K S NITU
M.SC. (N) I YEAR
“Motivation” is a Latin world, meaning “to
move” Human motives are internalized goals
within individuals. Motivation encompasses
all those pressures and influences that trigger,
channel and sustain human behavior. People
are complex and they are uniquely different.
“The Act of stimulating some one or oneself to
get a desired course of action”.
(Michael J. Juices 2005)
“Motivation is the work a manger performs to
inspire, encourage and impel people to take
(Lewis Allen, 2005)
NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS
Motivation is an internal feeling
Motivation is related to needs
Motivation produces goal – directed
Motivation can be either positive or
IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS OF
the directing process. By motivating the
Improving upon Workers skills and knowledge
The willingness to work can be created only by
Motivation contributes to good industrial
Best remedy for resistance to changes
Facilities the maximum utilization of all factors
Promotes a sense of belonging among the
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Positive or Incentive Motivation
Based on record A positive motivation involves the
possibility of increased motive satisfaction.
Negative or fear Motivation
Based on force and fear causes persons to act in a
certain way because they fear the consequences.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Maslow’s need – hierarchy theory of
Herzberg’s theory of motivation
Victor vroom’s expectancy theory
Mc Celland’s Need for Achievement theory
MASLOW’S NEED – HIERARCHY
THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Abraham Maslow, a U.S
Psychologist, man is a wanting
animal. He has variety of wants
or needs. All motivated
behavior of man
is directed towards the
satisfaction of his needs.
The features of his theory are as fallows:
People have a wide range of needs which motivate
them to strive for fulfillment.
HERZBERG’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Herzberg developed a theory of
motivation on the premise
that human nature has two
The maintenance factors
or hygiene factors
MAINTENANCE FACTORS OR
Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a
business to avoid unpleasant at work. Hygiene
Company policy & administration
Wages, salaries & other financial remuneration
Quality of supervision
Quality of IPR
Feeling of job security
Motivator factors are based on an individual’s
need for personal growth. They make people
satisfied with their job.
Motivators are necessary to keep job satisfaction
and job performance high. When motivators are
absent, prevent both satisfaction and motivation.
is some similarity between Herzberg’s &
Maslow’s models. They both suggest that needs
have to be satisfied for the employee to be
VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY
Expectancy theory was developed by
VICTOR H VROOM It is based on the
notion that human behavior depends
on people’s expectations concerning
their ability to perform tasks and
to receive desired rewards
The belief that one's effort will
result in attainment of desired performance
Instrumentality: The belief that a person
will receive a reward if the performance
expectation is met.
Valance: Value the individual places on the
rewards based on their needs, goals, values
and Sources of Motivation.
MC CELLAND’S NEED FOR
David. C. MC. Clelland, a Harvard psychologist,
has proposed that there are
three major relevant motives
most needs in work place
situations according to times.
METHODS OF MOTIVATING PEOPLE
There are three types of motivation programmers
to improve a person’s behavior towards his job.
Management by objectives
RESPONSE TO MOTIVATION
There are four important factors governing employee
response to the measures of motivation.
intensity :- Urge of the Drive
Past experience:- Can be rely upon the promises given by
Amount of ward:-The quantity and quality of the reward
can influence the amount of extra effort put forth by the
Time relationship of response to reward:- Long range
promises are less effective than immediate fulfillment
we are discussed about the definition,
nature & characteristics, importance & benefits,
types & different theories of motivation. We
also discussed bout the methods & factors
determining response to motivation.