1896 neared. industries and often received but a small enterprise and the wealth ofof silver at the “traditional” ratio The Democratic convention that fraction of the wages a man could a few alongside the poverty of manyof 16 ounces of silver to one ounce year was swayed by one of the most earn. Periodic economic crises swept was “survival of the fittest,” and anof gold. famous speeches in U.S. political the nation, further eroding industri- unavoidable by-product of progress. The Populists showed impressive history. Pleading with the conven- al wages and producing high levels of American workers, especially thestrength in the West and South, and tion not to “crucify mankind on unemployment. skilled among them, appear to havetheir candidate for president polled a cross of gold,” William Jennings At the same time, technologi- lived at least as well as their coun-more than a million votes. But Bryan, the young Nebraskan cham- cal improvements, which added so terparts in industrial Europe. Still,the currency question soon over- pion of silver, won the Democrats’ much to the nation’s productivity, the social costs were high. As late asshadowed all other issues. Agrar- presidential nomination. The Popu- continually reduced the demand for the year 1900, the United States hadian spokesmen, convinced that their lists also endorsed Bryan. skilled labor. Yet the unskilled labor the highest job-related fatality ratetroubles stemmed from a shortage In the epic contest that followed, pool was constantly growing, as un- of any industrialized nation in theof money in circulation, argued that Bryan carried almost all the South- precedented numbers of immigrants world. Most industrial workers stillincreasing the volume of money ern and Western states. But he lost — 18 million between 1880 and worked a 10-hour day (12 hours inwould indirectly raise prices for the more populated, industrial 1910 — entered the country, eager the steel industry), yet earned lessfarm products and drive up indus- North and East — and the election for work. than the minimum deemed neces-trial wages, thus allowing debts to be — to Republican candidate William Before 1874, when Massachusetts sary for a decent life. The number ofpaid with inflated currency. Conser- McKinley. passed the nation’s first legislation children in the work force doubledvative groups and the financial class- The following year the country’s limiting the number of hours wom- between 1870 and, on the other hand, responded finances began to improve, in part en and child factory workers could The first major effort to orga-that the 16:1 price ratio was nearly owing to the discovery of gold in perform to 10 hours a day, virtually nize workers’ groups on a nation-twice the market price for silver. A Alaska and the Yukon. This pro- no labor legislation existed in the wide basis appeared with the Noblepolicy of unlimited purchase would vided a basis for a conservative country. It was not until the 1930s Order of the Knights of Labor indenude the U.S. Treasury of all its expansion of the money supply. In that the federal government would 1869. Originally a secret, ritualisticgold holdings, sharply devalue the 1898 the Spanish-American War become actively involved. Until society organized by Philadelphiadollar, and destroy the purchasing drew the nation’s attention further then, the field was left to the state garment workers and advocating apower of the working and middle from Populist issues. Populism and and local authorities, few of whom cooperative program, it was openclasses. Only the gold standard, they the silver issue were dead. Many of were as responsive to the workers as to all workers, including Africansaid, offered stability. the movement’s other reform ideas, they were to wealthy industrialists. Americans, women, and farmers. however, lived on. The laissez-faire capitalism that The Knights grew slowly until its dominated the second half of the railway workers’ unit won a strike 192 193
  • 98. CHAPTER 9: DISCONTENT AND REFORM OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYagainst the great railroad baron, Jay policemen and at least four workers put down. Influenced by militant country’s political foundations hadGould, in 1885. Within a year they were reported killed. Some 60 police anarchism and openly calling for endured the vicissitudes of foreignadded 500,000 workers to their rolls, officers were injured. class warfare, the Wobblies gained and civil war, the tides of prosper-but, not attuned to pragmatic trade In 1892, at Carnegie’s steel works many adherents after they won a dif- ity and depression. Immense stridesunionism and unable to repeat this in Homestead, Pennsylvania, a had been made in agriculture and ficult strike battle in the textile millssuccess, the Knights soon fell into group of 300 Pinkerton detectives of Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1912. industry. Free public education hada decline. the company had hired to break a Their call for work stoppages in the been largely realized and a free press Their place in the labor move- bitter strike by the Amalgamated midst of World War I, however, led maintained. The ideal of religiousment was gradually taken by the Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin to a government crackdown in 1917 freedom had been sustained. TheAmerican Federation of Labor Workers fought a fierce and losing that virtually destroyed them. influence of big business was now(AFL). Rather than open member- gun battle with strikers. The Na- more firmly entrenched than ever,ship to all, the AFL, under former ci- tional Guard was called in to protect THE REFORM IMPULSE however, and local and municipal Tgar union official Samuel Gompers, non-union workers and the strike government often was in the handswas a group of unions focused on was broken. Unions were not let he presidential election of 1900 of corrupt politicians.skilled workers. Its objectives were back into the plant until 1937. gave the American people a chance In response to the excesses of“pure and simple” and apolitical: In 1894, wage cuts at the Pullman to pass judgment on the Republican 19th-century capitalism and politi-increasing wages, reducing hours, Company just outside Chicago led to administration of President McKin- cal corruption, a reform movementand improving working conditions. a strike, which, with the support of ley, especially its foreign policy. arose called “progressivism,” whichIt did much to turn the labor move- the American Railway Union, soon Meeting at Philadelphia, the Repub- gave American politics and thoughtment away from the socialist views tied up much of the country’s rail licans expressed jubilation over the its special character from approxi-of most European labor movements. system. As the situation deteriorat- successful outcome of the war with mately 1890 until the American Nonetheless, both before the ed, U.S. Attorney General Richard Spain, the restoration of prosperity, entry into World War I in 1917. Thefounding of the AFL and after, Olney, himself a former railroad and the effort to obtain new mar- Progressives had diverse objectives.American labor history was violent. lawyer, deputized over 3,000 men kets through the Open Door policy. In general, however, they saw them-In the Great Rail Strike of 1877, rail in an attempt to keep the rails open. McKinley easily defeated his oppo- selves as engaged in a democraticworkers across the nation went out This was followed by a federal court nent, once again William Jennings crusade against the abuses of ur-in response to a 10-percent pay cut. injunction against union interfer- Bryan. But the president did not live ban political bosses and the corruptAttempts to break the strike led to ri- ence with the trains. When rioting to enjoy his victory. In September “robber barons” of big business.oting and wide-scale destruction in ensued, President Cleveland sent in 1901, while attending an exposi- Their goals were greater democracyseveral cities: Baltimore, Maryland; federal troops, and the strike was tion in Buffalo, New York, he was and social justice, honest govern-Chicago, Illinois; Pittsburgh, Penn- eventually broken. shot down by an assassin, the third ment, more effective regulation ofsylvania; Buffalo, New York; and The most militant of the strike- president to be assassinated since the business, and a revived commitmentSan Francisco, California. Federal favoring unions was the Indus- Civil War. to public service. They believed thattroops had to be sent to several loca- trial Workers of the World (IWW). Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley’s expanding the scope of governmenttions before the strike was ended. Formed from an amalgam of unions vice president, assumed the presi- would ensure the progress of U.S. so- Nine years later, in Chicago’s fighting for better conditions in the dency. Roosevelt’s accession coin- ciety and the welfare of its citizens.Haymarket Square incident, some- West’s mining industry, the IWW, or cided with a new epoch in American The years 1902 to 1908 markedone threw a bomb at police about “Wobblies” as they were commonly political life and international rela- the era of greatest reform activity,to break up an anarchist rally in known, gained particular promi- tions. The continent was peopled; as writers and journalists stronglysupport of an ongoing strike at the nence from the Colorado mine the frontier was disappearing. A protested practices and principlesMcCormick Harvester Company in clashes of 1903 and the singularly small, formerly struggling repub- inherited from the 18th-centuryChicago. In the ensuing melee, seven brutal fashion in which they were lic had become a world power. The rural republic that were proving 194 195
  • 99. CHAPTER 9: DISCONTENT AND REFORM OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYinadequate for a 20th-century ur- labor laws were strengthened and and shippers equally liable with Commission real authority in regu-ban state. Years before, in 1873, new ones adopted, raising age limits, railroads for rebates. Meanwhile, lating rates, extended the commis-the celebrated author Mark Twain shortening work hours, restricting Congress had created a new Cabi- sion’s jurisdiction, and forced thehad exposed American society to night work, and requiring school net Department of Commerce and railroads to surrender their inter-critical scrutiny in The Gilded Age. attendance. Labor, which included a Bureau of locking interests in steamship linesNow, trenchant articles dealing with Corporations empowered to inves- and coal companies.trusts, high finance, impure foods, ROOSEVELT’S REFORMS tigate the affairs of large business Other congressional measures Blargerearly 20th century, most ofand abusive railroad practices began aggregations. carried the principle of federal con-to appear in the daily newspapers y the Roosevelt won acclaim as a trol still further. The Pure Food andand in such popular magazines as the cities and more than half “trust-buster,” but his actual atti- Drug Act of 1906 prohibited the useMcClure’s and Collier’s. Their au- the states had established an eight- tude toward big business was com- of any “deleterious drug, chemical,thors, such as the journalist Ida M. hour day on public works. Equally plex. Economic concentration, he or preservative” in prepared medi-Tarbell, who crusaded against the important were the workman’s believed, was inevitable. Some trusts cines and foods. The Meat Inspec-Standard Oil Trust, became known compensation laws, which made were “good,” some “bad.” The task tion Act of the same year mandatedas “muckrakers.” employers legally responsible for of government was to make rea- federal inspection of all meat-pack- In his sensational novel, The injuries sustained by employees at sonable distinctions. When, for ex- ing establishments engaged in inter-Jungle, Upton Sinclair exposed work. New revenue laws were also ample, the Bureau of Corporations state commerce.unsanitary conditions in the great enacted, which, by taxing inheri- discovered in 1907 that the Ameri- Conservation of the nation’sChicago meat-packing houses and tances, incomes, and the property or can Sugar Refining Company had natural resources, managed devel-condemned the grip of the beef earnings of corporations, sought to evaded import duties, subsequent opment of the public domain, andtrust on the nation’s meat supply. place the burden of government on legal actions recovered more than the reclamation of wide stretches ofTheodore Dreiser, in his novels those best able to pay. $4 million and convicted several neglected land were among the otherThe Financier and The Titan made It was clear to many people — company officials. The Standard Oil major achievements of the Rooseveltit easy for laymen to understand notably President Theodore Roos- Company was indicted for receiving era. Roosevelt and his aides werethe machinations of big business. evelt and Progressive leaders in the secret rebates from the Chicago and more than conservationists, but giv-Frank Norris’s The Octopus assailed Congress (foremost among them Alton Railroad, convicted, and fined en the helter-skelter exploitation ofamoral railroad management; his Wisconsin Senator Robert LaFol- a staggering $29 million. public resources that had precededThe Pit depicted secret manipula- lette) — that most of the problems Roosevelt’s striking personality them, conservation loomed large ontions on the Chicago grain market. reformers were concerned about and his trust-busting activities cap- their agenda. Whereas his predeces-Lincoln Steffens’s The Shame of the could be solved only if dealt with on tured the imagination of the ordinary sors had set aside 18,800,000 hect-Cities bared local political corrup- a national scale. Roosevelt declared individual; approval of his progres- ares of timberland for preservationtion. This “literature of exposure” his determination to give all the sive measures cut across party lines. and parks, Roosevelt increased theroused people to action. American people a “Square Deal.” In addition, the abounding prosper- area to 59,200,000 hectares. They The hammering impact of un- During his first term, he initiated ity of the country at this time led also began systematic efforts to pre-compromising writers and an in- a policy of increased government su- people to feel satisfied with the party vent forest fires and to re-timbercreasingly aroused public spurred pervision through the enforcement in office. He won an easy victory in denuded tracts.political leaders to take practical of antitrust laws. With his back- the 1904 presidential election.measures. Many states enacted laws ing, Congress passed the Elkins Act Emboldened by a sweeping elec- TAFT AND WILSONto improve the conditions under R (1903), which greatly restricted the toral triumph, Roosevelt called forwhich people lived and worked. At railroad practice of giving rebates stronger railroad regulation. In June oosevelt’s popularity was at itsthe urging of such prominent so- to favored shippers. The act made 1906 Congress passed the Hepburn peak as the campaign of 1908 neared,cial critics as Jane Addams, child published rates the lawful standard, Act. It gave the Interstate Commerce but he was unwilling to break the 196 197
  • 100. CHAPTER 9: DISCONTENT AND REFORM OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYtradition by which no president had against Roosevelt who ran as the Bank in each, all supervised by a of 1914 established an “extensionheld office for more than two terms. candidate of a new Progressive Party. national Federal Reserve Board with system” of county agents to assistInstead, he supported William How- Wilson, in a spirited campaign, de- limited authority to set interest rates. farming throughout the country.ard Taft, who had served under him feated both rivals. The act assured greater flexibility in Subsequent acts made credit avail-as governor of the Philippines and During his first term, Wilson se- the money supply and made provi- able to farmers at low rates of in-secretary of war. Taft, pledging to cured one of the most notable legis- sion for issuing federal-reserve notes terest. The Seamen’s Act of 1915continue Roosevelt’s programs, de- lative programs in American history. to meet business demands. Greater improved living and working con-feated Bryan, who was running for The first task was tariff revision. centralization of the system would ditions on board ships. The Federalthe third and last time. “The tariff duties must be altered,” come in the 1930s. Workingman’s Compensation Act The new president continued the Wilson said. “We must abolish ev- The next important task was in 1916 authorized allowances toprosecution of trusts with less dis- erything that bears any semblance trust regulation and investiga- civil service employees for disabili-crimination than Roosevelt, further of privilege.” The Underwood Tariff, tion of corporate abuses. Congress ties incurred at work and establishedstrengthened the Interstate Com- signed on October 3, 1913, provided authorized a Federal Trade Com- a model for private enterprise. Themerce Commission, established a substantial rate reductions on im- mission to issue orders prohibiting Adamson Act of the same year es-postal savings bank and a parcel ported raw materials and foodstuffs, “unfair methods of competition” tablished an eight-hour day for rail-post system, expanded the civil ser- cotton and woolen goods, iron and by business concerns in interstate road labor.vice, and sponsored the enactment steel; it removed the duties from trade. The Clayton Antitrust Act This record of achievement wonof two amendments to the Constitu- more than a hundred other items. forbade many corporate practices Wilson a firm place in Americantion, both adopted in 1913. Although the act retained many that had thus far escaped specific history as one of the nation’s fore- The 16th Amendment, ratified protective features, it was a genuine condemnation: interlocking direc- most progressive reformers. How-just before Taft left office, autho- attempt to lower the cost of living. torates, price discrimination among ever, his domestic reputation wouldrized a federal income tax; the 17th To compensate for lost revenues, it purchasers, use of the injunction in soon be overshadowed by his recordAmendment, approved a few months established a modest income tax. labor disputes, and ownership by as a wartime president who led hislater, mandated the direct election The second item on the Demo- one corporation of stock in similar country to victory but could notof senators by the people, instead cratic program was a long overdue, enterprises. hold the support of his people forof state legislatures. Yet balanced thorough reorganization of the ram- Farmers and other workers were the peace that followed. 9against these progressive measures shackle banking and currency sys- not forgotten. The Smith-Lever Actwas Taft’s acceptance of a new tariff tem. “Control,” said Wilson, “mustwith higher protective schedules; his be public, not private, must be vestedopposition to the entry of the state in the government itself, so that theof Arizona into the Union because banks may be the instruments, notof its liberal constitution; and his the masters, of business and of indi-growing reliance on the conserva- vidual enterprise and initiative.”tive wing of his party. The Federal Reserve Act of De- By 1910 Taft’s party was bitterly cember 23, 1913, was Wilson’s mostdivided. Democrats gained control enduring legislative accomplish-of Congress in the midterm elec- ment. Conservatives had favoredtions. Two years later, Woodrow establishment of one powerful cen-Wilson, the Democratic, progres- tral bank. The new act, in line withsive governor of the state of New the Democratic Party’s JeffersonianJersey, campaigned against Taft, the sentiments, divided the country intoRepublican candidate — and also 12 districts, with a Federal Reserve 198 199
  • 101. CHAPTER 9: DISCONTENT AND REFORM OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY A NATION OF NATIONSNo country’s history has been more closely bound to immigration than that grants were from Italy, Russia, Poland, Greece, and the Balkans. Non-Euro- peans came, too: east from Japan, south from Canada, and north from Mexico.of the United States. During the first 15 years of the 20th century alone, over By the early 1920s, an alliance was forged between wage-conscious13 million people came to the United States, many passing through Ellis Is- organized labor and those who called for restricted immigration on racial orland, the federal immigration center that opened in New York harbor in 1892. religious grounds, such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Immigration Restriction(Though no longer in service, Ellis Island reopened in 1992 as a monument to League. The Johnson-Reed Immigration Act of 1924 permanently curtailedthe millions who crossed the nation’s threshold there.) the influx of newcomers with quotas calculated on nation of origin. The first official census in 1790 had numbered Americans at 3,929,214. The Great Depression of the 1930s dramatically slowed immigration stillApproximately half of the population of the original 13 states was of English further. With public opinion generally opposed to immigration, even for per-origin; the rest were Scots-Irish, German, Dutch, French, Swedish, Welsh, secuted European minorities, relatively few refugees found sanctuary in theand Finnish. These white Europeans were mostly Protestants. A fifth of the United States after Adolf Hitler’s ascent to power in 1933.population was enslaved Africans. Throughout the postwar decades, the United States continued to cling From early on, Americans viewed immigrants as a necessary resource for to nationally based quotas. Supporters of the McCarran-Walter Act of 1952an expanding country. As a result, few official restrictions were placed upon argued that quota relaxation might inundate the United States with Marxistimmigration into the United States until the 1920s. As more and more im- subversives from Eastern Europe.migrants arrived, however, some Americans became fearful that their culture In 1965 Congress replaced national quotas with hemispheric ones. Rela-was threatened. tives of U.S. citizens received preference, as did immigrants with job skills The Founding Fathers, especially Thomas Jefferson, had been ambivalent in short supply in the United States. In 1978 the hemispheric quotas wereover whether or not the United States ought to welcome arrivals from every replaced by a worldwide ceiling of 290,000, a limit reduced to 270,000 aftercorner of the globe. Jefferson wondered whether democracy could ever rest passage of the Refugee Act of 1980.safely in the hands of men from countries that revered monarchs or replaced Since the mid-1970s, the United States has experienced a fresh wave ofroyalty with mob rule. However, few supported closing the gates to newcomers immigration, with arrivals from Asia, Africa, and Latin America transformingin a country desperate for labor. communities throughout the country. Current estimates suggest a total annual Immigration lagged in the late 18th and early 19th centuries as wars dis- arrival of approximately 600,000 legal newcomers to the United States.rupted trans-Atlantic travel and European governments restricted movement Because immigrant and refugee quotas remain well under demand, how-to retain young men of military age. Still, as European populations increased, ever, illegal immigration is still a major problem. Mexicans and other Latinmore people on the same land constricted the size of farming lots to a point Americans daily cross the Southwestern U.S. borders to find work, higherwhere families could barely survive. Moreover, cottage industries were falling wages, and improved education and health care for their families. Likewise,victim to an Industrial Revolution that was mechanizing production. Thou- there is a substantial illegal migration from countries like China and othersands of artisans unwilling or unable to find jobs in factories were out of work Asian nations. Estimates vary, but some suggest that as many as 600,000in Europe. illegals per year arrive in the United States. In the mid-1840s millions more made their way to the United States as Large surges of immigration have historically created social strains alonga result of a potato blight in Ireland and continual revolution in the German with economic and cultural dividends. Deeply ingrained in most Americans,homelands. Meanwhile, a trickle of Chinese immigrants, most from impov- however, is the conviction that the Statue of Liberty does, indeed, stand as aerished Southeastern China, began to make their way to the American West symbol for the United States as she lifts her lamp before the “golden door,”Coast. welcoming those “yearning to breathe free.” This belief, and the sure knowl- Almost 19 million people arrived in the United States between 1890 and edge that their forebears were once immigrants, has kept the United States a1921, the year Congress first passed severe restrictions. Most of these immi- nation of nations.  200 201
  • 102. 10 CHAPTER WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION Depression era soup line, 1930s.202
