Child Protection and The Contribution of the Church in IndiaPresentation Transcript
CHILD PROTECTION AND THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHURCHIN INDIA With 20% of the world’s children, India is home to the largest child population (about 440 m) in the world.
India is a home to the largest child labour force:12.59 million children according to official India statistics and 35 million according to UNICEF, accounting for about 14 % of children in the 5-14 years of age group.
Two out of every three children were physically abused.
Out of 69% of children physically abused in 13 sample States, 54.68% were boys.
Over 50% children in all the 13 sample States were being subjected to some form of physical abuse.
Out of those children physically abused in family situations, 88.6% were physically abused by parents.
65% of school going children reported facing corporal punishment i.e. two out of three children were victims of corporal punishment.
62% of the corporal punishment was in government and municipal schools.
The States of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and the national capital of Delhi have almost consistently reported higher rates of abuse in all forms as compared to other States.
Most children did not report the matter to anyone.
50.2% children worked seven days a week.
53.22% children reported having faced one or more forms of sexual abuse.
Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Delhi reported the highest percentage of sexual abuse among both boys and girls.
21.90% child respondents reported facing severe forms of sexual abuse and 50.76% other forms of sexual abuse.
Out of the child respondents, 5.69% reported being sexually assaulted. Children in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Delhi reported the highest incidence of sexual assault.
Children on the street, working children, and children in institutional care reported the highest incidence of sexual assault.
50% of abusers are persons known to the child or in positions of trust and responsibility.
Most children did not report the matter to anyone
3.Emotional abuse and girl child neglect
Every second child reported facing emotional abuse.
Equal percentages of both girls and boys reported facing emotional abuse.
In 83% of the cases parents were the abusers.
48.4% of girls wished they were boys.
Study on child abuse:India 2007 Ministry of women and child development.
Incidence of working children as per 1991 and 2001 census 26,256 34,800 Kerala 8,22,615 9,76,247 Karnataka 1,75,630 - J&K 1,07774 56,438 HP 2,53,491 1,09,691 Haryana 4,85,530 5,23,585 Gujrat 11,17,500 9,42,245 Bihar 3,51,416 3,27,598 Assam 13,63,339 16,61,940 AP 2001 1991 State /UT
Incidence of working children as per 1991 and 2001 census 1,77,268 1,42,868 Punjab 3,77,594 4,52,394 orissa 45,874 16,467 Nagaland 70,183 uttaranchal 40,7200 - Jharkhand 53,940 34,633 Meghalaya 28,836 16,493 Manipur 3,64,572 - Chatisgarh 7,64,075 10,68,427 Maharastra 10,65,259 13,52,563 MP
Incidence of working children as per 1991 and 2001 census 4,274 4,416 Dadra&Nagar Haveli 3,779 1,870 Chandigarh 18,482 12,395 Arunachal Pradesh 1,960 1,265 Anadaman Nicobar 8,57,087 7,11,691 WB 19,27,997 14,10,086 UP 21,756 16,478 Tripura 4,18,801 5,78,889 Tamilnadu 16,457 5,598 Sikkim 12,62,570 7,74,199 Rajasthan
Incidence of working children as per 1991 and 2001 census 1,26,66,377 1,12,85,349 Total 1904 2680 Pondicherry 26265 16411 Mizoram 27 34 Lakhadweep 4138 4656 Goa 729 941 Daman&Diu 41899 27351 Delhi
Children engaged in hazardous occupations 18,894 ceramic 10 32,647 Carpet making 9 37,489 Gem cutting,Jewellery 8 49,893 Auto workshops 7 70,934 Restaurants, hotels 6 84,972 Brick kilns, tiles 5 1,28,984 Spinning/weaving 4 1,85,505 Domestic workers 3 2,08,833 Construction 2 2,52,574 Pan,Bidi and cigaretts 1
Children engaged in hazardous cccupations 12,19,470 Total 13,5,162 others 12 13,583 Agarbatti,,detergent making. 11
11 million children are on the streets in India without adequate parental support, 2 out of 3 are physically abused, 53.2 % children reported having faced one or more forms of sexual abuse
as per the findings of a study on child Abuse conducted by ministry of Women and child Development, Govt of India, Save the children and UNICEF.
There has been a 40% increase in intra state migration in the last 10+ years (India Statistics report, 2004).
The migrant workers and their children mostly work in the unorganised sector and thus remain outside the formal delivery of public service.
Therefore, these children are often un-counted, have little or no access to basic services, falling through any existing safety nets and are at high risk of exploitation and abuse of all kinds.
Increased in the demand for domestic workers in town and cities attracted many young people particularly girls to be employed as domestic help.
seven lakhs domestic workers in Delhi alone and many of them are young children.
The demand has let to trafficking of many young girls for domestic labour either directly from their own home or in the process of migration for domestic labour.
A study conducted by the ministry of women in Delhi
The Core Problem
The magnitude of the problem as such is very large.
The degree and intensity of denial of human rights, dignity, justice and basic entitlements , to the excluded and marginalized social groups as a whole, both by duty bearers in particular and civil society in general.
Fixed & traditionally held beliefs contribute to creating an environment where abuse of women and children is seen as normal and they are routinely denied their rights
Communities, including the women themselves, have little or no idea of women and child rights and do little to protect them.
Core problem contd.
Poor implementation of laws and policies and concurrent low spending on women and children.
In the case of children, institutions that are meant to offer a protective environment – schools, hostels, rescue homes, etc. are either in short supply, or if present, in deplorable condition.
