Cold War: Prague Spring


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Introduction of Prague Spring: Cause, Reforms, Invasion, Normalization.

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Cold War: Prague Spring

  1. 1.  Causes, Reforms, Invasion, Normalization
  2. 2. Peaceful opposition to Soviet Invasion by citizens of Prague (Late August 1968)
  3. 3.  Created in 1918 from territory of Austria-Hungary o 7million Czechs, 3.5million Germans, 2million Slovaks, 0.7million Hungarians, 0.5million Ruthenians. In 1920 Social Democratic Party won 25% of the vote during the parliamentary elections in Czechoslovakia o Led to socialist reforms • Land Reform and Unions-like organization In October 1938 Sudetenland was taken over and in March 1939 all of Czechoslovakia, by Adolf Hitler During 1946, 38% of the vote went to the Communist Party Klement Gottwald, leader of the Communists, was forced to decline Marshall Plan “The Silent Coup” o Communist Friendly Regime established in 1948 under Klement Gottwald
  4. 4.  During WWII he joined the Communist Party of Slovakia Rose quickly through the ranks of the Communists in Czechoslovakia In 1960s there was very little support for regime o Economic decline o Discontent with Destalinization o Disappointed with central control Communist reformer who wanted to liberalize the regime, by creating “socialism with a human face” o Greater freedom of expression o Political tolerance o Non-Communist organizations However he tried to control growing reforms while stopping Soviet intervention through negotiations
  5. 5. Alexander Dubček (27th of November 1921- 7th of November 1992)First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (5 January 1968 – 17 April
  6. 6.  Reforms o Free speech • Allowed accusations against Antonin Novotny (Secretary of party) • Led to his resignation o Encouraged freedom over obedience o Trade unions were given increase authority o Farmers allowed to form cooperatives o Attempted to decentralize the economy, o Bring about democratization o Grant individual freedoms o Loosen restrictions on media, speech and travel. o Attempted split of Czechoslovakia into three republics, Bohemia, Moravia-Silesia and Slovakia Ludvik Svoboda became president March 1968 o Supporter of reforms
  7. 7.  Dubček and Svoboda tried to convince U.S.S.R. and other Warsaw pact members the reforms were an internal affair o Still committed to Warsaw pact U.S.S.R. and asked permission to send the Red Army against “imminent West German invasion” o Dubcek denied the request After failed negotiations with the Soviet Union and the other “Warsaw Five” (USSR, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and East Germany) on limiting the changes in Czechoslovakia, 200,000 troops and 2,000 tanks entered the country. No official military resistance but there was scattered resistance o 72 Deaths, 266 severely wounded, 436 light injuries o Over 70,000 fled immediately, and over 300,000 followed th
  8. 8. Soviet Tanks moving down Wenceslas Square (August 1968)
  9. 9. Fierce opposition to Soviet Invasion by citizens of Prague (Late August 1968)
  10. 10.  Dubček and Svoboda were taken to U.S.S.R. and announced the end of the reform program, Alexander Dubček was replaced by Gustáv Husák as First Secretary of Communist Party o Dubcek was also thrown out of Communist Party o Worked 18 years as a lumber yard clerk o However was not executed like Imre Nagy, the leader of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the Velvet Revolution (November 17 to December 29, 1989)
  11. 11. Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic As Formed by the Constitutional Law of Federation ofthe 28th of October 1968.
  12. 12.  Gustáv Husák purged the party of liberal members, intellectual elites who disagreed with Soviet Policy Revoke or modify the laws enacted by Prague Spring Strengthen ties with Warsaw Pact Increase police authority Re-centralize the Economy Only the formation of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic remained
  13. 13. Gustáv Husák (10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991)President of Czechoslovakia (29 May 1975 – 10 December 1989)
  14. 14.  Underlined Brezhnev Doctrine o U.S.S.R. hat right to intervene when a Eastern Bloc country shifted towards Capitalism o Iron Curtain countries would not be allowed to abandon communism, "even if it meant a third world war". Use of Warsaw Pact armies to quell Revolution Further underlined the division between East and West o Most countries voiced criticism • Canada, Denmark, France, Paraguay, the United Kingdom and the United States requested security Council resolution • Soviet Union insisted it was "fraternal assistance" against "antisocial forces" o Showed the West that the people of the Eastern Bloc were oppressed and denied democracy Many Communist Parties opposed invasion o France, Italy, Finland, Romania, Yugoslavia o Albania withdrew from Warsaw Pact
  15. 15. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (19 December 1906 – 10 November 1982)General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (14 October 1964 – 10 November 1982)
  16. 16. Images alexander-dubcek.jpg 8/media/e_Prague/PragueSpring2.jpg ia/sk/images/9/94/Sudruh_gustav_husak.jpg on_71_72/media/BrezhnevquaBrezhnev/brezhnev_0.jpgWebpages ovakia1968rev2.shtml