  • 103. CHAPTER 10: WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “The chief business after two more attacks — the sink- ing of the British steamer Arabic in President Wilson contributed greatly to an early end to the war of the American people August 1915, and the torpedoing of the French liner Sussex in March by defining American war aims that characterized the struggle as be- is business.” 1916 — Wilson issued an ultimatum threatening to break diplomatic re- ing waged not against the German people but against their autocratic lations unless Germany abandoned government. His Fourteen Points, submarine warfare. Germany agreed submitted to the Senate in January President Calvin Coolidge, 1925 and refrained from further attacks 1918, called for: abandonment of se- through the end of the year. cret international agreements; free- Wilson won reelection in 1916, dom of the seas; free trade between partly on the slogan: “He kept us out nations; reductions in national ar- of war.” Feeling he had a mandate to maments; an adjustment of colonial act as a peacemaker, he delivered a claims in the interests of the inhab- speech to the Senate, January 22, itants affected; self-rule for subju- 1917, urging the warring nations to gated European nationalities; and, accept a “peace without victory.” most importantly, the establishment of an association of nations to afford WAR AND NEUTRAL RIGHTS carriers, confiscating “contraband” UNITED STATES ENTERS “mutual guarantees of political in-T WORLD WAR I bound for Germany. Germany em- dependence and territorial integrity O o the American public of 1914, ployed its major naval weapon, the to great and small states alike.”the outbreak of war in Europe submarine, to sink shipping bound n January 31, 1917, however, In October 1918, the German— with Germany and Austria-Hun- for Britain or France. President Wil- the German government resumed government, facing certain defeat,gary fighting Britain, France, and son warned that the United States unrestricted submarine warfare. appealed to Wilson to negotiate onRussia — came as a shock. At first would not forsake its traditional After five U.S. vessels were sunk, the basis of the Fourteen Points.the encounter seemed remote, but right as a neutral to trade with bel- Wilson on April 2, 1917, asked for a After a month of secret negotiationsits economic and political effects ligerent nations. He also declared declaration of war. Congress quickly that gave Germany no firm guar-were swift and deep. By 1915 U.S. that the nation would hold Germany approved. The government rapidly antees, an armistice (technically aindustry, which had been mildly de- to “strict accountability” for the loss mobilized military resources, indus- truce, but actually a surrender) waspressed, was prospering again with of American vessels or lives. On May try, labor, and agriculture. By Octo- concluded on November 11.munitions orders from the Western 7, 1915, a German submarine sunk ber 1918, on the eve of Allied victory,Allies. Both sides used propaganda the British liner Lusitania, killing a U.S. army of over 1,750,000 had THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS Ito arouse the public passions of 1,198 people, 128 of them Ameri- been deployed in France.Americans — a third of whom were cans. Wilson, reflecting American In the summer of 1918, fresh t was Wilson’s hope that the finaleither foreign-born or had one or outrage, demanded an immediate American troops under the com- treaty, drafted by the victors, wouldtwo foreign-born parents. More- halt to attacks on liners and mer- mand of General John J. Pershing be even-handed, but the passionover, Britain and Germany both act- chant ships. played a decisive role in stopping and material sacrifice of more thaned against U.S. shipping on the high Anxious to avoid war with the a last-ditch German offensive. four years of war caused the Euro-seas, bringing sharp protests from United States, Germany agreed to That fall, Americans were key par- pean Allies to make severe demands.President Woodrow Wilson. give warning to commercial ves- ticipants in the Meuse-Argonne of- Persuaded that his greatest hope for Britain, which controlled the seas, sels — even if they flew the enemy fensive, which cracked Germany’s peace, a League of Nations, wouldstopped and searched American flag — before firing on them. But vaunted Hindenburg Line. never be realized unless he made 204 205
  • 104. CHAPTER 10: WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYconcessions, Wilson compromised world order. Wilson’s defeat showed in turn, authorized federal roundups ment fostered private business, ben-somewhat on the issues of self-de- that the American people were not of radicals and deported many who efits would radiate out to most of thetermination, open diplomacy, and yet ready to play a commanding role were not citizens. Strikes were often rest of the population.other specifics. He successfully re- in world affairs. His utopian vision blamed on radicals and depicted as Accordingly, the Republicanssisted French demands for the entire had briefly inspired the nation, but the opening shots of a revolution. tried to create the most favorableRhineland, and somewhat moder- its collision with reality quickly led Palmer’s dire warnings fueled a conditions for U.S. industry. Theated that country’s insistence upon to widespread disillusion with world “Red Scare” that subsided by mid- Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922charging Germany the whole cost affairs. America reverted to its in- 1920. Even a murderous bombing and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff ofof the war. The final agreement (the stinctive isolationism. in Wall Street in September failed to 1930 brought American trade bar-Treaty of Versailles), however, pro- reawaken it. From 1919 on, however, riers to new heights, guaranteeingvided for French occupation of the POSTWAR UNREST a current of militant hostility toward U.S. manufacturers in one field Tcoal and iron rich Saar Basin, and revolutionary communism would after another a monopoly of thea very heavy burden of reparations he transition from war to peace simmer not far beneath the surface domestic market, but blocking aupon Germany. was tumultuous. A postwar eco- of American life. healthy trade with Europe that In the end, there was little left of nomic boom coexisted with rapid would have reinvigorated the inter-Wilson’s proposals for a generous increases in consumer prices. La- THE BOOMING 1920S national economy. Occurring at the Wand lasting peace but the League of bor unions that had refrained from beginning of the Great Depression,Nations itself, which he had made an striking during the war engaged in ilson, distracted by the war, Hawley-Smoot triggered retaliationintegral part of the treaty. Display- several major job actions. During the then laid low by his stroke, had from other manufacturing nationsing poor judgment, however, the summer of 1919, several race riots oc- mishandled almost every postwar and contributed greatly to a collaps-president had failed to involve lead- curred, reflecting apprehension over issue. The booming economy began ing cycle of world trade that intensi-ing Republicans in the treaty nego- the emergence of a “New Negro” to collapse in mid-1920. The Repub- fied world economic misery.tiations. Returning with a partisan who had seen military service or lican candidates for president and The federal government also start-document, he then refused to make gone north to work in war industry. vice president, Warren G. Harding ed a program of tax cuts, reflectingconcessions necessary to satisfy Re- Reaction to these events merged and Calvin Coolidge, easily defeated Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon’spublican concerns about protecting with a widespread national fear of their Democratic opponents, James belief that high taxes on individualAmerican sovereignty. a new international revolutionary M. Cox and Franklin D. Roosevelt. incomes and corporations discour- With the treaty stalled in a Senate movement. In 1917, the Bolsheviks Following ratification of the 19th aged investment in new industrialcommittee, Wilson began a national had seized power in Russia; after the Amendment to the Constitution, enterprises. Congress, in laws passedtour to appeal for support. On Sep- war, they attempted revolutions in women voted in a presidential elec- between 1921 and 1929, respondedtember 25, 1919, physically ravaged Germany and Hungary. By 1919, it tion for the first time. favorably to his the rigors of peacemaking and seemed they had come to America. The first two years of Harding’s “The chief business of the Amer-the pressures of the wartime presi- Excited by the Bolshevik example, administration saw a continuance ican people is business,” declareddency, he suffered a crippling stroke. large numbers of militants split of the economic recession that had Calvin Coolidge, the Vermont-bornCritically ill for weeks, he never fully from the Socialist Party to found begun under Wilson. By 1923, how- vice president who succeeded to therecovered. In two separate votes what would become the Communist ever, prosperity was back. For the presidency in 1923 after Harding’s— November 1919 and March 1920 Party of the United States. In April next six years the country enjoyed death, and was elected in his own— the Senate once again rejected 1919, the postal service intercepted the strongest economy in its history, right in 1924. Coolidge hewed tothe Versailles Treaty and with it the nearly 40 bombs addressed to prom- at least in urban areas. Governmen- the conservative economic policiesLeague of Nations. inent citizens. Attorney General tal economic policy during the 1920s of the Republican Party, but he was The League of Nations would A. Mitchell Palmer’s residence in was eminently conservative. It was a much abler administrator than thenever be capable of maintaining Washington was bombed. Palmer, based upon the belief that if govern- hapless Harding, whose administra- 206 207
  • 105. CHAPTER 10: WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYtion was mired in charges of corrup- decade in which the ordinary fam- urban ethnic enclaves, the new im- CLASH OF CULTURES Stion in the months before his death. ily purchased its first automobile, migrants were seen as maintaining Throughout the 1920s, private obtained refrigerators and vacuum Old World customs, getting along ome Americans expressed theirbusiness received substantial en- cleaners, listened to the radio for en- with very little English, and sup- discontent with the character ofcouragement, including construc- tertainment, and went regularly to porting unsavory political machines modern life in the 1920s by focus-tion loans, profitable mail-carry- motion pictures. Prosperity was real that catered to their needs. Nativists ing on family and religion, as aning contracts, and other indirect and broadly distributed. The Repub- wanted to send them back to Europe; increasingly urban, secular societysubsidies. The Transportation Act licans profited politically, as a result, social workers wanted to American- came into conflict with older ruralof 1920, for example, had already by claiming credit for it. ize them. Both agreed that they were traditions. Fundamentalist preach-restored to private management the a threat to American identity. ers such as Billy Sunday provided annation’s railways, which had been TENSIONS OVER Halted by World War I, mass outlet for many who yearned for aunder government control during IMMIGRATION immigration resumed in 1919, but return to a simpler past. Dthe war. The Merchant Marine, quickly ran into determined oppo- Perhaps the most dramatic dem-which had been owned and largely uring the 1920s, the United sition from groups as varied as the onstration of this yearning was theoperated by the government, was States sharply restricted foreign im- American Federation of Labor and religious fundamentalist crusadesold to private operators. migration for the first time in its the reorganized Ku Klux Klan. Mil- that pitted Biblical texts against Republican policies in agricul- history. Large inflows of foreigners lions of old-stock Americans who the Darwinian theory of biologi-ture, however, faced mounting long had created a certain amount belonged to neither organization ac- cal evolution. In the 1920s, bills tocriticism, for farmers shared least of social tension, but most had been cepted commonly held assumptions prohibit the teaching of evolutionin the prosperity of the 1920s. The of Northern European stock and, about the inferiority of non-Nordics began appearing in Midwestern andperiod since 1900 had been one if not quickly assimilated, at least and backed restrictions. Of course, Southern state legislatures. Leadingof rising farm prices. The unprec- possessed a certain commonality there were also practical arguments this crusade was the aging Williamedented wartime demand for U.S. with most Americans. By the end of in favor of a maturing nation putting Jennings Bryan, long a spokesmanfarm products had provided a strong the 19th century, however, the flow some limits on new arrivals. for the values of the countryside asstimulus to expansion. But by the was predominantly from southern In 1921, Congress passed a sharp- well as a progressive politician. Bry-close of 1920, with the abrupt end and Eastern Europe. According to ly restrictive emergency immigration an skillfully reconciled his anti-evo-of wartime demand, the commer- the census of 1900, the population act. It was supplanted in 1924 by the lutionary activism with his earliercial agriculture of staple crops such of the United States was just over Johnson-Reed National Origins Act, economic radicalism, declaring thatas wheat and corn fell into sharp 76 million. Over the next 15 years, which established an immigration evolution “by denying the need ordecline. Many factors accounted for more than 15 million immigrants quota for each nationality. Those possibility of spiritual regeneration,the depression in American agricul- entered the country. quotas were pointedly based on the discourages all reforms.”ture, but foremost was the loss of Around two-thirds of the inflow census of 1890, a year in which the The issue came to a head in 1925,foreign markets. This was partly in consisted of “newer” nationalities newer immigration had not yet left when a young high school teacher,reaction to American tariff policy, and ethnic groups — Russian Jews, its mark. Bitterly resented by south- John Scopes, was prosecuted for vio-but also because excess farm pro- Poles, Slavic peoples, Greeks, south- ern and Eastern European ethnic lating a Tennessee law that forbadeduction was a worldwide phenom- ern Italians. They were non-Prot- groups, the new law reduced immi- the teaching of evolution in the pub-enon. When the Great Depression estant, non-“Nordic,” and, many gration to a trickle. After 1929, the lic schools. The case became a nation-struck in the 1930s, it devastated an Americans feared, nonassimilable. economic impact of the Great De- al spectacle, drawing intense newsalready fragile farm economy. They did hard, often dangerous, pression would reduce the trickle to coverage. The American Civil Lib- The distress of agriculture aside, low-pay work — but were accused a reverse flow — until refugees from erties Union retained the renownedthe Twenties brought the best life of driving down the wages of native- European fascism began to press for attorney Clarence Darrow to defendever to most Americans. It was the born Americans. Settling in squalid admission to the country. Scopes. Bryan wrangled an appoint- 208 209
  • 106. CHAPTER 10: WAR, PROSPERITY, AND DEPRESSION OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYment as special prosecutor, then manners and morals that caused numbers of African Americans initial American recession becamefoolishly allowed Darrow to call him the decade to be called the Jazz Age, moved from the South to the North part of a worldwide a hostile witness. Bryan’s confused the Roaring Twenties, or the era of in search of jobs and personal free- Business houses closed their doors,defense of Biblical passages as literal “flaming youth.” World War I had dom. Most settled in urban areas, factories shut down, banks failedrather than metaphorical truth drew overturned the Victorian social especially New York City’s Harlem, with the loss of depositors’ savings.widespread criticism. Scopes, nearly and moral order. Mass prosperity Detroit, and Chicago. In 1910 W.E.B. Farm income fell some 50 percent.forgotten in the fuss, was convicted, enabled an open and hedonistic life Du Bois and other intellectuals had By November 1932, approximatelybut his fine was reversed on a tech- style for the young middle classes. founded the National Association one of every five American workersnicality. Bryan died shortly after the The leading intellectuals were for the Advancement of Colored was unemployed.trial ended. The state wisely declined supportive. H.L. Mencken, the People (NAACP), which helped The presidential campaign ofto retry Scopes. Urban sophisticates decade’s most important social African Americans gain a national 1932 was chiefly a debate over theridiculed fundamentalism, but it critic, was unsparing in denounc- voice that would grow in importance causes and possible remedies of thecontinued to be a powerful force in ing sham and venality in American with the passing years. Great Depression. President Herbertrural, small-town America. life. He usually found these qualities An African-American literary Hoover, unlucky in entering the Another example of a power- in rural areas and among business- and artistic movement, called the White House only eight months be-ful clash of cultures — one with men. His counterparts of the pro- “Harlem Renaissance,” emerged. fore the stock market crash, had triedfar greater national consequences gressive movement had believed in Like the “Lost Generation,” its harder than any other president be-— was Prohibition. In 1919, after al- “the people” and sought to extend writers, such as the poets Langs- fore him to deal with economic hardmost a century of agitation, the 18th democracy. Mencken, an elitist and ton Hughes and Countee Cullen, times. He had attempted to organizeAmendment to the Constitution was admirer of Nietzsche, bluntly called rejected middle-class values and business, had sped up public worksenacted, prohibiting the manufac- democratic man a boob and charac- conventional literary forms, even schedules, established the Recon-ture, sale, or transportation of alco- terized the American middle class as as they addressed the realities of struction Finance Corporation toholic beverages. Intended to elimi- the “booboisie.” African-American experience. Af- support businesses and financialnate the saloon and the drunkard Novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald cap- rican-American musicians — Duke institutions, and had secured from afrom American society, Prohibition tured the energy, turmoil, and disil- Ellington, King Oliver, Louis Arm- reluctant Congress an agency to un-created thousands of illegal drinking lusion of the decade in such works strong — first made jazz a staple of derwrite home mortgages. Nonethe-places called “speakeasies,” made in- as The Beautiful and the Damned American culture in the 1920’s. less, his efforts had little impact, andtoxication fashionable, and created a (1922) and The Great Gatsby (1925). he was a picture of form of criminal activity — the Sinclair Lewis, the first American to THE GREAT DEPRESSION His Democratic opponent, Frank- Itransportation of illegal liquor, or win a Nobel Prize for literature, sati- lin D. Roosevelt, already popular as“bootlegging.” Widely observed in rized mainstream America in Main n October 1929 the booming stock the governor of New York duringrural America, openly evaded in Street (1920) and Babbitt (1922). Er- market crashed, wiping out many the developing crisis, radiated infec-urban America, Prohibition was an nest Hemingway vividly portrayed investors. The collapse did not in tious optimism. Prepared to use theemotional issue in the prosperous the malaise wrought by the war in itself cause the Great Depression, federal government’s authority forTwenties. When the Depression hit, The Sun Also Rises (1926) and A although it reflected excessively easy even bolder experimental remedies,it seemed increasingly irrelevant. Farewell to Arms (1929). Fitzgerald, credit policies that had allowed the he scored a smashing victory — re-The 18th Amendment would be re- Hemingway, and many other writ- market to get out of hand. It also ag- ceiving 22,800,000 popular votes topealed in 1933. ers dramatized their alienation from gravated fragile economies in Europe Hoover’s 15,700,000. The United Fundamentalism and Prohibition America by spending much of the that had relied heavily on American States was about to enter a new erawere aspects of a larger reaction to a decade in Paris. loans. Over the next three years, an of economic and political change. 9modernist social and intellectual African-American culture flow-revolution most visible in changing ered. Between 1910 and 1930, huge 210 211
  • 107. 11 CHAPTER THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II U.S. battleships West Virginia and Tennessee, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.212
  • 108. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “We must be astonishing rapidity the nation’s banks were first closed — and then bird sanctuaries; and conserving coal, petroleum, shale, gas, sodium, the great arsenal reopened only if they were solvent. The administration adopted a policy and helium deposits. A Public Works Administration of democracy.” of moderate currency inflation to start an upward movement in com- (PWA) provided employment for skilled construction workers on a modity prices and to afford some wide variety of mostly medium- to relief to debtors. New governmental large-sized projects. Among the President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1941 agencies brought generous credit most memorable of its many accom- facilities to industry and agricul- plishments were the Bonneville and ture. The Federal Deposit Insurance Grand Coulee Dams in the Pacific Corporation (FDIC) insured sav- Northwest, a new Chicago sewer ings-bank deposits up to $5,000. system, the Triborough Bridge in Federal regulations were imposed New York City, and two aircraft car- upon the sale of securities on the riers (Yorktown and Enterprise) for stock exchange. the U.S. Navy. The Tennessee Valley Authority Unemployment. Roosevelt faced (TVA), both a work relief program ROOSEVELT AND THE gressive era of Theodore Roosevelt unprecedented mass unemployment. and an exercise in public planning, NEW DEAL and Woodrow Wilson. By the time he took office, as many developed the impoverished Ten-InRoosevelt,new president, Franklin What was truly novel about the as 13 million Americans — more nessee River valley area through a 1933 the New Deal, however, was the speed than a quarter of the labor force series of dams built for flood controlD. brought an air of con- with which it accomplished what — were out of work. Bread lines and hydroelectric power generation.fidence and optimism that quickly previously had taken generations. were a common sight in most cit- Its provision of cheap electricity forrallied the people to the banner of Many of its reforms were hast- ies. Hundreds of thousands roamed the area stimulated some economichis program, known as the New ily drawn and weakly administered; the country in search of food, work, progress, but won it the enmity ofDeal. “The only thing we have to some actually contradicted others. and shelter. “Brother, can you spare private electric companies. Newfear is fear itself,” the president de- Moreover, it never succeeded in a dime?” was the refrain of a popu- Dealers hailed it as an example ofclared in his inaugural address to restoring prosperity. Yet its actions lar song. “grass roots democracy.”the nation. provided tangible help for mil- An early step for the unemployed The Federal Emergency Relief In one sense, the New Deal lions of Americans, laid the basis came in the form of the Civilian Administration (FERA), in opera-merely introduced social and eco- for a powerful new political coali- Conservation Corps (CCC), a pro- tion from 1933 to 1935, distributednomic reforms familiar to many tion, and brought to the individual gram that brought relief to young direct relief to hundreds of thou-Europeans for more than a gen- citizen a sharp revival of interest in men between 18 and 25 years of age. sands of people, usually in the formeration. Moreover, the New Deal government. CCC enrollees worked in camps ad- of direct payments. Sometimes, itrepresented the culmination of a ministered by the army. About two assumed the salaries of schoolteach-long-range trend toward abandon- THE FIRST NEW DEAL million took part during the decade. ers and other local public servicement of “laissez-faire” capitalism, They participated in a variety of workers. It also developed numerousgoing back to the regulation of Banking and Finance. When Roos- conservation projects: planting trees small-scale public works projects,the railroads in the 1880s, and the evelt took the presidential oath, the to combat soil erosion and maintain as did the Civil Works Administra-flood of state and national reform banking and credit system of the na- national forests; eliminating stream tion (CWA) from late 1933 into thelegislation introduced in the Pro- tion was in a state of paralysis. With pollution; creating fish, game, and spring of 1934. Criticized as “make 214 215
