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  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONClimate is the average weather or behaviour of land-ocean-atmosphere system over a long period of time.Fig 1: Land-Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions
  3. 3.  Climate Change refers to the changes in climatic parameterstaking place from time to time on a long time scale locally andaround the globe e.g. averaging period of 30 years and above.• Climate Change may be due to natural internal processes withinthe climate system (internal variability), or variations in natural oranthropogenic external forces (external variability).• The most crucial things about climate change is not only the timeperiods but also the degree of variability that the change issubjected and impact of such variability on man and theecosystem.Fig 2 : The Climatic Distributions of the World
  4. 4. CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGEnatural internal processes anthropogenic external forcesDistance From The Sea (Continentality)Ocean CurrentDirection of Prevailing WindsEl NinoTopography (Relief)Human Influence
  5. 5. CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE1. Distance From The Sea (Continental) The coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inlandareas due to proximity to sea or ocean. The center of continents are subject to a large rangeof temperatures. In the summer, temperatures can be very hot and dryas moisture from the sea evaporates before it reachesthe center of the continent. The winter can be verycold and snowy.
  6. 6. 2. Ocean CurrentOcean currents can increase or decrease temperatures.The Californian Current brings cool water temperaturethereby creating cooler air temperatures alongCalifornia.This means that the air coming from Alaska toCalifornia is also cool.The air is quite moist as it travels over the Pacific Oceanwhich makes the West Coast to receive wet weather.The Gulf Stream (in the Gulf of Mexico and the AtlanticOcean) keeps the west coast of Europe free from ice in thewinter and warmer in the summer than other places ofsimilar latitude.
  7. 7. Fig3:The Ocean Currents of the World.
  8. 8. 3. Direction of Prevailing WindsWinds that blow from thesea often bring rain to thecoast and dry weather toinland areas.Winds that blow to Californiafrom warm inland areas suchMexico or central U.S.A. willbe warm and dry.Winds that blow to Californiafrom northern inland areassuch as Canada will be coldand dry in winter.These winds are caused byinfluences of the globalwinds and Coriolis effect.Fig4: Prevailing winds over the globe.
  9. 9. 4. Proximity To The EquatorFig5: The Earths Position in Relation to the Sun.The position of the earth to the sun makes the equator hotter than the poles.The equator is hotter because the sun has less area to heat.It is cooler at the north and south poles as the sun has more area to heat up.It is cooler as the heat is spread over a wider area.
  10. 10. Proximity To The Equator CONTINUED
  11. 11. 5. El Nino•El Nino refers to the irregular warming of surface water.•El Nino affects wind and rainfall patterns which result to drought, flooding, landslide and mud slide.
  12. 12. 6. Topography (Relief)Climate can be affected by mountains. The wind-ward side of Mountains receive morerainfall than leeward areas due to winds rising andcondensing. As altitude increases, air becomes thinner and isless able to absorb and retain heat which leads to theoccurrence of snow on the mountains.
  13. 13. 7. Human InfluenceHuman activities (Anthropogenic activities) have been affecting the climatewith all their activities like deforestation, burning of fossil fuels and releaseof gases like CO2 e.t.c. which result to tornado, smog and forest fires and soonTornado in FloridaSmog in IndonesiaForest Fires in Brazil
  14. 14. EVIDENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE Hurricanes in the Atlantic are likely to become more intense as ocean temperaturesrise.Glaciers around the world are shrinking, and the amount of sea ice in the ArcticOcean has decreased since the 1970s.
  15. 15. From heat waves to melting glaciers, the signs of a changing planet are documentedin a new EPA report presenting 24 indicators of climate change. Average sea level worldwide is projected to rise up to two feet by the end of thiscentury. This rise would eliminate approximately 10,000 square miles of land inthe United States.
  16. 16. Impacts of climate change on various regions of the WorldAfrica: climate change would result in sea-level rise, coastalerosion, saltwater intrusion, and flooding. Desanker et al.(2001) predicted that these changes would have a significantimpact on African communities and economies.Coasts and low-lying areas: Climate change will cause opening ofnew ocean routes due to reduced seaicewhich will result to sea level rise.Polar regions: climate change will cause increase in infrastructure andwill increase economic costs.Create new opportunities for trading and shipping acrossthe Arctic ocean, lower operational costs for the oil andgas industry and lower heating costs.Small islands: tourism is a major contributor to GDP and employmentin small islands which for the most part, will benegatively affected by climate change.
  17. 17. SOLUTIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGEGLOBAL: There should be global bodies that will be checking and givingadvice about climate change like the WMO,European Unionwith powers to impose measures on sovereign states.CONSTITUTIONAL: There should be constitutional law protecting the environment .OTHERS: There should be educational campaigns on climate change and itsimplications to the public.FINANCIAL: Government can assist in the aspect of finance to check climatechange and reduce it like providing measures to control pollution and also providetree seedlings to the public.
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONThe awareness of :increasing temperatureincreasing evapo-transpirationdecreasing rainfall amount in the continental interiorsincreasing rainfall in the coastal areasincreasing disruption in climate patterns increasing frequency of unusual or extreme weather relatedevents such as; landslides, floods, droughts, bush fires, sea levelrise, increase desertification, drying up of rivers. Consequences of climate changes are transforming into morethreats to our ability to meet the basic needs such as adequatefood, water, energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment.
  19. 19. REFERENCESAnisimov, O. et al. (2001). "Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In: Climate Change 2001:Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerabilit. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and NewYork, N.Y., U.S.A.. Retrieved 2010-01-10.Confalonieri, U., et al. (2007). "Human health. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation andVulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. Retrieved2009-05-20.Desanker, P. et al. (2001). "Africa. In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. Retrieved 2010-01-10.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007, “Climate change 2007: Synthesis report.Summary for policy makers”, available at: http://www.ipcc-wg1, (accessed 26 October 2009). pp. 1-22.Jonathan Boston 2009, Final part of the 4th Pallot Memorial Lecture held in Victoria University’sInstitute of Policy Studies.Microsoft Encarta (2009). © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.Mimura, N., et al. (2007). "Small islands. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation andVulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. pp. 687–716. Retrieved 2009-05-20.Nicholls, R.J., et al. (2007). "Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts,Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y.,U.S.A.. pp. 315–356. Retrieved 2009-05-20.Odjugo PAO (2010), General overview of climate change impacts in Nigeria. J. Human Ecol.,29(1): 47-55. Smith, J.B., et al. (2001). "Vulnerability to Climate Change and Reasons for Concern: A Synthesis.In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II tothe Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
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