Disasters impact women and children more and render them vulnerable to all forms of abuse.
The vested interest group want the status quo to be maintained in the power relationship because of the benefit they gain.
Experiences of atrocities, discrimination and exclusion by these communities and their lack of capacity to resist and struggle render them to be perpetually at the receiving end in the power hierarchy in Indian society.
Children are subject to the most inhuman conditions of living, as they are least likely to resist and fight oppression.
Vested interests continue to exert power over these communities in an environment that has for centuries been casteist, hierarchical and patriarchal
While this paper focuses on the protection of particular vulnerable children who belong to the excluded and marginalized social groups mentioned above,
many poor families belonging to the general caste category are equally vulnerable and at risk of being exploited and abused.
Any strategy and intervention, therefore, has to bear in mind this glaring social reality while going about addressing some of the root causes that exacerbate the lives of the already vulnerable positions of these children.
RIGHT TO PROTECTION:
All children have a Right to protection against exploitation, abuse and neglect, irrespective of age, sex, caste, creed, class and religion.
There has been no control over certain traditional, cultural and social “malpractices” in Indian society.
In fact these have increased in certain areas despite of being punishable under respective laws and Acts enacted by the Government.
According to Article 19(1) of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child -CRC “State parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse, while in the care of the parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.” Articles 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 and 39 of the CRC are also related to the right to protection of a child.
forms of child abuse
There are many different forms of child abuse some of the prominent ones being in the form of:
Child sexual and Physical abuse
Some of the factors contributing to the above are
traditional norms and cultural practices,
lack of education and unemployment.
It is the social practices, which hamper the development of the child.
gender discrimination ,the girl child becomes more susceptible and a greater victim leading to violence and abuse.
Although there are many legislations for the protection of children, these have made little difference due to.
loopholes in the laws coupled with a lack of effective implementation of policies,
cultural tolerance of certain practices,
and a general public apathy of the serious levels of harm faced by millions of children.
CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHURCH IN CHILD CARE and PROTECTION:
The Church and its institutions like
Caritas India, CBCI Commission for Labour,
CBCI Commision for Justice and peace,
Church based Social development Organisations(Diocese and religious congregations)
all over India have contributed their mites in protecting children from exploitation and abuse.
At outcome level
Caritas India as the national organisation for social work of the church in India work
in Partnership with the 159 DDSWs and NGOs of
( around 200 partners across the country)
give special emphasis on reducing trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation and domestic labour and on reducing child labour.
A separate Gender dept is working fot this cause and gender policies are in place to promote this.
In all our programmes gender integration and mainstreaming is specially focused.
Chetanalaya and Domestic workers Forum : eg.Caritas supports Chetanalaya, the Archdiocese Social Service society to caters to the needs and protection of street Children.
Children in slums of Delhi and its outskirts through providing education facilities.
facilitating the process of enrolling children from slums into the formal school.
provide night shelter to those street children who are engaged in work during the day and no where to go.
Domestic workers Forum
The forum mainly work with domestic workers mostly coming from the Tribal belts of India.
They are involved in identifying, protecting, rescueing and reintegrating the young victims of trafficking and exploitation for domestic labour.
They have rescues hundreds of young girls from domestic child labour who were either trafficked or lured into by agents or by their own relatives mostly aunties and Uncles.
In the last two to three years they have handled more than 20 cases of murdered domestic workers.
At the level of causes.
Caritas India work to promote the rights of women and children with relation to health, Education, care and protection.
Promote social security of women in terms of greater access to and control over economic resources.
Create awareness on issues related to protection of women and children such as various forms of violence against women female foeticide, dowry, domestic violence, wage differentials etc.
Caritas India aims at facilitating partner organisations through programme support and capacity building to empower and sensitise both women and communities to protect women and ensure respect for their rights.
This implies greater representation of women in public sphere e.g PRI.
Providing skill and knowledge to better position them at house hold and community level.
Caritas focus on sensitising families and communities of their responsibilities to children.
Putting pressure on the duty holders to provide better services, education ,health care etc.
working from the perspective of rights and responsibilities Caritas promote children’s right at the level of family, protection and development of children.
Caritas experience to date
Primary strategy has focused on ‘education’ as a prevention, rescue and rehabilitation strategy to address:
Building community institutions to address women & child protection issues (SHGs,CSOs, vanithavedies/mahilasmsjam etc)
Working with women’s groups with a rights based approach leading to empowerment.
DON BOSCO-Young At Risk (YAR): They have many programs and shelter homes for street children and other disadvantaged children in many metros and cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkatta, Hyderabad, Cochin, Trivandrum etc.
Given to the Magnitude of the problem,
the church organisations need to come together and network at State, Regional and national levels to respond to the issue.
A consolidated and coordinated effort is the need of the hour based on a systematic problem analysis as no single organisation will have the reach and resources.
Any response to tackle the issue of child protection should address the root cause of the problem and not just the visible symptoms to find meaningful results in the long run.
Our role shift should be from service provider to a catalyst thereby bringing about leveraging effect in the society.
We should have a multi pronged strategy to deal with the issue as the underlying causes many and complex.
This should include creating awareness , strengthening peoples institutions and empowering, net working with like minded organisations and creating common platforms to come together to reflect and take actions .
Lobbying and advocacy should be an important strategy in the process.
Meadia advocacy should be an integral part of the advocacy campaigns.
We can no longer be shy of telling others what we are doing with the people on the issues for which we need proper documentation and dissemination at various levels.
As true Catholics we still hold on to the biblical words which says let the left hand not know what the right hand is doing.