  • 109. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYwork,” the jobs funded ranged from and dust storms during the 1930s wheat, and a system of planned stor- not only in industry but also in poli-ditch digging to highway repairs to created what became known as the age to ensure a stable food supply. tics. Roosevelt’s Democratic Partyteaching. Roosevelt and his key of- “Dust Bowl.” Crops were destroyed Economic stability for the farmer benefited enormously from theseficials worried about costs but con- and farms ruined. was substantially achieved, albeit at developments.tinued to favor unemployment pro- By 1940, 2.5 million people had great expense and with extraordi-grams based on work relief rather moved out of the Plains states, the nary government oversight. THE SECOND NEW DEAL In its early remarkableNew Dealthan welfare. largest migration in American histo- ry. Of those, 200,000 moved to Cali- Industry and Labor. The National years, theAgriculture. In the spring of 1933, fornia. The migrants were not only Recovery Administration (NRA), sponsored a series ofthe agricultural sector of the econo- farmers, but also professionals, re- established in 1933 with the National legislative initiatives and achievedmy was in a state of collapse. It there- tailers, and others whose livelihoods Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), at- significant increases in productionby provided a laboratory for the New were connected to the health of the tempted to end cut-throat competi- and prices — but it did not bringDealers’ belief that greater regulation farm communities. Many ended up tion by setting codes of fair compet- an end to the Depression. As thewould solve many of the country’s competing for seasonal jobs picking itive practice to generate more jobs sense of immediate crisis eased, newproblems. In 1933, Congress passed crops at extremely low wages. and thus more buying. Although demands emerged. Businessmenthe Agricultural Adjustment Act The government provided aid in welcomed initially, the NRA was mourned the end of “laissez-faire”(AAA) to provide economic relief the form of the Soil Conservation soon criticized for over-regulation and chafed under the regulationsto farmers. The AAA proposed to Service, established in 1935. Farm and was unable to achieve industrial of the NIRA. Vocal attacks alsoraise crop prices by paying farmers a practices that damaged the soil recovery. It was declared unconstitu- mounted from the political leftsubsidy to compensate for voluntary had intensified the impact of the tional in 1935. and right as dreamers, schemers,cutbacks in production. Funds for drought. The service taught farmers The NIRA had guaranteed to la- and politicians alike emerged withthe payments would be generated measures to reduce erosion. In ad- bor the right of collective bargaining economic panaceas that drew wideby a tax levied on industries that dition, almost 30,000 kilometers of through labor unions representing audiences. Dr. Francis E. Townsendprocessed crops. By the time the act trees were planted to break the force individual workers, but the NRA advocated generous old-age pen-had become law, however, the grow- of winds. had failed to overcome strong busi- sions. Father Charles Coughlin, theing season was well under way, and Although the AAA had been ness opposition to independent “radio priest,” called for inflation-the AAA paid farmers to plow under mostly successful, it was abandoned unionism. After its demise in 1935, ary policies and blamed interna-their abundant crops. Crop reduc- in 1936, when its tax on food pro- Congress passed the National Labor tional bankers in speeches increas-tion and further subsidies through cessors was ruled unconstitutional Relations Act, which restated that ingly peppered with anti-Semiticthe Commodity Credit Corporation, by the Supreme Court. Congress guarantee and prohibited employers imagery. Most formidably, Senatorwhich purchased commodities to be quickly passed a farm-relief act, from unfairly interfering with union Huey P. Long of Louisiana, an elo-kept in storage, drove output down which authorized the government to activities. It also created the Nation- quent and ruthless spokesman forand farm prices up. make payments to farmers who took al Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to the displaced, advocated a radical Between 1932 and 1935, farm land out of production for the pur- supervise collective bargaining, ad- redistribution of wealth. (If he hadincome increased by more than 50 pose of soil conservation. In 1938, minister elections, and ensure work- not been assassinated in Septemberpercent, but only partly because of with a pro-New Deal majority on ers the right to choose the organiza- 1935, Long very likely would havefederal programs. During the same the Supreme Court, Congress rein- tion that should represent them in launched a presidential challenge toyears that farmers were being en- stated the AAA. dealing with employers. Franklin Roosevelt in 1936.)couraged to take land out of pro- By 1940 nearly six million farm- The great progress made in labor In the face of these pressures,duction — displacing tenants and ers were receiving federal subsidies. organization brought working peo- President Roosevelt backed a new setsharecroppers — a severe drought New Deal programs also provided ple a growing sense of common in- of economic and social measures.hit the Plains states. Violent wind loans on surplus crops, insurance for terests, and labor’s power increased Prominent among them were mea- 216 217
  • 110. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYsures to fight poverty, create more To these, Roosevelt added the increasingly recalcitrant Southern WAR AND UNEASYwork for the unemployed, and pro- National Labor Relations Act, the conservatives from the Democratic NEUTRALITY Before under way, second termvide a social safety net. “Wealth Tax Act” that increased Party. When he cut high govern- The Works Progress Adminis- taxes on the wealthy, the Public ment spending, moreover, the econ- Roosevelt’stration (WPA), the principal relief Utility Holding Company Act to omy collapsed. These events led to was well his domesticagency of the so-called second New break up large electrical utility con- the rise of a conservative coalition program was overshadowed by theDeal, was the biggest public works glomerates, and a Banking Act that in Congress that was unreceptive to expansionist designs of totalitarianagency yet. It pursued small-scale greatly expanded the power of the new initiatives. regimes in Japan, Italy, and Ger-projects throughout the country, Federal Reserve Board over the large From 1932 to 1938 there was many. In 1931 Japan had invadedconstructing buildings, roads, air- private banks. Also notable was the widespread public debate on the Manchuria, crushed Chinese resis-ports, and schools. Actors, paint- establishment of the Rural Electri- meaning of New Deal policies to tance, and set up the puppet stateers, musicians, and writers were fication Administration, which ex- the nation’s political and economic of Manchukuo. Italy, under Benitoemployed through the Federal The- tended electricity into farming areas life. Americans clearly wanted the Mussolini, enlarged its boundar-ater Project, the Federal Art Project, throughout the country. government to take greater respon- ies in Libya and in 1935 conqueredand the Federal Writers Project. sibility for the welfare of ordinary Ethiopia. Germany, under NaziThe National Youth Administra- A NEW COALITION people, however uneasy they might leader Adolf Hitler, militarized its In athe 1936 victory over his Re-tion gave part-time employment be about big government in general. economy and reoccupied the Rhine-to students, established training election, Roosevelt The New Deal established the foun- land (demilitarized by the Treaty ofprograms, and provided aid to won decisive dations of the modern welfare state Versailles) in 1936. In 1938, Hitlerunemployed youth. The WPA only publican opponent, Alf Landon of in the United States. Roosevelt, per- incorporated Austria into the Ger-included about three million jobless Kansas. He was personally popular, haps the most imposing of the 20th- man Reich and demanded cession ofat a time; when it was abandoned in and the economy seemed near re- century presidents, had established a the German-speaking Sudetenland1943, it had helped a total of nine covery. He took 60 percent of the new standard of mass leadership. from Czechoslovakia. By then, warmillion people. vote and carried all but two states. No American leader, then or seemed imminent. The New Deal’s cornerstone, ac- A broad new coalition aligned with since, used the radio so effectively. The United States, disillusionedcording to Roosevelt, was the Social the Democratic Party emerged, con- In a radio address in 1938, Roos- by the failure of the crusade forSecurity Act of 1935. Social Security sisting of labor, most farmers, most evelt declared: “Democracy has democracy in World War I, an-created a system of state-adminis- urban ethnic groups, African Amer- disappeared in several other great nounced that in no circumstancestered welfare payments for the poor, icans, and the traditionally Demo- nations, not because the people of could any country involved in theunemployed, and disabled based on cratic South. The Republican Party those nations disliked democracy, conflict look to it for aid. Neutral-matching state and federal contribu- received the support of business as but because they had grown tired ity legislation, enacted piecemealtions. It also established a national well as middle-class members of of unemployment and insecurity, of from 1935 to 1937, prohibited tradesystem of retirement benefits draw- small towns and suburbs. This po- seeing their children hungry while in arms with any warring nations,ing on a “trust fund” created by em- litical alliance, with some variation they sat helpless in the face of gov- required cash for all other com-ployer and employee contributions. and shifting, remained intact for ernment confusion and government modities, and forbade AmericanMany other industrialized nations several decades. weakness through lack of leader- flag merchant ships from carryinghad already enacted such programs, Roosevelt’s second term was a ship.” Americans, he concluded, those goods. The objective was tobut calls for such an initiative in the time of consolidation. The presi- wanted to defend their liberties at prevent, at almost any cost, the in-United States had gone unheeded. dent made two serious political any cost and understood that “the volvement of the United States in aSocial Security today is the largest missteps: an ill-advised, unsuccess- first line of the defense lies in the foreign war.domestic program administered by ful attempt to enlarge the Supreme protection of economic security.” With the Nazi conquest of Po-the U.S. government. Court and a failed effort to “purge” land in 1939 and the outbreak of 218 219
  • 111. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYWorld War II, isolationist sentiment toward intervention. Thus the No- JAPAN, PEARL HARBOR, States release Japanese assets andincreased, even though Americans vember election yielded another AND WAR stop U.S. naval expansion in the W mostcourse of the Europeanclearly favored the victims of Hitler’s majority for the president, making Pacific. Hull countered with a pro-aggression and supported the Allied Roosevelt the first, and last, U. S. hile Americans anxiously posal for Japanese withdrawal fromdemocracies, Britain and France. chief executive to be elected to a watched the all its conquests. The swift JapaneseRoosevelt could only wait until pub- third term. war, tension mounted in Asia. Tak- rejection on December 1 left thelic opinion regarding U.S. involve- In early 1941, Roosevelt got Con- ing advantage of an opportunity to talks stalemated.ment was altered by events. gress to approve the Lend-Lease improve its strategic position, Japan On the morning of December 7, After the fall of France and the Program, which enabled him to boldly announced a “new order” in Japanese carrier-based planes ex-beginning of the German air war transfer arms and equipment to which it would exercise hegemony ecuted a devastating surprise attackagainst Britain in mid-1940, the de- any nation (notably Great Britain, over all of the Pacific. Battling for against the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearlbate intensified between those in the later the Soviet Union and China) survival against Nazi Germany, Brit- Harbor, Hawaii.United States who favored aiding the deemed vital to the defense of the ain was unable to resist, abandoning Twenty-one ships were destroyeddemocracies and the antiwar faction United States. Total Lend-Lease aid its concession in Shanghai and tem- or temporarily disabled; 323 aircraftknown as the isolationists. Roos- by war’s end would amount to more porarily closing the Chinese supply were destroyed or damaged; 2,388evelt did what he could to nudge than $50 billion. route from Burma. In the summer soldiers, sailors, and civilians werepublic opinion toward intervention. Most remarkably, in August, he of 1940, Japan won permission killed. However, the U.S. aircraftThe United States joined Canada met with Prime Minister Churchill from the weak Vichy government in carriers that would play such a criti-in a Mutual Board of Defense, and off the coast of Newfoundland. The France to use airfields in northern cal role in the ensuing naval war inaligned with the Latin American re- two leaders issued a “joint state- Indochina (North Vietnam). That the Pacific were at sea and not an-publics in extending collective pro- ment of war aims,” which they September the Japanese formally chored at Pearl Harbor.tection to the nations in the Western called the Atlantic Charter. Bearing joined the Rome-Berlin Axis. The American opinion, still dividedHemisphere. a remarkable resemblance to Wood- United States countered with an about the war in Europe, was uni- Congress, confronted with the row Wilson’s Fourteen Points, it embargo on the export of scrap iron fied overnight by what Presidentmounting crisis, voted immense called for these objectives: no ter- to Japan. Roosevelt called “a day that willsums for rearmament, and in Sep- ritorial aggrandizement; no territo- In July 1941 the Japanese oc- live in infamy.” On December 8,tember 1940 passed the first peace- rial changes without the consent of cupied southern Indochina (South Congress declared a state of wartime conscription bill ever enacted the people concerned; the right of Vietnam), signaling a probable with Japan; three days later Ger-in the United States. In that month all people to choose their own form move southward toward the oil, tin, many and Italy declared war on thealso, Roosevelt concluded a daring of government; the restoration of and rubber of British Malaya and United States.executive agreement with British self-government to those deprived the Dutch East Indies. The UnitedPrime Minister Winston Churchill. of it; economic collaboration be- States, in response, froze Japanese MOBILIZATION FORThe United States gave the British tween all nations; freedom from assets and initiated an embargo on TOTAL WARNavy 50 “overage” destroyers in re- war, from fear, and from want for T the one commodity Japan neededturn for British air and naval bases all peoples; freedom of the seas; above all others — oil. he nation rapidly geared itself forin Newfoundland and the North and the abandonment of the use General Hideki Tojo became mobilization of its people and itsAtlantic. of force as an instrument of inter- prime minister of Japan that Oc- entire industrial capacity. Over the The 1940 presidential election national policy. tober. In mid-November, he sent a next three-and-a-half years, war in-campaign demonstrated that the America was now neutral in special envoy to the United States dustry achieved staggering produc-isolationists, while vocal, were a name only. to meet with Secretary of State tion goals — 300,000 aircraft, 5,000minority. Roosevelt’s Republican Cordell Hull. Among other things, cargo ships, 60,000 landing craft,opponent, Wendell Wilkie, leaned Japan demanded that the United 86,000 tanks. Women workers, ex- 220 221
  • 112. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYemplified by “Rosie the Riveter,” THE WAR IN NORTH AFRICA During that time, Benito Musso- sians advancing irresistibly from theplayed a bigger part in industrial AND EUROPE lini fell from power in Italy. His East. On May 7, Germany surren- Sproduction than ever before. Total successors began negotiations with dered unconditionally.strength of the U.S. armed forces at oon after the United States en- the Allies and surrendered imme-the end of the war was more than tered the war, the United States, diately after the invasion of the Ital- THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC U.S. troops were forcedearly 1942,12 million. All the nation’s activi- Britain, and the Soviet Union (at ian mainland in September. How-ties — farming, manufacturing, war with Germany since June 22, ever, the German Army had by then to surren-mining, trade, labor, investment, 1941) decided that their primary taken control of the peninsula. The der in the Philippines incommunications, even education military effort was to be concen- fight against Nazi forces in Italy was but the Americans rallied in theand cultural undertakings — were trated in Europe. bitter and protracted. Rome was not following months. General Jamesin some fashion brought under new Throughout 1942, British and liberated until June 4, 1944. As the “Jimmy” Doolittle led U.S. Armyand enlarged controls. German forces fought inconclusive Allies slowly moved north, they built bombers on a raid over Tokyo in As a result of Pearl Harbor and back-and-forth battles across Libya airfields from which they made dev- April; it had little actual militarythe fear of Asian espionage, Ameri- and Egypt for control of the Suez astating air raids against railroads, significance, but gave Americans ancans also committed what was Canal. But on October 23, Brit- factories, and weapon emplacements immense psychological boost.later recognized as an act of intol- ish forces commanded by General in southern Germany and central In May, at the Battle of the Coralerance: the internment of Japanese Sir Bernard Montgomery struck at Europe, including the oil installa- Sea — the first naval engagement inAmericans. In February 1942, nearly the Germans from El Alamein. tions at Ploesti, Romania. history in which all the fighting was120,000 Japanese Americans resid- Equipped with a thousand tanks, Late in 1943 the Allies, after much done by carrier-based planes — aing in California were removed from many made in America, they defeat- debate over strategy, decided to open Japanese naval invasion fleet senttheir homes and interned behind ed General Erwin Rommel’s army a front in France to compel the Ger- to strike at southern New Guineabarbed wire in 10 wretched tem- in a grinding two-week campaign. mans to divert far larger forces from and Australia was turned back by aporary camps, later to be moved to On November 7, American and Brit- the Soviet Union. U.S. task force in a close battle. A few“relocation centers” outside isolated ish armed forces landed in French U.S. General Dwight D. Eisen- weeks later, the naval Battle of Mid-Southwestern towns. North Africa. Squeezed between hower was appointed Supreme way in the central Pacific resulted in Nearly 63 percent of these Japa- forces advancing from east and west, Commander of Allied Forces in Eu- the first major defeat of the Japanesenese Americans were American- the Germans were pushed back and, rope. After immense preparations, Navy, which lost four aircraft car-born U.S. citizens. A few were Japa- after fierce resistance, surrendered on June 6, 1944, a U.S., British, and riers. Ending the Japanese advancenese sympathizers, but no evidence in May 1943. Canadian invasion army, protected across the central Pacific, Midwayof espionage ever surfaced. Others The year 1942 was also the turn- by a greatly superior air force, land- was the turning point.volunteered for the U.S. Army and ing point on the Eastern Front. The ed on five beaches in Normandy. Other battles also contributedfought with distinction and valor Soviet Union, suffering immense With the beachheads established to Allied success. The six-monthin two infantry units on the Italian losses, stopped the Nazi invasion at after heavy fighting, more troops land and sea battle for the island offront. Some served as interpreters the gates of Leningrad and Moscow. poured in, and pushed the Germans Guadalcanal (August 1942-Febru-and translators in the Pacific. In the winter of 1942-43, the Red back in one bloody engagement af- ary 1943) was the first major U.S. In 1983 the U.S. government ac- Army defeated the Germans at Stal- ter another. On August 25 Paris was ground victory in the Pacific. Forknowledged the injustice of intern- ingrad (Volgograd) and began the liberated. most of the next two years, Ameri-ment with limited payments to those long offensive that would take them The Allied offensive stalled that can and Australian troops foughtJapanese-Americans of that era who to Berlin in 1945. fall, then suffered a setback in east- their way northward from thewere still living. In July 1943 British and Ameri- ern Belgium during the winter, but South Pacific and westward from can forces invaded Sicily and won in March, the Americans and British the Central Pacific, capturing the control of the island in a month. were across the Rhine and the Rus- Solomons, the Gilberts, the Mar- 222 223
  • 113. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYshalls, and the Marianas in a series cretly agreed to enter the war against Japanese Prime Minister Tojo. Gen- a preview of what they would face inof amphibious assaults. Japan three months after the sur- eral Douglas MacArthur — who a planned invasion of Japan. render of Germany. In return, the had reluctantly left the Philippines The heads of the U.S., British, THE POLITICS OF WAR USSR would gain effective control of two years before to escape Japanese and Soviet governments met at Pots-Allied militaryseries of important Manchuria and receive the Japanese capture — returned to the islands in dam, a suburb outside Berlin, from efforts were ac- Kurile Islands as well as the southern October. The accompanying Battle July 17 to August 2, 1945, to discusscompanied by a half of Sakhalin Island. The eastern of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval en- operations against Japan, the peaceinternational meetings on the politi- boundary of Poland was set roughly gagement ever fought, was the final settlement in Europe, and a policycal objectives of the war. In January at the Curzon line of 1919, thus giv- decisive defeat of the Japanese Navy. for the future of Germany. Perhaps1943 at Casablanca, Morocco, an ing the USSR half its prewar terri- By February 1945, U.S. forces had presaging the coming end of the al-Anglo-American conference de- tory. Discussion of reparations to be taken Manila. liance, they had no trouble on vaguecided that no peace would be con- collected from Germany — payment Next, the United States set its matters of principle or the practicalcluded with the Axis and its Balkan demanded by Stalin and opposed by sight on the strategic island of Iwo issues of military occupation, butsatellites except on the basis of “un- Roosevelt and Churchill — was in- Jima in the Bonin Islands, about reached no agreement on many tan-conditional surrender.” This term, conclusive. Specific arrangements halfway between the Marianas and gible issues, including reparations.insisted upon by Roosevelt, sought were made concerning Allied occu- Japan. The Japanese, trained to die The day before the Potsdam Con-to assure the people of all the fight- pation in Germany and the trial and fighting for the Emperor, made sui- ference began, U.S. nuclear scientistsing nations that no separate peace punishment of war criminals. Also cidal use of natural caves and rocky engaged in the secret Manhattannegotiations would be carried on at Yalta it was agreed that the great terrain. U.S. forces took the island Project exploded an atomic bombwith representatives of Fascism and powers in the Security Council of by mid-March, but not before los- near Alamogordo, New Mexico. TheNazism and there would be no com- the proposed United Nations should ing the lives of some 6,000 U.S. test was the culmination of threepromise of the war’s idealistic objec- have the right of veto in matters af- Marines. Nearly all the Japanese de- years of intensive research in labo-tives. Axis propagandists, of course, fecting their security. fenders perished. By now the United ratories across the United States. Itused it to assert that the Allies were Two months after his return States was undertaking extensive air lay behind the Potsdam Declara-engaged in a war of extermination. from Yalta, Franklin Roosevelt died attacks on Japanese shipping and tion, issued on July 26 by the United At Cairo, in November 1943, of a cerebral hemorrhage while va- airfields and wave after wave of in- States and Britain, promising thatRoosevelt and Churchill met with cationing in Georgia. Few figures cendiary bombing attacks against Japan would neither be destroyedNationalist Chinese leader Chiang in U.S. history have been so deeply Japanese cities. nor enslaved if it surrendered. IfKai-shek to agree on terms for Ja- mourned, and for a time the Ameri- At Okinawa (April 1-June 21, Japan continued the war, however,pan, including the relinquishment can people suffered from a numbing 1945), the Americans met even fierc- it would meet “prompt and utterof gains from past aggression. At sense of irreparable loss. Vice Presi- er resistance. With few of the de- destruction.” President Truman,Tehran, shortly afterward, Roos- dent Harry Truman, former senator fenders surrendering, the U.S. Army calculating that an atomic bombevelt, Churchill, and Soviet leader from Missouri, succeeded him. and Marines were forced to wage a might be used to gain Japan’s sur-Joseph Stalin made basic agreements war of annihilation. Waves of Ka- render more quickly and with feweron the postwar occupation of Ger- WAR, VICTORY, AND mikaze suicide planes pounded the casualties than an invasion of themany and the establishment of a THE BOMB offshore Allied fleet, inflicting more mainland, ordered that the bomb be Tnew international organization, the damage than at Leyte Gulf. Japan used if the Japanese did not surren-United Nations. he final battles in the Pacific were lost 90-100,000 troops and prob- der by August 3. In February 1945, the three Al- among the war’s bloodiest. In June ably as many Okinawan civilians. A committee of U.S. military andlied leaders met again at Yalta (now 1944, the Battle of the Philippine Sea U.S. losses were more than 11,000 political officials and scientists hadin Ukraine), with victory seemingly effectively destroyed Japanese naval killed and nearly 34,000 wounded. considered the question of targetssecure. There, the Soviet Union se- air power, forcing the resignation of Most Americans saw the fighting as for the new weapon. Secretary of 224 225
