Chapter Three Presentation Prisca

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Vygotsky's third chapter in Mind and society (memory and thinking)

Vygotsky's third chapter in Mind and society (memory and thinking)

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  • 1. L.S. Vygotsky’s Mind in society Chapter three: Mastery of memory and thinking Presenters: Soim Shin; Prisca Rodriguez
  • 2. Introduction
    • Vygotsky and his colleagues carried out a series of experiments to determine if “other operations not related to practical intellect would show the same laws of development discovered when analyzing practical intellect.”
    • He then presents their discoveries by discussing memory and the social origin of signs.
  • 3. Social origins of indirect (mediated) memory
    • There are two types of memory:
      • Natural memory:
        • Is very close to perception
        • Arises out of the direct influence of external stimuli
        • Is characterized by the retention of actual experiences
      • Generated (created) memory:
        • Is the product of specific conditions of social development
        • Memory is generated by artificial stimuli known as signs
        • The signs become the immediate causes of behavior
  • 4. Structure of sign operations
    • Elementary forms of behavior presuppose a direct reaction to the task.
    • S R
    • Sign operations require an intermediate link between the stimulus and the response and possess reverse action
    • S R
    • X
  • 5. Early sign operations in children
    • Vygotsky, colleagues and A.N. Leontiev conducted experiments that demonstrated the role of signs in voluntary attention and memory
      • First task: answer a set of questions without using certain words
      • Second task: additional rules (do not repeat words)
      • Third task: added nine cards as aids
      • Fourth task: same as third, but repeated instructions
  • 6. Early sign operations in children
    • The results of the experiments indicated three basic stages in the development of mediated remembering:
      • First stage (pre-school): the child is not capable of mastering his/her behavior by organizing special stimuli
      • Second stage: external stimuli raises the effectiveness of the child’s activity
      • Third stage (adults): auxiliary stimuli are emancipated from primary external forms. Internalization takes place.
  • 7. Questions
    • 1. Should the knowledge of the three stages described by Vygotsky affect our teaching? How?
    • 2. Based on the information provided in this chapter, how can we help our students learn effective ways of studying, as opposed to cramming?