  • 114. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY THE RISE OF INDUSTRIAL UNIONSWar Henry L. Stimson argued suc- tion they drafted outlined a worldcessfully that Kyoto, Japan’s ancientcapital and a repository of many organization in which international differences could be discussed W the 1920s were years of relative prosperity in the United States, the hile workers in industries such as steel, automobiles, rubber, and textiles benefitednational and religious treasures, be peacefully and common cause made less than they would later in the years after World War II. Working conditionstaken out of consideration. Hiro- against hunger and disease. In con- in many of these industries did improve. Some companies in the 1920s beganshima, a center of war industries trast to its rejection of U.S. mem-and military operations, became the bership in the League of Nations to institute “welfare capitalism” by offering workers various pension, profit-first objective. after World War I, the U.S. Senate sharing, stock option, and health plans to ensure their loyalty. Still, shop floor On August 6, a U.S. plane, the promptly ratified the U.N. Charter environments were often hard and authoritarian.Enola Gay, dropped an atomic bomb by an 89 to 2 vote. This action con- The 1920s saw the mass production industries redouble their efforts toon the city of Hiroshima. On Au- firmed the end of the spirit of isola- prevent the growth of unions, which under the American Federation of Laborgust 9, a second atomic bomb was tionism as a dominating element in (AFL) had enjoyed some success during World War I. They did so by usingdropped, this time on Nagasaki. American foreign policy. spies and armed strikebreakers and by firing those suspected of union sym-The bombs destroyed large sections In November 1945 at Nurem- pathies. Independent unions were often accused of being Communist. At theof both cities, with massive loss of berg, Germany, the criminal trials same time, many companies formed their own compliant employee organiza-life. On August 8, the USSR declared of 22 Nazi leaders, provided for at tions, often called “company unions.”war on Japan and attacked Japanese Potsdam, took place. Before a group Traditionally, state legislatures, reflecting the views of the American mid-forces in Manchuria. On August of distinguished jurists from Brit- dle class, supported the concept of the “open shop,” which prevented a union14, Japan agreed to the terms set at ain, France, the Soviet Union, andPotsdam. On September 2, 1945, the United States, the Nazis were ac- from being the exclusive representative of all workers. This made it easier forJapan formally surrendered. Ameri- cused not only of plotting and wag- companies to deny unions the right to collective bargaining and block union-cans were relieved that the bomb ing aggressive war but also of violat- ization through court enforcement.hastened the end of the war. The ing the laws of war and of humanity Between 1920 and 1929, union membership in the United Statesrealization of the full implications of in the systematic genocide, known as dropped from about five million to three-and-a-half million. The large un-nuclear weapons’ awesome destruc- the Holocaust, of European Jews and skilled or semi-skilled industries remained unorganized.tiveness would come later. other peoples. The trials lasted more The onset of the Great Depression led to widespread unemployment. By Within a month, on October than 10 months. Twenty-two defen- 1933 there were over 12 million Americans out of work. In the automobile in-24, the United Nations came into dants were convicted, 12 of them dustry, for example, the work force was cut in half between 1929 and 1933. Atexistence following the meeting of sentenced to death. Similar proceed- the same time, wages dropped by two-thirds.representatives of 50 nations in San ings would be held against Japanese The election of Franklin Roosevelt, however, was to change the status ofFrancisco, California. The constitu- war leaders. 9 the American industrial worker forever. The first indication that Roosevelt was interested in the well-being of workers came with the appointment of Frances Perkins, a prominent social welfare advocate, to be his secretary of labor. (Perkins was also the first woman to hold a Cabinet-level position.) The far- reaching National Industrial Recovery Act sought to raise industrial wages, limit the hours in a work week, and eliminate child labor. Most importantly, the law recognized the right of employees “to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing.” John L. Lewis, the feisty and articulate head of the United Mine Work- ers (UMW), understood more than any other labor leader what the New Deal meant for workers. Stressing Roosevelt’s support, Lewis engineered a major 226 227
  • 115. CHAPTER 11: THE NEW DEAL AND WORLD WAR II In the depths of the Great Depression, March 1933, anxious depositors line up outside of a New York bank. The new president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, had just temporarily closed the nation’s banks to end the drain on theunionizing campaign, rebuilding the UMW’s declining membership from banks’ reserves. Only those banks that were still solvent were permitted150,000 to over 500,000 within a year. to reopen after a four-day “bank holiday.” Lewis was eager to get the AFL, where he was a member of the Execu-tive Council, to launch a similar drive in the mass production industries. Butthe AFL, with its historic focus on the skilled trade worker, was unwilling todo so. After a bitter internal feud, Lewis and a few others broke with the AFLto set up the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), later the Congressof Industrial Organizations. The passage of the National Labor Relations Act(NLRA) in 1935 and the friendly attitude of the National Labor RelationsBoard put the power and authority of the federal government behind the CIO. Its first targets were the notoriously anti-union auto and steel industries.In late 1936 a series of sit-down strikes, orchestrated by the fledgling UnitedAuto Workers union under Walter Reuther, erupted at General Motors plantsin Cleveland, Ohio, and Flint, Michigan. Soon 135,000 workers were involvedand GM production ground to a halt. With the sympathetic governor of Michigan refusing to evict the strikers,a settlement was reached in early 1937. By September of that year, the UnitedAuto Workers had contracts with 400 companies involved in the automobileindustry, assuring workers a minimum wage of 75 cents per hour and a 40-hour work week. In the first six months of its existence, the Steel Workers OrganizingCommittee (SWOC), headed by Lewis lieutenant Philip Murray, picked up125,000 members. The major American steel company, U.S. Steel, realizingthat times had changed, also came to terms in 1937. That same year the Su- TU R M O I L AN D CHANGEpreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the NLRA. Subsequently, smallercompanies, traditionally even more anti-union than the large corporations,gave in. One by one, other industries — rubber, oil, electronics, and textiles— also followed suit. The rise of big labor had two major long-term impacts. It became the A PICTURE PROFILEorganizational core of the national Democratic Party, and it gained materialbenefits for its members that all but erased the economic distinction between For the United States, the 20th century was a period of extraordinary turmoil and change. In these decades, the nation endured the worstworking-class and middle-class America.  economic depression in its history; emerged triumphant, with the Allies, in World War II; assumed a role of global leadership in the century’s twilight conflict known as the Cold War; and underwent a remarkable social, economic, and political transition at home. Where once the United States transformed itself over the slow march of centuries, it now seemed to reinvent itself almost by decades. 228 229
  • 116. Men and women strikers dance the time away on March 11, 1937, during a strikeat the Chevrolet Fisher Body Plants in St. Louis, Missouri. Strikes such as thesesucceeded in winning union recognition for industrial workers throughoutthe country in the 1930s.President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs perhaps the most far-reaching legislation World War II in the Pacific was characterized by large-scale naval and air battles.of the New Deal: the Social Security Act of 1935. Today, Social Security, one of Here, a Japanese plane plunges down in flames during an attack on a U.S. carrierthe largest government programs in the United States, provides retirement and fleet in the Mariana Islands, June 1944. U.S. Army and Marine forces’ “island hopping”disability income to millions of Americans. campaign began at Guadalcanal in August 1942 and ended with the assault on Okinawa in April 1945. 230 231
  • 117. Assembly line of P-38 Lightning fighter planes during World War II. With its massive output of war materiel, the United States became, in the words of President Roosevelt, “the arsenal of democracy.”Top, General Dwight Eisenhower, Supreme Commander in Europe, talks withparatroopers shortly before the Normandy invasion, June 6, 1944.Above, General Douglas MacArthur (center) had declared, “I shall return,” Japanese Americans awaitwhen he escaped from advancing Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1942. relocation to internmentTwo years later, he made good on his promise and waded ashore at Leyte as camps in the worst violationAmerican forces began the liberation of the Philippines. of human rights that occurred inside the United States during World II. 232 233
  • 118. In perhaps the most famous photograph in American political history, President Harry Truman holds aloft a newspaper wrongly announcing his defeat by Republican nominee Thomas Dewey in the 1948 presidential election. Truman’s come-from-behind victory surprised all political experts that day.Meeting of British PrimeMinister Winston Churchill,President Roosevelt, andSoviet leader Josef Stalinat Yalta in February 1945.Disagreements over thefuture of Europe anticipatedthe division of the Europeancontinent that remained afixture of the Cold War. U.S. troops witness a nuclear test in the Nevada desert in 1951. The threat of nuclear weapons remained a constant and ominous fact of life throughout the U.S. infantry fire against North Korean forces invading South Korea in 1951, Cold War era. in a conflict that lasted three painful years. 234
  • 119. At a congressional hearing in 1954, Senator Joseph McCarthy points to a mappurportedly showing Communist Party influence in the United States in 1950.His chief antagonist at the hearing, lawyer Joseph Welch, sits at left. Welchsuccessfully discredited McCarthy at these hearings, which were among thefirst to be televised across the country. Jackie Robinson, sliding home in a 1948 baseball game. Robinson broke the color barrier against black professional baseball players when he joined the Brooklyn Dodgers and became one of the stars of the game. Portrait of President Dwight Eisenhower, whose genial, reassuring personality dominated the decade of the 1950s. 236 237
  • 120. Lucille Ball (second from left) with her supporting cast, including husband Desi Arnaz (standing), on one of the most popular television comedy shows of the 1950s, I Love Lucy. The show established many of the techniques and conventions shared by hundreds of the televised “situation comedies” that followed.America’s first star of rock and roll, Elvis Presley, performing on television’s “EdSullivan Show,” September 9, 1956. Today, years after his death, he is stillrevered by legions of his fans as “The King.” 238 239
  • 121. Above, Rosa Parks sits in one of the front seats of a city bus followingthe successful boycott of the bus system in 1955-56 by African-American citizens of Montgomery, Alabama. The boycott wasorganized to protest the practice of segregation in which AfricanAmericans were forced to sit in the back of the bus. The SupremeCourt agreed that this practice was a constitutional violation ayear after the boycott began. The great leader of the civil rightsmovement in America, Martin Luther King Jr., gained nationalprominence through the Montgomery bus boycott.Opposite page, right, Martin Luther King Jr. escorts children to apreviously all-white public school in Grenada, Mississippi, in 1966.Although school segregation was outlawed in the landmark Brownv. Board of Education decision of the Supreme Court in 1954, it tookdecades of protest, political pressure, and additional court decisionsto enforce school desegregation across the country. 240 241
  • 122. President John F. Kennedy addresses nearly a quarter of a million Germans inWest Berlin in June 1963. Honoring the courage of those living in one of theflash points of the Cold War, he said, “All free men, wherever they may live, arecitizens of Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words, ‘Ich bin einBerliner’ (I am a Berliner.)” Ratification document for the 1963 Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, one of the first arms control agreements between the West and the Soviet bloc, which ended atmospheric nuclear testing. 242
  • 123. Thurgood Marshall, one of the champions of equal rights for all Americans. As President Lyndon B. Johnson, born in Texas, was Senate majority leader in the a counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Eisenhower years and vice president under John F. Kennedy before becoming (NAACP), Marshall successfully argued the landmark 1954 Brown v. Board of president. One of the most powerful political personalities to serve in Washington,Education case before the Supreme Court, which outlawed segregation in public Johnson engineered the most ambitious domestic legislative agenda throughschools. He later served a distinguished career as a justice of the Supreme Court. Congress since Roosevelt’s New Deal. The Vietnam War ended his presidency, however, since it divided the nation. 244 245
  • 124. A U.S. Army unit searches for snipers while onpatrol in South Vietnam in 1965. From 60,000troops in 1965, U.S. forces grew to more than540,000 by 1969, in a conflict that dividedthe nation more bitterly than any other in the 20th century. The last U.S. combat forces left Vietnam in 1973. 247
  • 125. Antiwar demonstrators and police clash during violent protests at the 1968Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois. Antiwar candidates atthe convention lost the presidential nomination to Lyndon Johnson’s vicepresident, Hubert Humphrey. The crest of the counterculture wave in the United States: the three-day 1969 outdoor rock concert and gathering known as Woodstock.Two of the leaders of the women’s movement in the 1960s: Kate Millett (left),author of a controversial book of the time, Sexual Politics, and journalist andactivist Gloria Steinem. 248 249
  • 126. Mexican-American labor activist CésarChávez (center) talking with grapepickers in the field in 1968. Head of theUnited Farm Workers Union in California,Chávez was a leading voice for therights of migrant farm workers, focusingnational attention on their terribleworking conditions. President Richard M. Nixon, with his wife Pat Nixon and Secretary of State William Rogers (far right), walks along a portion of the Great Wall of China. Nixon’s 1972 opening to the People’s Republic of China was a major diplomatic triumph at a time when U.S. forces were slowly withdrawing from South Vietnam. 250 251
  • 127. Civil rights leader and political activist Jesse Jackson at a political rally in 1984. For more than four decades, Jackson has remained among the most prominent, politically active, and eloquent representatives of what he has termed a “Rainbow Coalition” of the poor, African Americans, and other minorities.Participant in a demonstration by NativeAmericans in Washington, D.C., in 1978.They also have sought to assert their rightsand identity in recent decades. Oil fires burn behind a destroyed Iraqi tank at the conclusion of the Gulf War in February 1991. The United States led a coalition of more than 30 nations in an air and ground campaign called Desert Storm that ended Iraq’s occupation of Kuwait. 252 253
  • 128. President George H.W. Bush with Poland’s Lech Walesa (center) and First Lady Barbara Bush in Warsaw, July 1989. That remarkable year saw the end of the Cold War, as well as the end to the 40-year division of Europe into hostile East and West blocs. President William (Bill) J. Clinton, delivering his inaugural address to the nation, January 21, 1993. During his administration, the United States enjoyed more peace and economic well-being than at any time in its history. He was theA launch of a space shuttle, the first reusable space vehicle. The versatile shuttle, second U.S. presidentwhich has been used to place satellites in orbit and conduct wide-ranging experiments, to be impeached andis indispensable in the assemblage (beginning June 1998) and running of the found not guilty.International Space Station. 254 255
  • 129. 12 CHAPTER POSTWAR AMERICA Moving day in a newly opened suburban community, 1953.256
  • 130. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “We must build a new world, COLD WAR AIMS (1929-40), America now advocated a far better world — T open trade for two reasons: to create he Cold War was the most im- markets for American agricultural portant political and diplomatic and industrial products, and to en- one in which the issue of the early postwar period. It sure the ability of Western Euro- grew out of longstanding disagree- pean nations to export as a means eternal dignity of man ments between the Soviet Union of rebuilding their economies. and the United States that devel- Reduced trade barriers, American is respected.” oped after the Russian Revolution of policy makers believed, would pro- 1917. The Soviet Communist Party mote economic growth at home and under V.I. Lenin considered itself abroad, bolstering U.S. friends and the spearhead of an international allies in the process. President Harry S Truman, 1945 movement that would replace the The Soviet Union had its own existing political orders in the West, agenda. The Russian historical and indeed throughout the world. In tradition of centralized, autocratic 1918 American troops participated government contrasted with the in the Allied intervention in Russia American emphasis on democracy. on behalf of anti-Bolshevik forces. Marxist-Leninist ideology had been American diplomatic recognition of downplayed during the war but still the Soviet Union did not come until guided Soviet policy. Devastated by CONSENSUS AND CHANGE the growth of government author- 1933. Even then, suspicions persist- the struggle in which 20 millionThe United States dominated global ity and accepted the outlines of the ed. During World War II, however, Soviet citizens had died, the Soviet rudimentary welfare state first for- the two countries found themselves Union was intent on rebuilding andaffairs in the years immediately af- mulated during the New Deal. They allied and downplayed their differ- on protecting itself from anotherter World War II. Victorious in that enjoyed a postwar prosperity that ences to counter the Nazi threat. such terrible conflict. The Sovietsgreat struggle, its homeland undam- created new levels of affluence. At the war’s end, antagonisms were particularly concerned aboutaged from the ravages of war, the But gradually some began to surfaced again. The United States another invasion of their terri-nation was confident of its mission question dominant assumptions. hoped to share with other countries tory from the west. Having repelledat home and abroad. U.S. leaders Challenges on a variety of fronts its conception of liberty, equality, Hitler’s thrust, they were determinedwanted to maintain the democratic shattered the consensus. In the and democracy. It sought also to to preclude another such attack.structure they had defended at 1950s, African Americans launched learn from the perceived mistakes of They demanded “defensible” bor-tremendous cost and to share the a crusade, joined later by other mi- the post-WWI era, when American ders and “friendly” regimes in East-benefits of prosperity as widely as nority groups and women, for a larg- political disengagement and eco- ern Europe and seemingly equatedpossible. For them, as for publisher er share of the American dream. In nomic protectionism were thought both with the spread of Commu-Henry Luce of Time magazine, this the 1960s, politically active students to have contributed to the rise of dic- nism, regardless of the wishes ofwas the “American Century.” protested the nation’s role abroad, tatorships in Europe and elsewhere. native populations. However, the For 20 years most Americans particularly in the corrosive war in Faced again with a postwar world United States had declared that oneremained sure of this confident Vietnam. A youth counterculture of civil wars and disintegrating of its war aims was the restorationapproach. They accepted the need emerged to challenge the status quo. empires, the nation hoped to pro- of independence and self-govern-for a strong stance against the So- Americans from many walks of life vide the stability to make peaceful ment to Poland, Czechoslovakia,viet Union in the Cold War that sought to establish a new social and reconstruction possible. Recalling and the other countries of Centralunfolded after 1945. They endorsed political equilibrium. the specter of the Great Depression and Eastern Europe. 258 259
  • 131. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY HARRY TRUMAN’S ment following the Western model. descended across the Continent.” straits between the Black Sea and LEADERSHIP The Yalta Conference of February Britain and the United States, he the Mediterranean. In early 1947,T 1945 had produced an agreement on declared, had to work together to American policy crystallized when he nation’s new chief executive, Eastern Europe open to different in- counter the Soviet threat. Britain told the United States thatHarry S Truman, succeeded Frank- terpretations. It included a promise it could no longer afford to supportlin D. Roosevelt as president before of “free and unfettered” elections. CONTAINMENT the government of Greece against a Containment of thepolicy in thethe end of the war. An unpretentious Meeting with Soviet Minister of strong Communist who had previously served as Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov Soviet Union In a strongly worded speech toDemocratic senator from Missouri, less than two weeks after becoming became American Congress, Truman declared, “I be-then as vice president, Truman president, Truman stood firm on postwar years. George Kennan, a lieve that it must be the policy of theinitially felt ill-prepared to govern. Polish self-determination, lecturing top official at the U.S. embassy in United States to support free peoplesRoosevelt had not discussed com- the Soviet diplomat about the need Moscow, defined the new approach who are resisting attempted subjuga-plex postwar issues with him, and he to implement the Yalta accords. in the Long Telegram he sent to tion by armed minorities or by out-had little experience in international When Molotov protested, “I have the State Department in 1946. He side pressures.” Journalists quicklyaffairs. “I’m not big enough for this never been talked to like that in my extended his analysis in an ar- dubbed this statement the “Trumanjob,” he told a former colleague. life,” Truman retorted, “Carry out ticle under the signature “X” in the Doctrine.” The president asked Still, Truman responded quickly your agreements and you won’t get prestigious journal Foreign Affairs. Congress to provide $400 million forto new challenges. Sometimes im- talked to like that.” Relations dete- Pointing to Russia’s traditional sense economic and military aid, mostlypulsive on small matters, he proved riorated from that point onward. of insecurity, Kennan argued that to Greece but also to Turkey. Afterwilling to make hard and carefully During the closing months of the Soviet Union would not soften an emotional debate that resembledconsidered decisions on large ones. World War II, Soviet military forces its stance under any circumstances. the one between interventionistsA small sign on his White House occupied all of Central and Eastern Moscow, he wrote, was “committed and isolationists before World Wardesk declared, “The Buck Stops Europe. Moscow used its military fanatically to the belief that with the II, the money was appropriated.Here.” His judgments about how power to support the efforts of United States there can be no perma- Critics from the left later chargedto respond to the Soviet Union ulti- the Communist parties in Eastern nent modus vivendi, that it is desir- that to whip up American supportmately determined the shape of the Europe and crush the democratic able and necessary that the internal for the policy of containment, Tru-early Cold War. parties. Communists took over one harmony of our society be disrupt- man overstated the Soviet threat to nation after another. The process ed.” Moscow’s pressure to expand the United States. In turn, his state- ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR concluded with a shocking coup its power had to be stopped through ments inspired a wave of hystericalT d’etat in Czechoslovakia in 1948. “firm and vigilant containment of anti-Communism throughout the he Cold War developed as differ- Public statements defined the Russian expansive tendencies. ...” country. Perhaps so. Others, how-ences about the shape of the postwar beginning of the Cold War. In 1946 The first significant application ever, would counter that this argu-world created suspicion and distrust Stalin declared that international of the containment doctrine came ment ignores the backlash that likelybetween the United States and the peace was impossible “under the in the Middle East and eastern Med- would have occurred if Greece, Tur-Soviet Union. The first — and present capitalist development of iterranean. In early 1946, the United key, and other countries had fallenmost difficult — test case was Po- the world economy.” Former British States demanded, and obtained, a within the Soviet orbit with no op-land, the eastern half of which had Prime Minister Winston Churchill full Soviet withdrawal from Iran, position from the United States.been invaded and occupied by the delivered a dramatic speech in Ful- the northern half of which it had Containment also called for ex-USSR in 1939. Moscow demanded a ton, Missouri, with Truman sitting occupied during the war. That sum- tensive economic aid to assist the re-government subject to Soviet influ- on the platform. “From Stettin in mer, the United States pointedly covery of war-torn Western Europe.ence; Washington wanted a more the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic,” supported Turkey against Soviet de- With many of the region’s nationsindependent, representative govern- Churchill said, “an iron curtain has mands for control of the Turkish economically and politically un- 260 261
  • 132. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYstable, the United States feared that American leaders feared that policy. Based on the assumption that of control, at least in Asia.local Communist parties, directed losing Berlin would be a prelude to “the Soviet Union was engaged in a The Korean War brought armedby Moscow, would capitalize on losing Germany and subsequently all fanatical effort to seize control of conflict between the United Statestheir wartime record of resistance to of Europe. Therefore, in a successful all governments wherever possible,” and China. The United States andthe Nazis and come to power. “The demonstration of Western resolve the document committed America the Soviet Union had divided Koreapatient is sinking while the doctors known as the Berlin Airlift, Allied air to assist allied nations anywhere in along the 38th parallel after liberat-deliberate,” declared Secretary of forces took to the sky, flying supplies the world that seemed threatened by ing it from Japan at the end of WorldState George C. Marshall. In mid- into Berlin. U.S., French, and British Soviet aggression. After the start of War II. Originally a matter of mili-1947 Marshall asked troubled Euro- planes delivered nearly 2,250,000 the Korean War, a reluctant Truman tary convenience, the dividing linepean nations to draw up a program tons of goods, including food and approved the document. The United became more rigid as both major“directed not against any country or coal. Stalin lifted the blockade after States proceeded to increase defense powers set up governments in theirdoctrine but against hunger, pov- 231 days and 277,264 flights. spending dramatically. respective occupation zones anderty, desperation, and chaos.” By then, Soviet domination of continued to support them even af- The Soviets participated in the Eastern Europe, and especially the THE COLD WAR IN ASIA AND ter departing.first planning meeting, then de- Czech coup, had alarmed the West- THE MIDDLE EAST In June 1950, after consultations Wparted rather than share economic ern Europeans. The result, initiated with and having obtained the assentdata and submit to Western controls by the Europeans, was a military hile seeking to prevent Commu- of the Soviet Union, North Koreanon the expenditure of the aid. The alliance to complement economic ef- nist ideology from gaining further leader Kim Il-sung dispatched hisremaining 16 nations hammered forts at containment. The Norwegian adherents in Europe, the United Soviet-supplied army across theout a request that finally came to historian Geir Lundestad has called States also responded to challenges 38th parallel and attacked south-$17,000 million for a four-year pe- it “empire by invitation.” In 1949 the elsewhere. In China, Americans ward, overrunning Seoul. Truman,riod. In early 1948 Congress voted United States and 11 other countries worried about the advances of Mao perceiving the North Koreans asto fund the “Marshall Plan,” which established the North Atlantic Treaty Zedong and his Communist Party. Soviet pawns in the global struggle,helped underwrite the economic Organization (NATO). An attack During World War II, the Nation- readied American forces and orderedresurgence of Western Europe. It against one was to be considered an alist government under Chiang World War II hero General Douglasis generally regarded as one of the attack against all, to be met by ap- Kai-shek and the Communist forces MacArthur to Korea. Meanwhile,most successful foreign policy ini- propriate force. NATO was the first waged a civil war even as they fought the United States was able to securetiatives in U.S. history. peacetime “entangling alliance” with the Japanese. Chiang had been a a U.N. resolution branding North Postwar Germany was a special powers outside the Western hemi- war-time ally, but his government Korea as an aggressor. (The Sovietproblem. It had been divided into sphere in American history. was hopelessly inefficient and cor- Union, which could have vetoed anyU.S., Soviet, British, and French The next year, the United States rupt. American policy makers had action had it been occupying its seatzones of occupation, with the for- defined its defense aims clearly. The little hope of saving his regime and on the Security Council, was boycot-mer German capital of Berlin (itself National Security Council (NSC) considered Europe vastly more im- ting the United Nations to protest adivided into four zones), near the — the forum where the President, portant. With most American aid decision not to admit Mao’s newcenter of the Soviet zone. When Cabinet officers, and other execu- moving across the Atlantic, Mao’s Chinese regime.)the Western powers announced tive branch members consider na- forces seized power in 1949. Chi- The war seesawed back and forth.their intention to create a consoli- tional security and foreign affairs ang’s government fled to the island U.S. and Korean forces were initiallydated federal state from their zones, issues — undertook a full-fledged of Taiwan. When China’s new ruler pushed into an enclave far to theStalin responded. On June 24, 1948, review of American foreign and announced that he would support south around the city of Pusan. ASoviet forces blockaded Berlin, cut- defense policy. The resulting docu- the Soviet Union against the “im- daring amphibious landing at In-ting off all road and rail access from ment, known as NSC-68, signaled a perialist” United States, it appeared chon, the port for the city of Seoul,the West. new direction in American security that Communism was spreading out drove the North Koreans back and 262 263
  • 133. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYthreatened to occupy the entire States officially recognized the new Freedom is pitted against slavery, tian Sinai. The president exertedpeninsula. In November, China state of Israel 15 minutes after it was lightness against dark.” heavy pressure on all three countriesentered the war, sending massive proclaimed — a decision Truman The new president and his secre- to withdraw. Still, the nuclear threatforces across the Yalu River. U.N. made over strong resistance from tary of state, John Foster Dulles, had may have been taken seriously byforces, largely American, retreated Marshall and the State Department. argued that containment did not go Communist China, which refrainedonce again in bitter fighting. Com- The result was an enduring dilemma far enough to stop Soviet expansion. not only from attacking Taiwan, butmanded by General Matthew B. — how to maintain ties with Israel Rather, a more aggressive policy from occupying small islands heldRidgway, they stopped the overex- while keeping good relations with of liberation was necessary, to free by Nationalist Chinese just off thetended Chinese, and slowly fought bitterly anti-Israeli (and oil-rich) those subjugated by Communism. mainland. It may also have deterredtheir way back to the 38th parallel. Arab states. But when a democratic rebellion Soviet occupation of Berlin, whichMacArthur meanwhile challenged broke out in Hungary in 1956, the reemerged as a festering problemTruman’s authority by attempting EISENHOWER AND THE United States stood back as Soviet during Eisenhower’s last two yearsto orchestrate public support for COLD WAR forces suppressed it. in office. In 1953, Dwight D. Eisenhower be-bombing China and assisting an Eisenhower’s basic commitmentinvasion of the mainland by Chiang to contain Communism remained, THE COLD WAR AT HOME NKai-shek’s forces. In April 1951, Tru- came the first Republican president and to that end he increased Ameri-man relieved him of his duties and in 20 years. A war hero rather than can reliance on a nuclear shield. The ot only did the Cold War shapereplaced him with Ridgway. a career politician, he had a natu- United States had created the first U.S. foreign policy, it also had a pro- The Cold War stakes were high. ral, common touch that made him atomic bombs. In 1950 Truman had found effect on domestic affairs.Mindful of the European priority, widely popular. “I like Ike” was the authorized the development of a new Americans had long feared radicalthe U.S. government decided against campaign slogan of the time. After and more powerful hydrogen bomb. subversion. These fears could atsending more troops to Korea and serving as Supreme Commander Eisenhower, fearful that defense times be overdrawn, and used to jus-was ready to settle for the prewar of Allied Forces in Western Eu- spending was out of control, re- tify otherwise unacceptable politicalstatus quo. The result was frustra- rope during World War II, Eisen- versed Truman’s NSC-68 policy of a restrictions, but it also was true thattion among many Americans who hower had been army chief of staff, large conventional military buildup. individuals under Communist Partycould not understand the need president of Columbia University, Relying on what Dulles called “mas- discipline and many “fellow trav-for restraint. Truman’s popularity and military head of NATO before sive retaliation,” the administration eler” hangers-on gave their politicalplunged to a 24-percent approval seeking the Republican presidential signaled it would use nuclear weap- allegiance not to the United States,rating, the lowest to that time of any nomination. Skillful at getting peo- ons if the nation or its vital interests but to the international Communistpresident since pollsters had begun ple to work together, he functioned were attacked. movement, or, practically speaking,to measure presidential popularity. as a strong public spokesman and In practice, however, the nuclear to Moscow. During the Red ScareTruce talks began in July 1951. The an executive manager somewhat re- option could be used only against of 1919-1920, the government hadtwo sides finally reached an agree- moved from detailed policy making. extremely critical attacks. Real attempted to remove perceivedment in July 1953, during the first Despite disagreements on detail, Communist threats were generally threats to American society. Afterterm of Truman’s successor, Dwight he shared Truman’s basic view of peripheral. Eisenhower rejected the World War II, it made strong effortsEisenhower. American foreign policy. He, too, use of nuclear weapons in Indo- against Communism within the Cold War struggles also occurred perceived Communism as a mono- china, when the French were ousted United States. Foreign events, espio-in the Middle East. The region’s stra- lithic force struggling for world su- by Vietnamese Communist forces nage scandals, and politics createdtegic importance as a supplier of oil premacy. In his first inaugural ad- in 1954. In 1956, British and French an anti-Communist hysteria.had provided much of the impetus dress, he declared, “Forces of good forces attacked Egypt following When Republicans were victori-for pushing the Soviets out of Iran in and evil are massed and armed and Egyptian nationalization of the Suez ous in the midterm congressional1946. But two years later, the United opposed as rarely before in history. Canal and Israel invaded the Egyp- elections of 1946 and appeared 264 265
  • 134. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYready to investigate subversive activ- The most vigorous anti-Commu- munist threat at home and abroad 1950s another wave occurred. Fran-ity, President Truman established a nist warrior was Senator Joseph R. had been grossly overblown. As the chise operations like McDonald’sFederal Employee Loyalty Program. McCarthy, a Republican from Wis- country moved into the 1960s, anti- fast-food restaurants allowed smallIt had little impact on the lives of consin. He gained national attention Communism became increasingly entrepreneurs to make themselvesmost civil servants, but a few hun- in 1950 by claiming that he had a list suspect, especially among intellectu- part of large, efficient enterprises.dred were dismissed, some unfairly. of 205 known Communists in the als and opinion-shapers. Big American corporations also In 1947 the House Committee State Department. Though McCar- developed holdings overseas, whereon Un-American Activities investi- thy subsequently changed this figure THE POSTWAR ECONOMY: labor costs were often lower.gated the motion-picture industry several times and failed to substan- 1945-1960 Workers found their own lives In theWar II, the United Statesto determine whether Communist tiate any of his charges, he struck a changing as industrial Americasentiments were being reflected in responsive public chord. decade and a half after changed. Fewer workers producedpopular films. When some writers McCarthy gained power when World goods; more provided services. As(who happened to be secret mem- the Republican Party won control experienced phenomenal economic early as 1956 a majority of employ-bers of the Communist Party) re- of the Senate in 1952. As a commit- growth and consolidated its position ees held white-collar jobs, workingfused to testify, they were cited for tee chairman, he now had a forum as the world’s richest country. Gross as managers, teachers, salespersons,contempt and sent to prison. After for his crusade. Relying on extensive national product (GNP), a measure and office operatives. Some firmsthat, the film companies refused to press and television coverage, he of all goods and services produced granted a guaranteed annual wage,hire anyone with a marginally ques- continued to search for treachery in the United States, jumped from long-term employment contracts,tionable past. among second-level officials in the about $200,000-million in 1940 to and other benefits. With such In 1948, Alger Hiss, who had Eisenhower administration. Enjoy- $300,000-million in 1950 to more changes, labor militancy was under-been an assistant secretary of state ing the role of a tough guy doing than $500,000-million in 1960. mined and some class distinctionsand an adviser to Roosevelt at dirty but necessary work, he pursued More and more Americans now began to fade.Yalta, was publicly accused of be- presumed Communists with vigor. considered themselves part of the Farmers — at least those withing a Communist spy by Whittaker McCarthy overstepped himself middle class. small operations — faced toughChambers, a former Soviet agent. by challenging the U.S. Army when The growth had different sourc- times. Gains in productivity ledHiss denied the accusation, but in one of his assistants was drafted. es. The economic stimulus provided to agricultural consolidation, and1950 he was convicted of perjury. Television brought the hearings into by large-scale public spending for farming became a big business.Subsequent evidence indicates that millions of homes. Many Americans World War II helped get it started. More and more family farmers lefthe was indeed guilty. saw McCarthy’s savage tactics for Two basic middle-class needs did the land. In 1949 the Soviet Union shocked the first time, and public support much to keep it going. The number Other Americans moved too.Americans by testing its own atomic began to wane. The Republican of automobiles produced annually The West and the Southwest grewbomb. In 1950, the government un- Party, which had found McCarthy quadrupled between 1946 and 1955. with increasing rapidity, a trend thatcovered a British-American spy net- useful in challenging a Democratic A housing boom, stimulated in part would continue through the endwork that transferred to the Soviet administration when Truman was by easily affordable mortgages for of the century. Sun Belt cities likeUnion materials about the develop- president, began to see him as an returning servicemen, fueled the ex- Houston, Texas; Miami, Florida; Al-ment of the atomic bomb. Two of embarrassment. The Senate finally pansion. The rise in defense spend- buquerque, New Mexico; and Phoe-its operatives, Julius Rosenberg and condemned him for his conduct. ing as the Cold War escalated also nix, Arizona, expanded rapidly. Loshis wife Ethel, were sentenced to McCarthy in many ways repre- played a part. Angeles, California, moved ahead ofdeath. Attorney General J. Howard sented the worst domestic excesses After 1945 the major corporations Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as theMcGrath declared there were many of the Cold War. As Americans in America grew even larger. There third largest U.S. city and then sur-American Communists, each bear- repudiated him, it became natural had been earlier waves of mergers passed Chicago, metropolis of theing “the germ of death for society.” for many to assume that the Com- in the 1890s and in the 1920s; in the Midwest. The 1970 census showed 266 267
  • 135. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYthat California had displaced New terns. Developed in the 1930s, it was as guaranteed loans for home-buy- In 1948 he sought reelection, despiteYork as the nation’s largest state. not widely marketed until after the ing and financial aid for industrial polls indicating that he had littleBy 2000, Texas had moved ahead of war. In 1946 the country had fewer training and university education. chance. After a vigorous campaign,New York into second place. than 17,000 television sets. Three More troubling was labor unrest. Truman scored one of the great up- An even more important form years later consumers were buying As war production ceased, many sets in American politics, defeatingof movement led Americans out of 250,000 sets a month, and by 1960 workers found themselves without the Republican nominee, Thomasinner cities into new suburbs, where three-quarters of all families owned jobs. Others wanted pay increases Dewey, governor of New York. Re-they hoped to find affordable hous- at least one set. In the middle of the they felt were long overdue. In 1946, viving the old New Deal coalition,ing for the larger families spawned decade, the average family watched 4.6 million workers went on strike, Truman held on to labor, farmers,by the postwar baby boom. Develop- television four to five hours a day. more than ever before in American and African-American voters.ers like William J. Levitt built new Popular shows for children included history. They challenged the automo- When Truman finally left of-communities — with homes that Howdy Doody Time and The Mickey bile, steel, and electrical industries. fice in 1953, his Fair Deal was butall looked alike — using the tech- Mouse Club ; older viewers preferred When they took on the railroads and a mixed success. In July 1948 heniques of mass production. Levitt’s situation comedies like I Love Lucy soft-coal mines, Truman intervened banned racial discrimination in fed-houses were prefabricated — partly and Father Knows Best. Americans of to stop union excesses, but in so do- eral government hiring practices andassembled in a factory rather than all ages became exposed to increas- ing he alienated many workers. ordered an end to segregation in theon the final location — and mod- ingly sophisticated advertisements While dealing with immediately military. The minimum wage hadest, but Levitt’s methods cut costs for products said to be necessary for pressing issues, Truman also provid- risen, and social security programsand allowed new owners to possess a the good life. ed a broader agenda for action. Less had expanded. A housing programpart of the American dream. than a week after the war ended, he brought some gains but left many As suburbs grew, businesses THE FAIR DEAL presented Congress with a 21-point needs unmet. National health insur- Tmoved into the new areas. Large program, which provided for pro- ance, aid-to-education measures,shopping centers containing a great he Fair Deal was the name given tection against unfair employment reformed agricultural subsidies,variety of stores changed consumer to President Harry Truman’s domes- practices, a higher minimum wage, and his legislative civil rights agendapatterns. The number of these cen- tic program. Building on Roosevelt’s greater unemployment compensa- never made it through Congress.ters rose from eight at the end of New Deal, Truman believed that the tion, and housing assistance. In The president’s pursuit of the ColdWorld War II to 3,840 in 1960. With federal government should guaran- the next several months, he added War, ultimately his most importanteasy parking and convenient evening tee economic opportunity and social proposals for health insurance and objective, made it especially difficulthours, customers could avoid city stability. He struggled to achieve those atomic energy legislation. But this to develop support for social reformshopping entirely. An unfortunate ends in the face of fierce political op- scattershot approach often left Tru- in the face of intense was the “hollowing-out” position from legislators determined man’s priorities unclear.of formerly busy urban cores. to reduce the role of government. Republicans were quick to attack. EISENHOWER’S APPROACH W Truman asEisenhowerhesuc- New highways created better ac- Truman’s first priority in the In the 1946 congressional electionscess to the suburbs and its shops. immediate postwar period was to they asked, “Had enough?” and hen DwightThe Highway Act of 1956 provided make the transition to a peacetime voters responded that they had. Re- ceeded president, ac-$26,000-million, the largest public economy. Servicemen wanted to publicans, with majorities in both cepted the basic framework of gov-works expenditure in U.S. history, to come home quickly, but once they houses of Congress for the first ernment responsibility establishedbuild more than 64,000 kilometers arrived they faced competition for time since 1928, were determined by the New Deal, but sought to holdof limited access interstate highways housing and employment. The G.I. to reverse the liberal direction of the the line on programs and expendi-to link the country together. Bill, passed before the end of the war, Roosevelt years. tures. He termed his approach “dy- Television, too, had a powerful helped ease servicemen back into ci- Truman fought with the Congress namic conservatism” or “modernimpact on social and economic pat- vilian life by providing benefits such as it cut spending and reduced taxes. Republicanism,” which meant, he ex- 268 269
  • 136. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYplained, “conservative when it comes THE CULTURE OF THE 1950S paper. Lacking traditional punctua- tary services and in the work force, Dto money, liberal when it comes to tion and paragraph structure, the and they had made limited gains.human beings.” A critic countered uring the 1950s, many cul- Millions of African Americans had book glorified the possibilities of thethat Eisenhower appeared to argue tural commentators pointed out free life. Poet Allen Ginsberg gainedleft Southern farms for Northernthat he would “strongly recommend that a sense of uniformity pervaded similar notoriety for his poem cities, where they hoped to findthe building of a great many schools American society. Conformity, they “Howl,” a scathing critique of mod- better jobs. They found instead... but not provide the money.” asserted, was numbingly common. ern, mechanized civilization. When crowded conditions in urban slums. Eisenhower’s first priority was Though men and women had been police charged that it was obscene Now, African-American servicemento balance the budget after years of forced into new employment pat- and seized the published version, returned home, many intent on re-deficits. He wanted to cut spending terns during World War II, once the Ginsberg successfully challenged the jecting second-class citizenship.and taxes and maintain the value of war was over, traditional roles were ruling in court. Jackie Robinson dramatized thethe dollar. Republicans were will- reaffirmed. Men expected to be the Musicians and artists rebelled asracial question in 1947 when heing to risk unemployment to keep breadwinners in each family; wom- well. Tennessee singer Elvis Presley broke baseball’s color line and be-inflation in check. Reluctant to en, even when they worked, assumed was the most successful of several gan playing in the major leagues. Astimulate the economy too much, their proper place was at home. In his white performers who popularized member of the Brooklyn Dodgers,they saw the country suffer three influential book, The Lonely Crowd, a sensual and pulsating style of Af- he often faced trouble with oppo-economic recessions in the eight sociologist David Riesman called rican-American music, which began nents and teammates as well. Butyears of the Eisenhower presidency, this new society “other-directed,” to be called “rock and roll.” At first, an outstanding first season led tobut none was very severe. characterized by conformity, but he outraged middle-class Americans his acceptance and eased the way In other areas, the administra- also by stability. Television, still very with his ducktail haircut and undu- for other African-American players,tion transferred control of offshore limited in the choices it gave its view- lating hips. But in a few years his who now left the Negro leagues tooil lands from the federal govern- ers, contributed to the homogenizing performances would seem relatively which they had been confined.ment to the states. It also favored cultural trend by providing young tame alongside the antics of later Government officials, and manyprivate development of electrical and old with a shared experience re- performances such as the British other Americans, discovered thepower rather than the public ap- flecting accepted social patterns. Rolling Stones. Similarly, it was in connection between racial problemsproach the Democrats had initiated. Yet beneath this seemingly the 1950s that painters like Jackson and Cold War politics. As the leaderIn general, its orientation was sym- bland surface, important segments Pollock discarded easels and laid outof the free world, the United Statespathetic to business. of American society seethed with gigantic canvases on the floor, then sought support in Africa and Asia. Compared to Truman, Eisen- rebellion. A number of writers, applied paint, sand, and other mate- Discrimination at home impededhower had only a modest domestic collectively known as the “Beat rials in wild splashes of color. All of the effort to win friends in otherprogram. When he was active in Generation,” went out of their way these artists and authors, whatever parts of the world.promoting a bill, it likely was to trim to challenge the patterns of respect- the medium, provided models for Harry Truman supported thethe New Deal legacy a bit — as in ability and shock the rest of the the wider and more deeply felt socialearly civil rights movement. He per-reducing agricultural subsidies or culture. Stressing spontaneity and revolution of the 1960s. sonally believed in political equality,placing mild restrictions on labor spirituality, they preferred intuition though not in social equality, andunions. His disinclination to push over reason, Eastern mysticism over ORIGINS OF THE CIVIL recognized the growing importancefundamental change in either direc- Western institutionalized religion. RIGHTS MOVEMENT of the African-American urban vote.tion was in keeping with the spirit ofthe generally prosperous Fifties. He The literary work of the beats displayed their sense of alienation A When apprised in 1946 of a spate of frican Americans became in- lynchings and anti-black violencewas one of the few presidents who and quest for self-realization. Jack creasingly restive in the postwar in the South, he appointed a com-left office as popular as when he Kerouac typed his best-selling novel years. During the war they had chal- mittee on civil rights to investigateentered it. On the Road on a 75-meter roll of lenged discrimination in the mili- discrimination. Its report, To Secure 270 271
  • 137. CHAPTER 12: POSTWAR AMERICA OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYThese Rights, issued the next year, Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, that seg- year. However, a federal court or- powerful, thoughtful, and eloquentdocumented African Americans’ regation of African-American and dered them reopened the follow- leader in Martin Luther King Jr.second-class status in American white students was constitutional if ing year. They did so in a tense African Americans also sought tolife and recommended numerous facilities were “separate but equal.” atmosphere with a tiny number of secure their voting rights. Althoughfederal measures to secure the rights That decree had been used for de- African-American students. Thus, the 15th Amendment to the U.S.guaranteed to all citizens. cades to sanction rigid segregation school desegregation proceeded at a Constitution guaranteed the right Truman responded by sending in all aspects of Southern life, where slow and uncertain pace throughout to vote, many states had found waysa 10-point civil rights program to facilities were seldom, if ever, equal. much of the South. to circumvent the law. The statesCongress. Southern Democrats in African Americans achieved their Another milestone in the civil would impose a poll (“head”) taxCongress were able to block its en- goal of overturning Plessy in 1954 rights movement occurred in 1955 in or a literacy test — typically muchactment. A number of the angriest, when the Supreme Court — pre- Montgomery, Alabama. Rosa Parks, more stringently interpreted forled by Governor Strom Thurmond sided over by an Eisenhower ap- a 42-year-old African-American African Americans — to preventof South Carolina, formed a States pointee, Chief Justice Earl Warren seamstress who was also secretary poor African Americans with littleRights Party to oppose the president— handed down its Brown v. Board of the state chapter of the NAACP, education from voting. Eisenhower,in 1948. Truman thereupon issued of Education ruling. The Court de- sat down in the front of a bus in a working with Senate majority leaderan executive order barring discrimi-clared unanimously that “separate section reserved by law and custom Lyndon B. Johnson, lent his supportnation in federal employment, or- facilities are inherently unequal,” for whites. Ordered to move to the to a congressional effort to guaran-dered equal treatment in the armed and decreed that the “separate but back, she refused. Police came and tee the vote. The Civil Rights Actforces, and appointed a committee equal” doctrine could no longer be arrested her for violating the segre- of 1957, the first such measure into work toward an end to military used in public schools. A year later, gation statutes. African-American 82 years, marked a step forward, assegregation, which was largely endedthe Supreme Court demanded that leaders, who had been waiting for it authorized federal interventionduring the Korean War. local school boards move “with all just such a case, organized a boycott in cases where African Americans African Americans in the South deliberate speed” to implement the of the bus system. were denied the chance to vote. Yetin the 1950s still enjoyed few, if any, decision. Martin Luther King Jr., a young loopholes remained, and so activ-civil and political rights. In general, Eisenhower, although sympa- minister of the Baptist church where ists pushed successfully for the Civilthey could not vote. Those who triedthetic to the needs of the South as it the African Americans met, became Rights Act of 1960, which providedto register faced the likelihood of faced a major transition, nonetheless a spokesman for the protest. “There stiffer penalties for interfering withbeatings, loss of job, loss of credit, acted to see that the law was upheld comes a time,” he said, “when peo- voting, but still stopped short of au-or eviction from their land. Occa- in the face of massive resistance from ple get tired ... of being kicked about thorizing federal officials to registersional lynchings still occurred. Jimmuch of the South. He faced a major by the brutal feet of oppression.” African Americans.Crow laws enforced segregation of crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas, in King was arrested, as he would be Relying on the efforts of African 1957, when Governor Orval Faubusthe races in streetcars, trains, hotels, again and again; a bomb damaged Americans themselves, the civilrestaurants, hospitals, recreationalattempted to block a desegregation the front of his house. But African rights movement gained momen-facilities, and employment. plan calling for the admission of nine Americans in Montgomery sus- tum in the postwar years. Working black students to the city’s previous- tained the boycott. About a year through the Supreme Court and DESEGREGATION ly all-white Central High School. later, the Supreme Court affirmed through Congress, civil rights sup-T After futile efforts at negotiation, that bus segregation, like school porters had created the groundwork he National Association for the the president sent federal troops to segregation, was unconstitutional. for a dramatic yet peaceful “revolu-Advancement of Colored People Little Rock to enforce the plan. The boycott ended. The civil rights tion” in American race relations in(NAACP) took the lead in efforts to Governor Faubus responded by movement had won an important the 1960s. 9overturn the judicial doctrine, es- ordering the Little Rock high schools victory — and discovered its mosttablished in the Supreme Court case closed down for the 1958-59 school 272 273
  • 138. 13 CHAPTER DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 Astronaut on the moon, July 20, 1969.274
  • 139. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “I have a dream that one day of younger activists, sought reform through peaceful confrontation. themselves, forced his hand. When James Meredith was denied admis- on the red hills of Georgia, In 1960 African-American col- lege students sat down at a segre- sion to the University of Mississippi in 1962 because of his race, Kennedy sons of former slaves and gated Woolworth’s lunch counter in North Carolina and refused to sent federal troops to uphold the law. After protests aimed at the desegre- the sons of former slave leave. Their sit-in captured media attention and led to similar demon- gation of Birmingham, Alabama, prompted a violent response by the owners will be able to sit strations throughout the South. The police, he sent Congress a new civil next year, civil rights workers orga- rights bill mandating the integration down together at the table nized “freedom rides,” in which Af- of public places. Not even the March rican Americans and whites boarded on Washington, however, could ex- buses heading south toward segre- tricate the measure from a congres- of brotherhood.” gated terminals, where confronta- tions might capture media attention sional committee, where it was still bottled up when Kennedy was assas- and lead to change. sinated in 1963. Martin Luther King Jr., 1963 They also organized rallies, the President Lyndon B. Johnson largest of which was the “March was more successful. Displaying on Washington” in 1963. More negotiating skills he had so fre- than 200,000 people gathered in quently employed during his years the nation’s capital to demonstrate as Senate majority leader, JohnsonBy 1960, the United States was on politics, many of the offspring of the their commitment to equality for persuaded the Senate to limit delay-the verge of a major social change. World War II generation emerged as all. The high point of a day of songs ing tactics preventing a final voteAmerican society had always been advocates of a new America char- and speeches came with the address on the sweeping Civil Rights Act ofmore open and fluid than that of acterized by a cultural and ethnic of Martin Luther King Jr., who had 1964, which outlawed discrimina-the nations in most of the rest of the pluralism that their parents often emerged as the preeminent spokes- tion in all public Still, it had been dominated viewed with unease. man for civil rights. “I have a dream The next year’s Voting Rights Actprimarily by old-stock, white males. that one day on the red hills of Geor- of 1965 authorized the federal gov-During the 1960s, groups that previ- THE CIVIL RIGHTS gia the sons of former slaves and the ernment to register voters where lo-ously had been submerged or sub- MOVEMENT 1960-1980 sons of former slave owners will be cal officials had prevented African Tordinate began more forcefully and able to sit down together at the table Americans from doing so. By 1968successfully to assert themselves: Af- he struggle of African Americans of brotherhood,” King proclaimed. a million African Americans wererican Americans, Native Americans, for equality reached its peak in the Each time he used the refrain “I have registered in the deep South. Na-women, the white ethnic offspring of mid-1960s. After progressive vic- a dream,” the crowd roared. tionwide, the number of African-the “new immigration,” and Latinos. tories in the 1950s, African Ameri- The level of progress initially American elected officials increasedMuch of the support they received cans became even more committed achieved did not match the rhetoric substantially. In 1968, the Congresscame from a young population larg- to nonviolent direct action. Groups of the civil rights movement. Presi- passed legislation banning discrimi-er than ever, making its way through like the Southern Christian Leader- dent Kennedy was initially reluc- nation in housing.a college and university system that ship Conference (SCLC), made up tant to press white Southerners for Once unleashed, however, thewas expanding at an unprecedented of African-American clergy, and support on civil rights because he civil rights revolution producedpace. Frequently embracing “coun- the Student Nonviolent Coordinat- needed their votes on other issues. leaders impatient with both the pacetercultural” life styles and radical ing Committee (SNCC), composed Events, driven by African Americans of change and the goal of channel- 276 277
  • 140. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYing African Americans into main- their neighborhoods to achieve ra- was made up mainly of members of al years, 35 of the necessary 38 statesstream white society. Malcolm X, cial balance in metropolitan schools the middle class, and thus partook ratified it. The courts also movedan eloquent activist, was the most or about the use of “affirmative ac- of the spirit of rebellion that affect- to expand women’s rights. In 1973prominent figure arguing for Af- tion.” These policies and programs ed large segments of middle-class the Supreme Court in Roe v. Waderican-American separation from were viewed by some as active mea- youth in the 1960s. sanctioned women’s right to obtainthe white race. Stokely Carmichael, sures to ensure equal opportunity, as Reform legislation also prompted an abortion during the early monthsa student leader, became similarly in education and employment, and change. During debate on the 1964 of pregnancy — seen as a significantdisillusioned by the notions of non- by others as reverse discrimination. Civil Rights bill, opponents hoped victory for the women’s movementviolence and interracial cooperation. The courts worked their way to defeat the entire measure by pro- — but Roe also spurred the growthHe popularized the slogan “black through these problems with deci- posing an amendment to outlaw dis- of an anti-abortion movement.power,” to be achieved by “whatever sions that were often inconsistent. crimination on the basis of gender as In the mid- to late-1970s, howev-means necessary,” in the words of In the meantime, the steady march well as race. First the amendment, er, the women’s movement seemedMalcolm X. of African Americans into the ranks then the bill itself, passed, giving to stagnate. It failed to broaden its Violence accompanied militant of the middle class and once largely women a valuable legal tool. appeal beyond the middle class.calls for reform. Riots broke out in white suburbs quietly reflected a In 1966, 28 professional women, Divisions arose between moderateseveral big cities in 1966 and 1967. profound demographic change. including Friedan, established the and radical feminists. ConservativeIn the spring of 1968, Martin Lu- National Organization for Women opponents mounted a campaignther King Jr. fell before an assassin’s THE WOMEN’S MOVEMENT (NOW) “to take action to bring against the Equal Rights Amend- Dbullet. Several months later, Senator American women into full partici- ment, and it died in 1982 withoutRobert Kennedy, a spokesman for uring the 1950s and 1960s, pation in the mainstream of Ameri- gaining the approval of the 38 statesthe disadvantaged, an opponent of increasing numbers of married can society now.” While NOW and needed for ratification.the Vietnam War, and the brother women entered the labor force, but similar feminist organizations boastof the slain president, met the same in 1963 the average working woman of substantial memberships today, THE LATINO MOVEMENT In post-World War IIand Puertofate. To many these two assassina- earned only 63 percent of what a arguably they attained their greatesttions marked the end of an era of in- man made. That year Betty Friedan influence in the early 1970s, a time America,nocence and idealism. The growing published The Feminine Mystique, that also saw the journalist Gloria Americans of Mexicanmilitancy on the left, coupled with an explosive critique of middle- Steinem and several other women Rican descent had faced discrimina-an inevitable conservative backlash, class living patterns that articulated found Ms. magazine. They also tion. New immigrants, coming fromopened a rift in the nation’s psyche a pervasive sense of discontent that spurred the formation of counter- Cuba, Mexico, and Central Americathat took years to heal. Friedan contended was felt by many feminist groups, often led by women, — often unskilled and unable to By then, however, a civil rights women. Arguing that women often including most prominently the po- speak English — suffered from dis-movement supported by court de- had no outlets for expression other litical activist Phyllis Schlafly. These crimination as well. Some Hispanicscisions, congressional enactments, than “finding a husband and bear- groups typically argued for more worked as farm laborers and at timesand federal administrative regula- ing children,” Friedan encouraged “traditional” gender roles and op- were cruelly exploited while harvest-tions was irreversibly woven into the her readers to seek new roles and re- posed the proposed “Equal Rights” ing crops; others gravitated to thefabric of American life. The major sponsibilities and to find their own constitutional amendment. cities, where, like earlier immigrantissues were about implementation personal and professional identities, Passed by Congress in 1972, groups, they encountered difficul-of equality and access, not about the rather than have them defined by a that amendment declared in part, ties in their quest for a better life.legality of segregation or disenfran- male-dominated society. “Equality of rights under the law Chicanos, or Mexican-Ameri-chisement. The arguments of the The women’s movement of the shall not be denied or abridged by cans, mobilized in organizations1970s and thereafter were over mat- 1960s and 1970s drew inspiration the United States or by any State on like the radical Asociación Nacio-ters such as busing children out of from the civil rights movement. It account of sex.” Over the next sever- nal Mexico-Americana, yet did 278 279
  • 141. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYnot become confrontational until creased. Several prominent Hispan- traz Island in San Francisco Bay and and beards became common. Bluethe 1960s. Hoping that Lyndon ics have served in the Bill Clinton jeans and tee shirts took the place held it until federal officials removedJohnson’s poverty program would and George W. Bush cabinets. them in 1971. In 1973 AIM took over of slacks, jackets, and ties. The useexpand opportunities for them, the South Dakota village of Wound- of illegal drugs increased. Rockthey found that bureaucrats failed THE NATIVE-AMERICAN ed Knee, where soldiers in the late and roll grew, proliferated, andto respond to less vocal groups. MOVEMENT 19th century had massacred a Sioux transformed into many musical In the 1950s, Nativegovernment’sThe example of black activism in encampment. Militants hoped to variations. The Beatles, the Rollingparticular taught Hispanics the Americans dramatize the poverty and alcohol- Stones, and other British groupsimportance of pressure politics in struggled with the ism in the reservation surrounding took the country by storm. “Harda pluralistic society. policy of moving them off reser- the town. The episode ended after rock” grew popular, and songs with The National Labor Relations Act vations and into cities where they one Native American was killed a political or social commentary,of 1935 had excluded agricultural might assimilate into mainstream and another wounded, with a gov- such as those by singer-songwriterworkers from its guarantee of the America. Many of the uprooted ernment agreement to re-examine Bob Dylan, became common. Theright to organize and bargain col- often had difficulties adjusting to treaty rights. youth counterculture reached itslectively. But César Chávez, founder urban life. In 1961, when the policy Still, Native-American activism apogee in August 1969 at Wood-of the overwhelmingly Hispanic was discontinued, the U.S. Com- brought results. Other Americans stock, a three-day music festival inUnited Farm Workers, demonstrat- mission on Civil Rights noted that, became more aware of Native- rural New York State attended byed that direct action could achieve for Native Americans, “poverty and American needs. Government of- almost half-a-million persons. Theemployer recognition for his union. deprivation are common.” ficials responded with measures festival, mythologized in films andCalifornia grape growers agreed to In the 1960s and 1970s, watch- including the Education Assistance record albums, gave its name to thebargain with the union after Chávez ing both the development of Third Act of 1975 and the 1996 Native- era, the Woodstock Generation.led a nationwide consumer boy- World nationalism and the progress American Housing and Self-De- A parallel manifestation of thecott. Similar boycotts of lettuce and of the civil rights movement, Native termination Act. The Senate’s first new sensibility of the young wasother products were also successful. Americans became more aggressive Native-American member, Ben the rise of the New Left, a group ofThough farm interests continued to in pressing for their own rights. A Nighthorse Campbell of Colorado, young, college-age radicals. The Newtry to obstruct Chávez’s organiza- new generation of leaders went to was elected in 1992. Leftists, who had close counterpartstion, the legal foundation had been court to protect what was left of tribal in Western Europe, were in many in-laid for representation to secure lands or to recover those which had THE COUNTERCULTURE stances the children of the older gen- Thigher wages and improved working been taken, often illegally, in previ- eration of radicals. Nonetheless, theyconditions. ous times. In state after state, they he agitation for equal opportuni- rejected old-style Marxist rhetoric. Hispanics became politically challenged treaty violations, and in ty sparked other forms of upheaval. Instead, they depicted universityactive as well. In 1961 Henry B. 1967 won the first of many victories Young people in particular rejected students as themselves an oppressedGonzález won election to Congress guaranteeing long-abused land and the stable patterns of middle-class class that possessed special insightsfrom Texas. Three years later Eligio water rights. The American Indian life their parents had created in the into the struggle of other oppressed(“Kika”) de la Garza, another Texan, Movement (AIM), founded in 1968, decades after World War II. Some groups in American society.followed him, and Joseph Montoya helped channel government funds plunged into radical political activ- New Leftists participated in theof New Mexico went to the Sen- to Native-American-controlled or- ity; many more embraced new stan- civil rights movement and the strug-ate. Both González and de la Garza ganizations and assisted neglected dards of dress and sexual behavior. gle against poverty. Their greatestlater rose to positions of power as Native Americans in the cities. The visible signs of the coun- success — and the one instance incommittee chairmen in the House. Confrontations became more terculture spread through parts of which they developed a mass follow-In the 1970s and 1980s, the pace of common. In 1969 a landing party American society in the late 1960s ing — was in opposing the VietnamHispanic political involvement in- of 78 Native Americans seized Alca- and early 1970s. Hair grew longer War, an issue of emotional interest 280 281
  • 142. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYto their draft-age contemporaries. provement Act, which assigned to welfare. Many Republicans accept- derly, and create a new DepartmentBy the late 1970s, the student New the polluter the responsibility of ed a level of government responsi- of Urban Affairs. And so, despite hisLeft had disappeared, but many cleaning up off-shore oil spills. Also, bility, but hoped to cap spending lofty rhetoric, Kennedy’s policiesof its activists made their way into in 1970, the Environmental Protec- and restore a larger measure of were often limited and restrained.mainstream politics. tion Agency (EPA) was created as individual initiative. The presiden- One priority was to end the reces- an independent federal agency to tial election of 1960 revealed a na- sion, in progress when Kennedy took ENVIRONMENTALISM spearhead the effort to bring abus- tion almost evenly divided between office, and restore economic growth.T es under control. During the next these visions. But Kennedy lost the confidence of he energy and sensibility that fu- three decades, the EPA, bolstered by John F. Kennedy, the Democratic business leaders in 1962, when heeled the civil rights movement, the legislation that increased its author- victor by a narrow margin, was at 43 succeeded in rolling back what thecounterculture, and the New Left ity, became one of the most active the youngest man ever to win the administration regarded as an exces-also stimulated an environmental agencies in the government, issuing presidency. On television, in a series sive price increase in the steel indus-movement in the mid-1960s. Many strong regulations covering air and of debates with opponent Richard try. Though the president achievedwere aroused by the publication in water quality. Nixon, he appeared able, articulate, his immediate goal, he alienated an1962 of Rachel Carson’s book Silent and energetic. In the campaign, he important source of support. Per-Spring, which alleged that chemical KENNEDY AND THE spoke of moving aggressively into suaded by his economic advisers thatpesticides, particularly DDT, caused RESURGENCE OF BIG the new decade, for “the New Fron- a large tax cut would stimulate thecancer, among other ills. Public GOVERNMENT LIBERALISM tier is here whether we seek it or economy, Kennedy backed a bill pro- Bconcern about the environment not.” In his first inaugural address, viding for one. Conservative opposi-continued to increase throughout y 1960 government had become he concluded with an eloquent plea: tion in Congress, however, appearedthe 1960s as many became aware of an increasingly powerful force in “Ask not what your country can do to destroy any hopes of passing a billother pollutants surrounding them people’s lives. During the Great for you — ask what you can do for most congressmen thought would— automobile emissions, industrial Depression of the 1930s, new ex- your country.” Throughout his brief widen the budget deficit.wastes, oil spills — that threatened ecutive agencies were created to deal presidency, Kennedy’s special com- The overall legislative record oftheir health and the beauty of their with many aspects of American life. bination of grace, wit, and style — the Kennedy administration wassurroundings. On April 22, 1970, During World War II, the number far more than his specific legislative meager. The president made someschools and communities across the of civilians employed by the federal agenda — sustained his popularity gestures toward civil rights leadersUnited States celebrated Earth Day government rose from one million and influenced generations of politi- but did not embrace the goals of thefor the first time. “Teach-ins” edu- to 3.8 million, then stabilized at cians to come. civil rights movement until demon-cated Americans about the dangers 2.5 million in the 1950s. Federal Kennedy wanted to exert strong strations led by Martin Luther Kingof environmental pollution. expenditures, which had stood at leadership to extend economic Jr. forced his hand in 1963. Like Tru- Few denied that pollution was $3,100-million in 1929, increased to benefits to all citizens, but a razor- man before him, he could not securea problem, but the proposed solu- $75,000-million in 1953 and passed thin margin of victory limited his congressional passage of federal aidtions involved expense and inconve- $150,000-million in the 1960s. mandate. Even though the Demo- to public education or for a medicalnience. Many believed these would Most Americans accepted gov- cratic Party controlled both houses care program limited to the elderly.reduce the economic growth upon ernment’s expanded role, even as of Congress, conservative Southern He gained only a modest increasewhich many Americans’ standard they disagreed about how far that Democrats often sided with the in the minimum wage. Still, he didof living depended. Nevertheless, in expansion should continue. Demo- Republicans on issues involving the secure funding for a space program,1970, Congress amended the Clean crats generally wanted the govern- scope of governmental intervention and established the Peace Corps toAir Act of 1967 to develop uniform ment to ensure growth and stabil- in the economy. They resisted plans send men and women overseas tonational air-quality standards. It ity. They wanted to extend federal to increase federal aid to education, assist developing countries in meet-also passed the Water Quality Im- benefits for education, health, and provide health insurance for the el- ing their own needs. 282 283
  • 143. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY KENNEDY AND THE that Kennedy had risked nuclear di- Elections were to be held two years After Kennedy’s death, President COLD WAR saster when quiet diplomacy might later to unify the country. Persuaded Lyndon Johnson enthusiasticallyP have been effective. But most Ameri- that the fall of Vietnam could lead to supported the space program. In resident Kennedy came into of- cans and much of the non-Commu- the fall of Burma, Thailand, and In- the mid-1960s, U.S. scientists de-fice pledged to carry on the Cold nist world applauded his decisive- donesia, Eisenhower backed Diem’s veloped the two-person GeminiWar vigorously, but he also hoped ness. The missile crisis made him refusal to hold elections in 1956 and spacecraft. Gemini achieved severalfor accommodation and was reluc- for the first time the acknowledged effectively established South Viet- firsts, including an eight-day mis-tant to commit American power. leader of the democratic West. nam as an American client state. sion in August 1965 — the longestDuring his first year-and-a-half In retrospect, the Cuban mis- Kennedy increased assistance, space flight at that time — and inin office, he rejected American in- sile crisis marked a turning point and sent small numbers of military November 1966, the first automati-tervention after the CIA-guided in U.S.-Soviet relations. Both sides advisors, but a new guerrilla struggle cally controlled reentry into theCuban exile invasion at the Bay of saw the need to defuse tensions that between North and South contin- Earth’s atmosphere. Gemini also ac-Pigs failed, effectively ceded the could lead to direct military con- ued. Diem’s unpopularity grew and complished the first manned linkuplandlocked Southeast Asian nation flict. The following year, the United the military situation worsened. In of two spacecraft in flight as well asof Laos to Communist control, and States, the Soviet Union, and Great late 1963, Kennedy secretly assented the first U.S. walks in space.acquiesced in the building of the Britain signed a landmark Limited to a coup d’etat. To the president’s The three-person Apollo space-Berlin Wall. Kennedy’s decisions Test Ban Treaty prohibiting nuclear surprise, Diem and his power- craft achieved Kennedy’s goal andreinforced impressions of weakness weapons tests in the atmosphere. ful brother-in-law, Ngo Dien Nu, demonstrated to the world that thethat Soviet Premier Nikita Khrush- Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cam- were killed. It was at this uncertain United States had surpassed So-chev had formed in their only per- bodia), a French possession before juncture that Kennedy’s presidency viet capabilities in space. On July 20,sonal meeting, a summit meeting at World War II, was still another Cold ended three weeks later. 1969, with hundreds of millions ofVienna in June 1961. War battlefield. The French effort to television viewers watching around It was against this backdrop that reassert colonial control there was THE SPACE PROGRAM the world, Neil Armstrong became DKennedy faced the most serious opposed by Ho Chi Minh, a Viet- the first human to walk on the sur-event of the Cold War, the Cuban namese Communist, whose Viet uring Eisenhower’s second term, face of the moon.missile crisis. Minh movement engaged in a guer- outer space had become an arena for Other Apollo flights followed, but In the fall of 1962, the adminis- rilla war with the French army. U.S.-Soviet competition. In 1957, many Americans began to questiontration learned that the Soviet Union Both Truman and Eisenhower, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik the value of manned space flight. Inwas secretly installing offensive nu- eager to maintain French support for — an artificial satellite — thereby the early 1970s, as other prioritiesclear missiles in Cuba. After con- the policy of containment in Europe, demonstrating it could build more became more pressing, the Unitedsidering different options, Kennedy provided France with economic aid powerful rockets than the United States scaled down the space pro-decided on a quarantine to prevent that freed resources for the struggle States. The United States launched gram. Some Apollo missions wereSoviet ships from bringing addition- in Vietnam. But the French suffered its first satellite, Explorer I, in 1958. scrapped; only one of two proposedal supplies to Cuba. He demanded a decisive defeat in Dien Bien Phu in But three months after Kennedy Skylab space stations was built.publicly that the Soviets remove the May 1954. At an international confer- became president, the USSR putweapons and warned that an attack ence in Geneva, Laos and Cambodia the first man in orbit. Kennedy re- DEATH OF A PRESIDENTfrom that island would bring retali- J were given their independence. Viet- sponded by committing the Unitedation against the USSR. After several nam was divided, with Ho in power States to land a man on the moon ohn Kennedy had gained worlddays of tension, during which the in the North and Ngo Dinh Diem, a and bring him back “before this de- prestige by his management of theworld was closer than ever before Roman Catholic anti-Communist in cade is out.” With Project Mercury Cuban missile crisis and had wonto nuclear war, the Soviets agreed to a largely Buddhist population, head- in 1962, John Glenn became the first great popularity at home. Manyremove the missiles. Critics charged ing the government in the South. U.S. astronaut to orbit the Earth. believed he would win re-election 284 285
  • 144. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYeasily in 1964. But on November 22, and calling on the legislators’ respect icaid, a program providing health- immigration quotas. This triggered1963, he was assassinated while rid- for the slain president, Johnson suc- care assistance for the poor. a new wave of immigration, muching in an open car during a visit to ceeded in gaining passage of both Johnson succeeded in the effort of it from South and East Asia andDallas, Texas. His death, amplified during his first year in office. The to provide more federal aid for el- Latin television coverage, was a trau- tax cuts stimulated the economy. ementary and secondary schooling, The Great Society was the largestmatic event, just as Roosevelt’s had The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the traditionally a state and local func- burst of legislative activity since thebeen 18 years earlier. most far-reaching such legislation tion. The measure that was enacted New Deal. But support weakened In retrospect, it is clear that Ken- since Reconstruction. gave money to the states based on as early as 1966. Some of Johnson’snedy’s reputation stems more from Johnson addressed other issues as the number of their children from programs did not live up to expecta-his style and eloquently stated ideals well. By the spring of 1964, he had low-income families. Funds could tions; many went underfunded. Thethan from the implementation of his begun to use the name “Great Soci- be used to assist public- and private- urban crisis seemed, if anything, topolicies. He had laid out an impres- ety” to describe his socio-economic school children alike. worsen. Still, whether because of thesive agenda but at his death much re- program. That summer he secured Convinced the United States Great Society spending or because ofmained blocked in Congress. It was passage of a federal jobs program for confronted an “urban crisis” char- a strong economic upsurge, povertylargely because of the political skill impoverished young people. It was acterized by declining inner cities, did decline at least marginally dur-and legislative victories of his succes- the first step in what he called the the Great Society architects devised ing the Johnson administration.sor that Kennedy would be seen as a “War on Poverty.” In the presiden- a new housing act that provided rentforce for progressive change. tial election that November, he won supplements for the poor and estab- THE WAR IN VIETNAM D a landslide victory over conservative lished a Department of Housing and LYNDON JOHNSON AND Republican Barry Goldwater. Signif- Urban Development. issatisfaction with the Great So- THE GREAT SOCIETY icantly, the 1964 election gave liberal Other legislation had an impact ciety came to be more than matchedL yndonleader in theTexan who was Democrats firm control of Congress on many aspects of American life. by unhappiness with the situation Johnson, a for the first time since 1938. This Federal assistance went to artists in Vietnam. A series of South Viet-majority Senate before would enable them to pass legisla- and scholars to encourage their namese strong men proved littlebecoming Kennedy’s vice president, tion over the combined opposition work. In September 1966, Johnson more successful than Diem in mobi-was a masterful politician. He had of Republicans and conservative signed into law two transportation lizing their country. The Viet Cong,been schooled in Congress, where Southern Democrats. bills. The first provided funds to insurgents supplied and coordinatedhe developed an extraordinary abil- The War on Poverty became the state and local governments for de- from North Vietnam, gained groundity to get things done. He excelled at centerpiece of the administration’s veloping safety programs, while the in the countryside.pleading, cajoling, or threatening as Great Society program. The Office other set up federal safety standards Determined to halt Communistnecessary to achieve his ends. His of Economic Opportunity, estab- for cars and tires. The latter program advances in South Vietnam, Johnsonliberal idealism was probably deeper lished in 1964, provided training reflected the efforts of a crusading made the Vietnam War his own. Af-than Kennedy’s. As president, he for the poor and established vari- young radical, Ralph Nader. In his ter a North Vietnamese naval attackwanted to use his power aggressively ous community-action agencies, 1965 book, Unsafe at Any Speed: The on two American destroyers, John-to eliminate poverty and spread the guided by an ethic of “participatory Designed-In Dangers of the Ameri- son won from Congress on August 7,benefits of prosperity to all. democracy” that aimed to give the can Automobile, Nader argued that 1964, passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Johnson took office determined poor themselves a voice in housing, automobile manufacturers were Resolution, which allowed the presi-to secure the passage of Kennedy’s health, and education programs. sacrificing safety features for style, dent to “take all necessary measureslegislative agenda. His immediate Medical care came next. Under and charged that faulty engineering to repel any armed attack againstpriorities were his predecessor’s bills Johnson’s leadership, Congress en- contributed to highway fatalities. the forces of the United States andto reduce taxes and guarantee civil acted Medicare, a health insurance In 1965, Congress abolished the to prevent further aggression.” Afterrights. Using his skills of persuasion program for the elderly, and Med- discriminatory 1924 national-origin his re-election in November 1964, 286 287
  • 145. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYhe embarked on a policy of escala- measures of the 1960s galvanized departed, the war lingered on into Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev intion. From 25,000 troops at the start the third-party candidacy of Ala- the spring of 1975, when Congress which they agreed to limit stockpilesof 1965, the number of soldiers — bama Governor George Wallace, a cut off assistance to South Vietnam of missiles, cooperate in space, andboth volunteers and draftees — rose Democrat who captured his home and North Vietnam consolidated its ease trading restrictions. The Stra-to 500,000 by 1968. A bombing cam- state, Mississippi, and Arkansas, control over the entire country. tegic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)paign wrought havoc in both North Louisiana, and Georgia, states The war left Vietnam devastated, culminated in 1972 in an arms con-and South Vietnam. typically carried in that era by the with millions maimed or killed. It trol agreement limiting the growth Grisly television coverage with a Democratic nominee. Republican also left the United States trauma- of nuclear arsenals and restrictingcritical edge dampened support for Richard Nixon, who ran on a plan to tized. The nation had spent over anti-ballistic missile systems.the war. Some Americans thought it extricate the United States from the $150,000-million in a losing effortimmoral; others watched in dismay war and to increase “law and order” that cost more than 58,000 Ameri- NIXON’S ACCOMPLISHMENTSas the massive military campaign at home, scored a narrow victory. can lives. Americans were no longer AND DEFEATS Vseemed to be ineffective. Large pro- united by a widely held Cold Wartests, especially among the young, NIXON, VIETNAM, AND THE consensus, and became wary of fur- ice president under Eisenhowerand a mounting general public dis- COLD WAR ther foreign entanglements. before his unsuccessful run for Determined to slowly withdrewsatisfaction pressured Johnson to Yet as Vietnam wound down, the presidency in 1960, Nixon wasbegin negotiating for peace. achieve “peace the Nixon administration took his- seen as among the shrewdest of with honor,” Nixon toric steps toward closer ties with American politicians. Although THE ELECTION OF 1968 American troops while redoubling the major Communist powers. The Nixon subscribed to the Republi-B efforts to equip the South Vietnam- most dramatic move was a new rela- can value of fiscal responsibility, he y 1968 the country was in tur- ese army to carry on the fight. He tionship with the People’s Republic accepted a need for government’smoil over both the Vietnam War and also ordered strong American offen- of China. In the two decades since expanded role and did not opposecivil disorder, expressed in urban sive actions. The most important of Mao Zedong’s victory, the United the basic contours of the welfareriots that reflected African-Ameri- these was an invasion of Cambodia States had argued that the Nation- state. He simply wanted to managecan anger. On March 31, 1968, the in 1970 to cut off North Vietnamese alist government on Taiwan rep- its programs better. Not opposedpresident renounced any inten- supply lines to South Vietnam. This resented all of China. In 1971 and to African-American civil rightstion of seeking another term. Just led to another round of protests and 1972, Nixon softened the American on principle, he was wary of largea week later, Martin Luther King demonstrations. Students in many stance, eased trading restrictions, federal civil rights bureaucracies.Jr. was shot and killed in Memphis, universities took to the streets. At and became the first U.S. president Nonetheless, his administrationTennessee. John Kennedy’s younger Kent State in Ohio, the national ever to visit Beijing. The “Shanghai vigorously enforced court ordersbrother, Robert, made an emotional guard troops who had been called in Communique” signed during that on school desegregation even as itanti-war campaign for the Demo- to restore order panicked and killed visit established a new U.S. policy: courted Southern white voters.cratic nomination, only to be assas- four students. that there was one China, that Tai- Perhaps his biggest domesticsinated in June. By the fall of 1972, however, wan was a part of China, and that problem was the economy. He in- At the Democratic National Con- troop strength in Vietnam was be- a peaceful settlement of the dis- herited both a slowdown from itsvention in Chicago, Illinois, protest- low 50,000 and the military draft, pute of the question by the Chinese Vietnam peak under Johnson, anders fought street battles with police. which had caused so much cam- themselves was a U.S. interest. a continuing inflationary surge thatA divided Democratic Party nomi- pus discontent, was all but dead. A With the Soviet Union, Nixon was had been a by-product of the war. Henated Vice President Hubert Hum- cease-fire, negotiated for the United equally successful in pursuing the dealt with the first by becoming thephrey, once the hero of the liberals States by Nixon’s national security policy he and his Secretary of State first Republican president to endorsebut now seen as a Johnson loyalist. adviser, Henry Kissinger, was signed Henry Kissinger called détente. He deficit spending as a way to stimu-White opposition to the civil rights in 1973. Although American troops held several cordial meetings with late the economy; the second by 288 289
  • 146. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYimposing wage and price controls, Nixon’s rhetoric about the need feeling it necessary to head off thedency in 1976. Portraying himselfa policy in which the Right had no for “law and order” in the face of spectacle of a possible prosecution during the campaign as an outsiderlong-term faith, in 1971. In the short rising crime rates, increased drug of Nixon, he issued a blanket pardonto Washington politics, he promisedrun, these decisions stabilized the use, and more permissive views to his predecessor. Although it was a fresh approach to governing, buteconomy and established favorable about sex resonated with more perhaps necessary, the move was his lack of experience at the nationalconditions for Nixon’s re-election in Americans than not. But this con- nonetheless unpopular. level complicated his tenure from1972. He won an overwhelming vic- cern was insufficient to quell con- In public policy, Ford followed the start. A naval officer and engi-tory over peace-minded Democratic cerns about the Watergate break-in the course Nixon had set. Economic neer by training, he often appearedSenator George McGovern. and the economy. Seeking to ener- problems remained serious, as infla-to be a technocrat, when Americans Things began to sour very quick- gize and enlarge his own political tion and unemployment continued wanted someone more visionary toly into the president’s second term. constituency, Nixon lashed out at to rise. Ford first tried to reassure lead them through troubled times.Very early on, he faced charges that demonstrators, attacked the press the public, much as Herbert Hoover In economic affairs, Carter athis re-election committee had man- for distorted coverage, and sought had done in 1929. When that failed, first permitted a policy of deficitaged a break-in at the Watergate to silence his opponents. Instead, he he imposed measures to curb in- spending. Inflation rose to 10 per-building headquarters of the Demo- left an unfavorable impression with flation, which sent unemployment cent a year when the Federal Reservecratic National Committee and that many who saw him on television and above 8 percent. A tax cut, coupled Board, responsible for setting mon-he had participated in a cover-up. perceived him as unstable. Adding with higher unemployment ben- etary policy, increased the moneySpecial prosecutors and congres- to Nixon’s troubles, Vice President efits, helped a bit but the economy supply to cover deficits. Cartersional committees dogged his presi- Spiro Agnew, his outspoken point remained weak. responded by cutting the budget,dency thereafter. man against the media and liberals, In foreign policy, Ford adopted but cuts affected social programs at Factors beyond Nixon’s control was forced to resign in 1973, plead- Nixon’s strategy of detente. Perhapsthe heart of Democratic domesticundermined his economic policies. ing “no contest” to a criminal charge its major manifestation was the policy. In mid-1979, anger in theIn 1973 the war between Israel and of tax evasion. Helsinki Accords of 1975, in which financial community practicallyEgypt and Syria prompted Saudi Nixon probably had not known the United States and Western Euro- forced him to appoint Paul VolckerArabia to embargo oil shipments to in advance of the Watergate bur- pean nations effectively recognized as chairman of the Federal Reserve.Israel’s ally, the United States. Other glary, but he had tried to cover it up, Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe Volcker was an “inflation hawk”member nations of the Organization and had lied to the American people in return for Soviet affirmation who increased interest rates in anof the Petroleum Exporting Coun- about it. Evidence of his involve- of human rights. The agreement attempt to halt price increases, attries (OPEC) quadrupled their pric- ment mounted. On July 27, 1974, the had little immediate significance, the cost of negative consequenceses. Americans faced both shortages, House Judiciary Committee voted but over the long run may have for the economy.exacerbated in the view of many by to recommend his impeachment. made maintenance of the Soviet Carter also faced criticism for hisover-regulation of distribution, and Facing certain ouster from office, he empire more difficult. Western failure to secure passage of an ef-rapidly rising prices. Even when the resigned on August 9, 1974. nations effectively used periodic fective energy policy. He presentedembargo ended the next year, prices “Helsinki review meetings” to call a comprehensive program, aimedremained high and affected all areas THE FORD INTERLUDE attention to various abuses of hu- at reducing dependence on foreignof American economic life: In 1974,inflation reached 12 percent, causing Nixon’s vice to replace Agnew), president, Gerald man rights by Communist regimes of the Eastern bloc. oil, that he called the “moral equiv- alent of war.” Opponents thwarteddisruptions that led to even higher Ford (appointed it in Congress.unemployment rates. The unprec- was an unpretentious man who had THE CARTER YEARS Though Carter called himself aedented economic boom America J spent most of his public life in Con- populist, his political priorities werehad enjoyed since 1948 was grinding gress. His first priority was to restore immy Carter, former Democratic never wholly clear. He endorsedto a halt. trust in the government. However, governor of Georgia, won the presi- government’s protective role, but 290 291
  • 147. CHAPTER 13: DECADES OF CHANGE: 1960-1980 The digital revolution of the past decade has transformed the economy and the way Americans live, influencing work; interactions with colleagues, family, and friends; access tothen began the process of deregula- But Carter enjoyed less success information; even shopping and leisure-time habits.tion, the removal of governmental with the Soviet Union. Thoughcontrols in economic life. Argu- he assumed office with detenteing that some restrictions over the at high tide and declared that thecourse of the past century limited United States had escaped its “in-competition and increased con- ordinate fear of Communism,” hissumer costs, he favored decontrol insistence that “our commitment toin the oil, airline, railroad, and human rights must be absolute” an-trucking industries. tagonized the Soviet government. A Carter’s political efforts failed to SALT II agreement further limitinggain either public or congressional nuclear stockpiles was signed, butsupport. By the end of his term, his not ratified by the U.S. Senate, manydisapproval rating reached 77 per- of whose members felt the treatycent, and Americans began to look was unbalanced. The 1979 Soviettoward the Republican Party again. invasion of Afghanistan killed the Carter’s greatest foreign policy treaty and triggered a Carter defenseaccomplishment was the negotia- build-up that paved the way for thetion of a peace settlement between huge expenditures of the 1980s.Egypt, under President Anwar Carter’s most serious foreign pol-al-Sadat, and Israel, under Prime icy challenge came in Iran. After anMinister Menachem Begin. Acting Islamic fundamentalist revolutionas both mediator and participant, he led by Shiite Muslim leader Ayatol-persuaded the two leaders to end a lah Ruhollah Khomeini replaced a30-year state of war. The subsequent corrupt but friendly regime, Carter 21 CENTURY STpeace treaty was signed at the White admitted the deposed shah to theHouse in March 1979. United States for medical treatment. After protracted and often emo- Angry Iranian militants, supportedtional debate, Carter also secured by the Islamic regime, seized theSenate ratification of treaties cedingthe Panama Canal to Panama by the American embassy in Tehran and held 53 American hostages for more NATI O N A PICTURE PROFILEyear 2000. Going a step farther than than a year. The long-running hos-Nixon, he extended formal diplo- tage crisis dominated the final year The first years of the new century unleashed a new threat tomatic recognition to the People’s of his presidency and greatly dam- peace and democracy: international terrorist attacks that killed andRepublic of China. aged his chances for re-election. 9 maimed thousands in the United States and around the world. Just as it has with earlier dangers, the United States took up this formidable challenge in unison with its allies. At the same time, it coped with changes sparked by globalization, fast-paced technological developments, and new waves of immigration that have made American society more diverse than in the past. The country sought to build upon the achievements of its history, and to honor those who have sacrificed in its cause. 292 293
  • 148. President George W. Bush (center) meets with British Prime Minister Tony Blair (left), National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice, and Secretary of State Colin Powell (right) at the White House during his first term. Great Britain has been a key U.S. ally in the fight against terrorism. Malalai Joya, one of about 100 women delegates to the constitutional council in Afghanistan, speaks to the council in Kabul, December 17, 2003. Afghanistan has its first democratically elected government as a result of the U.S., allied, and Northern Alliance military action in 2001 that toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama bin Laden, mastermind of President George W. Bush walks with African leaders during a side meeting at the the September 11, 2001, Group of Eight Summit in Evian, France, June 1, 2003. Left to right are: South African terrorist attacks against President Thabo Mbeki, Nigeria’s President Olusegun Obasanjo, Bush, the United States. and President of Senegal Abdoulaye Wade.294 295
  • 149. Cable News Network (CNN) report from Moscow: The combination of hundreds of cable television channels and 24-hour news services like CNN give an unprecedented impact and immediacy to news developments around the world.Top, Microsoft chairman Bill Gates talks with Antwoinette Hayes, a participantin a Microsoft initiative to provide technology access to children and teens.Above, Apple founder and chief executive officer Steve Jobs with hiscompany’s iPod mini. Gates and Jobs are seen as the most powerful symbols ofthe creative and commercial talent that shaped the digital era. Combine youth, rock and hip hop music, and 24-hour television, and you get MTV, a television network whose influence extends beyond music videos to fashion, advertising, and sales. 296
  • 150. Bales of sorted recyclables are stacked for processingat the Rumpke recycling center in Columbus, Ohio.Growing environmental consciousness in the UnitedStates has led to huge recycling efforts for materialssuch as glass, paper, steel, and aluminum. The massive AIDS quilt, with each square commemorating an individual who has died of the disease. The United States is a leading contributor to the fight against this global pandemic. 298 299
  • 151. Americans’ love affair with the automobile continues, resultingin increased traffic congestion as well as considerable efforts bygovernment and industry to reduce air pollution. 300
  • 152. With husbands and wives in the typical family both working outside the home, daycare centers for children are commonplace throughout the United States.Iraqis queuing to vote for a Transitional National Assembly at a polling station in thecenter of Az Zubayr, Iraq, January 30, 2005. More than 8.5 million Iraqis bravedthreats of violence and terrorist attacks to participate in the elections. The votefollowed the 2003 war, led by the United States and other coalition members, whichrid Iraq of dictator Saddam Hussein. A new generation peers into its future. 302 303
  • 153. 14 CHAPTER THE NEW CONSERVATISM AND A NEW WORLD ORDER President Ronald Reagan and USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev after signing the Intermediate– Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, December 1987.304
  • 154. CHAPTER 14: THE NEW CONSERVATISM AND A NEW WORLD ORDER OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORY “I have always believed that efficient Japanese carmakers. By 1980 Japanese companies already 1980, 808,000 immigrants arrived, the highest number in 60 years, as the there was some divine plan manufactured a fifth of the vehicles sold in the United States. American country once more became a haven for people from around the world. that placed this great continent manufacturers struggled with some success to match the cost efficien- Additional groups became active participants in the struggle for equal between two oceans to be sought cies and engineering standards of their Japanese rivals, but their for- opportunity. Homosexuals, using the tactics and rhetoric of the civil out by those who were possessed mer dominance of the domestic car market was gone forever. The giant rights movement, depicted them- selves as an oppressed group seeking of an abiding love of freedom old-line steel companies shrank to relative insignificance as foreign recognition of basic rights. In 1975, the U.S. Civil Service Commission and a special kind of courage.” steel makers adopted new technolo- gies more readily. lifted its ban on employment of homosexuals. Many states enacted Consumers were the beneficiaries anti-discrimination laws. California Governor Ronald Reagan, 1974 of this ferocious competition in the Then, in 1981, came the discov- manufacturing industries, but the ery of AIDS (Acquired Immune painful struggle to cut costs meant Deficiency Syndrome). Transmitted the permanent loss of hundreds of sexually or through blood transfu- thousands of blue-collar jobs. Those sions, it struck homosexual men and who could made the switch to the intravenous drug users with par- A SOCIETY IN TRANSITION software that could aggregate previ- service sector; others became unfor- ticular virulence, although the gen-S ously unimagined amounts of data tunate statistics. eral population proved vulnerable as hifts in the structure of Ameri- about economic and social trends. Population patterns shifted as well. By 1992, over 220,000 Ameri-can society, begun years or even de- The federal government had made well. After the end of the postwar cans had died of AIDS. The AIDS ep-cades earlier, had become apparent significant investments in computer “baby boom” (1946 to 1964), the idemic has by no means been limitedby the time the 1980s arrived. The technology in the 1950s and 1960s overall rate of population growth to the United States, and the effort tocomposition of the population and for its military and space programs. declined and the population grew treat the disease now encompassesthe most important jobs and skills In 1976, two young California en- older. Household composition also physicians and medical researchersin American society had undergone trepreneurs, working out of a garage, changed. In 1980 the percentage throughout the world.major changes. assembled the first widely marketed of family households dropped; a The dominance of service jobs in computer for home use, named it quarter of all groups were now clas- CONSERVATISM AND THEthe economy became undeniable. By the Apple, and ignited a revolution. sified as “nonfamily households,” RISE OF RONALD REAGAN Fthe mid-1980s, nearly three-fourths By the early 1980s, millions of mi- in which two or more unrelatedof all employees worked in the ser- crocomputers had found their way persons lived together. or many Americans, the econom-vice sector, for instance, as retail into U.S. businesses and homes, and New immigrants changed the ic, social, and political trends of theclerks, office workers, teachers, phy- in 1982, Time magazine dubbed the character of American society in previous two decades — crime andsicians, and government employees. computer its “Machine of the Year.” other ways. The 1965 reform in im- racial polarization in many urban Service-sector activity benefited Meanwhile, America’s “smoke- migration policy shifted the focus centers, challenges to traditionalfrom the availability and increased stack industries” were in decline. away from Western Europe, facilitat- values, the economic downturn anduse of the computer. The informa- The U.S. automobile industry reeled ing a dramatic increase in new arriv- inflation of the Carter years — en-tion age arrived, with hardware and under competition from highly als from Asia and Latin America. In gendered a mood of disillusionment. 306 307
  • 155. CHAPTER 14: THE NEW CONSERVATISM AND A NEW WORLD ORDER OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYIt also strengthened a renewed sus- gelicals, most of whom regarded fense, a constitutional amendment program of deregulation begun bypicion of government and its ability abortion under virtually any cir- to permit prayer in public schools, Jimmy Carter. He sought to abolishto deal effectively with the country’s cumstances as tantamount to mur- and opposition to abortion. many regulations affecting the con-social and political problems. der. Pro-choice and pro-life (that is, The figure that drew all these dis- sumer, the workplace, and the envi- Conservatives, long out of power pro- and anti-abortion rights) dem- parate strands together was Ronald ronment. These, he argued, were in-at the national level, were well posi- onstrations became a fixture of the Reagan. Reagan, born in Illinois, efficient, expensive, and detrimentaltioned politically in the context of political landscape. achieved stardom as an actor in to economic growth.this new mood. Many Americans Within the Republican Party, the Hollywood movies and television Reagan also reflected the beliefwere receptive to their message of conservative wing grew dominant before turning to politics. He first held by many conservatives that thelimited government, strong national once again. They had briefly seized achieved political prominence with a law should be strictly applied againstdefense, and the protection of tradi- control of the Republican Party in nationwide televised speech in 1964 violators. Shortly after becomingtional values. 1964 with its presidential candidate, in support of Barry Goldwater. In president, he faced a nationwide This conservative upsurge had Barry Goldwater, then faded from 1966 Reagan won the governorship strike by U.S. air transportation con-many sources. A large group of the spotlight. By 1980, however, of California and served until 1975. trollers. Although the job action wasfundamentalist Christians were par- with the apparent failure of liberal- He narrowly missed winning the Re- forbidden by law, such strikes hadticularly concerned about crime and ism under Carter, a “New Right” was publican nomination for president been widely tolerated in the past.sexual immorality. They hoped to poised to return to dominance. in 1976 before succeeding in 1980 When the air controllers refused toreturn religion or the moral precepts Using modern direct mail tech- and going on to win the presidency return to work, he ordered them alloften associated with it to a central niques as well as the power of mass from the incumbent, Jimmy Carter. fired. Over the next few years theplace in American life. One of the communications to spread their President Reagan’s unflagging system was rebuilt with new hires.most politically effective groups in message and raise funds, drawing on optimism and his ability to celebratethe early 1980s, the Moral Majority, the ideas of conservatives like econ- the achievements and aspirations THE ECONOMY IN THE 1980S Pwas led by a Baptist minister, Jerry omist Milton Friedman, journalists of the American people persistedFalwell. Another, led by the Reverend William F. Buckley and George Will, throughout his two terms in office. resident Reagan’s domestic pro-Pat Robertson, built an organization, and research institutions like the He was a figure of reassurance and gram was rooted in his belief that thethe Christian Coalition, that by the Heritage Foundation, the New Right stability for many Americans. Whol- nation would prosper if the power of1990s was a significant force in the played a significant role in defining ly at ease before the microphone and the private economic sector was un-Republican Party. Using television the issues of the 1980s. the television camera, Reagan was leashed. The guiding theory behindto spread their messages, Falwell, The “Old” Goldwater Right had called the “Great Communicator.” it, “supply side” economics, heldRobertson, and others like them de- favored strict limits on government Taking a phrase from the 17th- that a greater supply of goods andveloped substantial followings. intervention in the economy. This century Puritan John Winthrop, he services, made possible by measures Another galvanizing issue for tendency was reinforced by a signifi- told the nation that the United States to increase business investment,conservatives was divisive and emo- cant group of “New Right” “liber- was a “shining city on a hill,” invest- was the swiftest road to economictional: abortion. Opposition to the tarian conservatives” who distrusted ed with a God-given mission to de- growth. Accordingly, the Reagan1973 Supreme Court decision, Roe v. government in general and opposed fend the world against the spread of administration argued that a largeWade, which upheld a woman’s right state interference in personal behav- Communist totalitarianism. tax cut would increase capital in-to an abortion in the early months ior. But the New Right also encom- Reagan believed that government vestment and corporate earnings,of pregnancy, brought together a passed a stronger, often evangelical intruded too deeply into American so that even lower taxes on thesewide array of organizations and in- faction determined to wield state life. He wanted to cut programs larger earnings would increase gov-dividuals. They included, but were power to encourage its views. The he contended the country did not ernment revenues.not limited to, Catholics, political New Right favored tough measures need, and to eliminate “waste, fraud, Despite only a slim Republicanconservatives, and religious evan- against crime, a strong national de- and abuse.” Reagan accelerated the majority in the Senate and a House 308 309
  • 156. CHAPTER 14: THE NEW CONSERVATISM AND A NEW WORLD ORDER OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYof Representatives controlled by the rise in oil prices pushed up costs, former Senator and Vice President voluntary quota on its automobileDemocrats, President Reagan suc- and a worldwide economic slump Walter Mondale, by an overwhelm- exports to the United States.ceeded during his first year in office in 1980 reduced the demand for ag- ing margin. The economy was jolted on Oc-in enacting the major components ricultural products. Their numbers The United States entered one tober 19, 1987, “Black Monday,”of his economic program, including declined, as production increasingly of the longest periods of sustained when the stock market suffered thea 25-percent tax cut for individuals became concentrated in large opera- economic growth since World War greatest one-day crash in its history,to be phased in over three years. tions. Those small farmers who sur- II. Consumer spending increased 22.6 percent. The causes of the crashThe administration also sought and vived had major difficulties making in response to the federal tax cut. included the large U.S. internationalwon significant increases in defense ends meet. The stock market climbed as it re- trade and federal-budget deficits, thespending to modernize the nation’s The increased military budget flected the optimistic buying spree. high level of corporate and personalmilitary and counter what it felt was — combined with the tax cuts and Over a five-year period following debt, and new computerized stocka continual and growing threat from the growth in government health the start of the recovery, Gross Na- trading techniques that allowed in-the Soviet Union. spending — resulted in the fed- tional Product grew at an annual stantaneous selling of stocks and fu- Under Paul Volcker, the Federal eral government spending far more rate of 4.2 percent. The annual in- tures. Despite the memories of 1929Reserve’s draconian increases in than it received in revenues each flation rate remained between 3 and it evoked, however, the crash was ainterest rates squeezed the runaway year. Some analysts charged that the 5 percent from 1983 to 1987, except transitory event with little impact.inflation that had begun in the late deficits were part of a deliberate ad- in 1986 when it fell to just under 2 In fact, economic growth continued,1970s. The recession hit bottom in ministration strategy to prevent fur- percent, the lowest level in decades. with the unemployment rate drop-1982, with the prime interest rates ther increases in domestic spending The nation’s GNP grew substantially ping to a 14-year low of 5.2 percentapproaching 20 percent and the sought by the Democrats. However, during the 1980s; from 1982 to 1987, in June 1988.economy falling sharply. That year, both Democrats and Republicans in its economy created more than 13real gross domestic product (GDP) Congress refused to cut such spend- million new jobs. FOREIGN AFFAIRS Imore assertive roleReagan nation,fell by 2 percent; the unemployment ing. From $74,000-million in 1980, Steadfast in his commitmentrate rose to nearly 10 percent, and al- the deficit soared to $221,000-mil- to lower taxes, Reagan signed the n foreign policy, soughtmost one-third of America’s indus- lion in 1986 before falling back to most sweeping federal tax-reform a for thetrial plants lay idle. Throughout the $150,000-million in 1987. measure in 75 years during his and Central America provided anMidwest, major firms like General The deep recession of the early second term. This measure, which early test. The United States pro-Electric and International Harvester 1980s successfully curbed the run- had widespread Democratic as well vided El Salvador with a program ofreleased workers. Stubbornly high away inflation that had started dur- as Republican support, lowered in- economic aid and military trainingpetroleum prices contributed to the ing the Carter years. Fuel prices, come tax rates, simplified tax brack- when a guerrilla insurgency threat-decline. Economic rivals like Ger- moreover, fell sharply, with at least ets, and closed loopholes. ened to topple its government. It alsomany and Japan won a greater share part of the drop attributable to However, a significant percentage actively encouraged the transition toof world trade, and U.S. consump- Reagan’s decision to abolish con- of this growth was based on deficit an elected democratic government,tion of goods from other countries trols on the pricing and allocation spending. Moreover, the national but efforts to curb active right-wingrose sharply. of gasoline. Conditions began to debt, far from being stabilized by death squads were only partly suc- Farmers also suffered hard times. improve in late 1983. By early 1984, strong economic growth, nearly tri- cessful. U.S. support helped stabi-During the 1970s, American farm- the economy had rebounded. By pled. Much of the growth occurred lize the government, but the level ofers had helped India, China, the the fall of 1984, the recovery was in skilled service and technical ar- violence there remained undimin-Soviet Union, and other countries well along, allowing Reagan to run eas. Many poor and middle-class ished. A peace agreement was finallysuffering from crop shortages, and for re-election on the slogan, “It’s families did less well. The adminis- reached in early 1992.had borrowed heavily to buy land morning again in America.” He tration, although an advocate of free U.S. policy toward Nicaraguaand increase production. But the defeated his Democratic opponent, trade, pressured Japan to agree to a was more controversial. In 1979 310 311
  • 157. CHAPTER 14: THE NEW CONSERVATISM AND A NEW WORLD ORDER OUTLINE OF U.S. HISTORYrevolutionaries calling themselves of Corazón Aquino overthrew the tempting to bolster a weak, but mod- East and Central America. In aSandinistas overthrew the repres- dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, erate pro-Western government, end- larger sense, the hearings were a con-sive right-wing Somoza regime and and elections in South Korea ended ed tragically, when 241 U.S. Marines stitutional debate about governmentestablished a pro-Cuba, pro-Soviet decades of military rule. were killed in a terrorist bombing in secrecy and presidential versus con-dictatorship. Regional peace efforts By contrast, South Africa re- October 1983. In April 1986, U.S. gressional authority in the conductended in failure, and the focus of mained intransigent in the face of Navy and Air Force planes struck of foreign relations. Unlike the cele-administration efforts shifted to U.S. efforts to encourage an end to targets in Tripoli and Benghazi, brated Senate Watergate hearings 14support for the anti-Sandinista re- racial apartheid through the contro- Libya, in retaliation for Libyan- years earlier, they found no groundssistance, known as the contras. versial policy of “constructive en- instigated terrorist attacks on U.S. for impeaching the president and Following intense political debate gagement,” quiet diplomacy coupled military personnel in Europe. could reach no definitive conclusionover this policy, Congress ended all with public endorsement of reform. In the Persian Gulf, the earlier about these perennial issues.military aid to the contras in Octo- In 1986, frustrated at the lack of breakdown in U.S.-Iranian rela-ber 1984, then, under administra- progress, the U.S. Congress overrode tions and the Iran-Iraq War set the U.S.-SOVIET RELATIONS In relations with the Soviet Union,tion pressure, reversed itself in the Reagan’s veto and imposed a set of stage for U.S. naval activities in thefall of 1986, and approved $100 mil- economic sanctions on South Afri- region. Initially, the United Stateslion in military aid. However, a lack ca. In February 1990, South African responded to a request from Kuwait President Reagan’s declared policyof success on the battlefield, charges President F.W. de Klerk announced for protection of its tanker fleet; but was one of peace through strength.of human rights abuses, and the rev- Nelson Mandela’s release and began eventually the United States, along He was determined to stand firmelation that funds from secret arms the slow dismantling of apartheid. with naval vessels from Western Eu- against the country he would insales to Iran (see below) had been Despite its outspoken anti-Com- rope, kept vital shipping lanes open 1983 call an “evil empire.” Two earlydiverted to the contras undercut munist rhetoric, the Reagan ad- by escorting convoys of tankers and events increased U.S.-Soviet ten-congressional support to continue ministration’s direct use of military other neutral vessels traveling up sions: the suppression of the Soli-this aid. force was restrained. On October and down the Gulf. darity labor movement in Poland in Subsequently, the administra- 25, 1983, U.S. forces landed on the In late 1986 Americans learned December 1981, and the destructiontion of President George H.W. Bush, Caribbean island of Grenada after that the administration had secretly with 269 fatalities of an off-coursewho succeeded Reagan as president an urgent appeal for help by neigh- sold arms to Iran in an attempt to civilian airliner, Korean Airlinesin 1989, abandoned any effort to boring countries. The action fol- resume diplomatic relations with the Flight 007, by a Soviet jet fighter onsecure military aid for the contras. lowed the assassination of Grenada’s hostile Islamic government and win September 1, 1983. The United StatesThe Bush administration also ex- leftist prime minister by members freedom for American hostages held also condemned the continuing So-erted pressure for free elections and of his own Marxist-oriented party. in Lebanon by radical organizations viet occupation of Afghanistan andsupported an opposition political After a brief period of fighting, U.S. that Iran controlled. Investigation continued aid begun by the Cartercoalition, which won an astonish- troops captured hundreds of Cuban also revealed that funds from the administration to the mujahedeening upset election in February 1990, military and construction personnel arms sales had been diverted to the resistance there.ousting the Sandinistas from power. and seized caches of Soviet-supplied Nicaraguan contras during a period During Reagan’s first term, the The Reagan administration was arms. In December 1983, the last when Congress had prohibited such United States spent unprecedentedmore fortunate in witnessing a re- American combat troops left Grena- military aid. sums for a massive defense build-turn to democracy throughout the da, which held democratic elections The ensuing Iran-contra hear- up, including the placement of in-rest of Latin America, from Guate- a year later. ings before a joint House-Senate termediate-range nuclear missilesmala to Argentina. The emergence of The Middle East, however, pre- committee examined issues of pos- in Europe to counter Soviet deploy-democratically elected governments sented a far more difficult situation. sible illegality as well as the broader ments of similar missiles. And onwas not limited to Latin America; in A military presence in Lebanon, question of defining American for- March 23, 1983, in one of the mostAsia, the “people power” campaign where the United States was at- eign policy interests in the Middle hotly debated policy decisions of his 312 313